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  1. 1
    070625

    Contraceptive use and commodity costs, 1990-2000.

    Mauldin WP; Ross JA

    [Unpublished] [1991]. 10, [14] p.

    Based upon United Nations medium population projections, the population of developing countries will grow from 4,086 million in 1990, to 5,000 million by the year 2000. To meet this medium-level projection, 186 million contraceptive users must be added for a total 567 million in addition to increased contraceptive prevalence of 59% from 51%. This study estimates the number of contraceptive users, acceptors, and cost of contraceptive commodities needed to limit growth to this medium projection. Needs are estimated by country and method for 1990, 1995 and 2000, for medium, high, and low population projections. The number of contraceptive users required to reach replacement fertility is also calculated. Results are based upon the number of women aged 15-49, percent married, number married ages 15-49, and the proportion of couples using contraception. Estimation methodology is discussed in detail. Estimated users of respective methods in millions are 150 sterilizations, 333 IUD insertions, 663 injections, 7,589 cycles of pills, and 30,000 condoms. Estimated commodity costs will grow from $399 million in 1990 to $627 million in 2000, for a total $5.1 billion over the period. Pills will be the most expensive at $1.9 billion, followed by sterilizations at $1.4 billion, condoms $888 million, injectables $594 million, and IUDs $278 million. Estimated costs for commodities purchased in the U.S. show IUDs and condoms to be significantly more expensive, but pills as cheaper. With donors paying for approximately 25% of public sector commodity costs, developing country governments will need to pay $4.2 billion of total costs in the absence of increased commercial/private sector and donor support.
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  2. 2
    016257

    Eleventh annual report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Geneva, WHO, 1982 Nov. 159 p.

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) 7th General Program of Work, covering the period 1984-89, includes the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Objectives of the latter include improving the health status of populations in developing countries by: 1) devising improved approaches to the delivery of family planning care in the primary health care context, 2) assessing the safety of existing methods of fertility regulation, 3) developing new contraceptive technology, and 4) generating the knowledge and technology required for the prevention and treatment of infertility. By 1989 the program aims to have devised the means of integrating family planning into primary health care, assessed the safety and efficacy of contraceptive methods used between 1970-77, and those introduced between 1977-85, developed at least 6 new methods of contraception, clarified the etiology of certain reproductive diseases, and strengthened at least 1 research facility in each of those developing countries that will have national policies on and services for family planning. Some findings of research included: 1) copper bearing IUDs with a minimum surface area of 200 mm are safe and effective for at least 4 years of use, 2) depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been shown to have no apparent adverse effect on the quantity of breast milk, and 3) mean delay of conception after DMPA use was 6 months for women 20-24 years, 6.2 months for women 25-29, and 8 months for women age 30 and over. Work has centered on developing new injectable contraceptives of 3 or more months' duration, biodegradable implants, and vaginal rings that release 20 mcg levonorgestrel/day for 3 months. Several non-isotopic techniques have been developed for predicting and detecting ovulation as well. Research on infertility has studied standardized investigation of infertile couples, prevalence in different populations, and etiology. Other areas of work have been in institution strengthening, dissemination of information, and relations with industry.
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