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  1. 1
    041926

    Association for Voluntary Sterilization - Consultant Team. Trip report: the People's Republic of China, Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, June 19-30, 1985.

    Huber D; Fathalla M; Gojaseni P; Goldstein M; Lippes J; Minor K; Rauff M; Sciarra J; Rauff A

    [Unpublished] 1985. 41, [6] p.

    The Association for Voluntary Sterilization consultant team visited Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan and Guangzhou, China in June 1985, to review innovative nonsurgical methods of male and female sterilization. There are 2 variations on vasectomy, performed with special clamps that obviate a surgical incision. The 1st is a circular clamp for grasping the vas through the skin, and the 2nd is a small, curved, sharp hemostat for puncturing the skin and the vas sheath, used for ligation. Vas occlusion with 0.02 ml of a solution of phenol and cyanoacrylate has been performed on 500,000 men since 1972. The procedure is done under local anesthesia, and is controlled by injecting red and blue dye on contralateral sides. If urine is not brown, vasectomy by ligature is performed. The wound is closed with gauze only. Semen analysis is not done, but patients are advised to use contraception for the 1st 10 ejaculations. Pregnancy rates after vasectomy by percutaneous injection were reported as 0 in 5 groups of several hundred men each, 11.4% in 1 group and 2.4% in another group. The total complication rate after vasectomy by clamping was 1.8% in 121,000 men. 422 medical school graduates with surgical training have been certified in this vasectomy method. Chinese men are pleased with this method because it avoids surgery by knife, and asepsis, anesthesia and counseling are excellent. Female sterilization by blind transcervical delivery of a phenol-quinacrine mixture has been done on 200,000 women since 1970 by research teams in Guangzhou and Shanghai. A metal cannula is inserted into the tubal opening, tested for position by an injection of saline, and 0.1-0.12 ml of sclerosing solution is instilled. Correct placement is verified by x-ray, an IUD is inserted, and after 3 months a repeat hysteroscopy is done to test uterine pressure. Pregnancy rates have been 1-2.5%, generally in the 1st 2 years. Although this technique is tedious, requiring great skill and patient cooperation, it can be mastered by paramedicals. The WHO is assisting the Chinese on setting up large studies on safety and effectiveness, as well as toxicology studies needed, to export the methods to other countries.
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  2. 2
    031956

    Thirteenth annual report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Geneva, WHO, 1984 Dec. ix, 152 p.

    88 recommendations were formulated by the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City in 1984. 4 of these dealt specifically with research requirements in the population field and are reproduced in this report in their entirety. As a result of the changing perspectives and requirements of the scientific fields in which the Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction operates and taking into account the various suggestions resulting from recent reviews of the Program, several new developments have occurred. First is the attempt to distinguish more clearly between activities related to research and development and those related to resources for research. These 2 distinct but closely connected activities will be reorganized to interact in a complementary fashion. In the research and development component, the most notable changes relate to the creation of new Task Forces on the Safety and Efficacy of Fertility Regulating Methods and on Behavioral and Social Determinants of Fertility Regulation. The Program has been actively promoting coordination with other programs which support and conduct research in human reproduction. The research and development section of this report provides a technical review of the activities and plans of the various task forces, covering the following: new and improved methods of fertility regulation (long-acting systemic methods, oral contraceptives, post-ovulatory methods, IUDs, vaccines, plants, male methods, female sterilization, and natural methods), safety and efficacy of fertility regulating methods, infertility, and service and psychosocial research. The section devoted to resources for research describes some features of the network of centers, reviews the Program's institution strengthening activities in the different regions, and also considers research training and the program of standardization and quality control of laboratory procedures. The section covering special issues in drug development focuses on relations with industry, patents, and the role of the Special Program in the drug regulatory process.
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  3. 3
    025453
    Peer Reviewed

    Psychological sequelae of female sterilization.

    Lancet. 1984 Jul 21; 2(8395):144-5.

    The objective of the World Health Organization (WHO) project, an international, prospective study conducted by centers in England, India, Columbia, Nigeria, and the Philippines, was to investigate the effects of tubal occlusion on the mental and physical health and psychosexual and menstrual functioning of women choosing to undergo the procedure for contraceptive purposes only. A subsequent report presents details and results of the English component of the study. 2 groups of healthy multiparous women having either interval sterilization (at least 6 months since an obstetric event) or postpartum sterilization (within 72 hours of delivery) were recruited. For each group, a control group was recruited from women using or planning to use nonpermanent contraceptive methods. All women were interviewed preoperatively and again 6 weeks and 6 months after the operation by standardized techniques. The results showed that sterilized women did not differ from the control samples in mental state, as assessed by the Present State Examination or in subjectively assessed mental or physical health or abdominal pain. More sterilization subjects than control subjects reported improvement in sexual satisfaction at the later follow-up. Many of the subjects reporting adverse effects at follow-up had revealed disturbances at the initial asssessment. All these women had at least 2 living children. They were women living in stable marriages or other relationships that had lasted an average of over 9 years. They were free from physical or mental ill health before sterilzation. They had their sterilizations voluntarily and solely for the purpose of keeping their families small. It comes as no surprise that, relative to a general population sample, the mental state of sterilized women in the study actually seemed to improve. A need exists for methodoloically sound studies that would identify social and psychological conditions under which sterilization might have ill effects.
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