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  1. 1
    129639

    Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia.

    Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [AIDoS]; Somali Women's Democratic Organization

    Rome, Italy, AIDOS, 1989. VIII, 148, [3] p.

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1988 International Seminar on Female Circumcision in Somalia. The first part relays the introductory addresses presented by the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, the Somali Minister of Health, the Italian Ambassador to Somalia, the World Health Organization's resident representative in Somalia, and the President of the Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Part 2 offers five reports on efforts towards international cooperation to eliminate female genital mutilation undertaken by North/South women's organizations, the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, the Foundation for Women's Health Research and Development, and the World Health Organization. Part 3 includes three reports on religious and legal aspects of female genital mutilation, and part 4 presents reports of eradication efforts ongoing in Egypt, Nigeria, the Gambia, and Sudan. The fifth part of the volume is devoted to six reports on aspects of the practice of female genital mutilation in Somalia as well as eradication efforts that involve an information campaign and training. Part 6 reprints the reports of the working groups on health, the law, training and information, and religion, and the final part covers the final resolutions and closing addresses by a UN Children's Fund representative, a representative of the UN Commission for Human Rights, and the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party. The Inter-African Committee's Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, approved by the seminar, is contained in the first appendix, and a list of seminar participants is attached in the second.
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  2. 2
    118338

    Protection of the human rights of women and children.

    Hussein RH

    In: Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia, [compiled by] Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [and] Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Rome, Italy, Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo, 1989. 129-32.

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948. The provisions of that declaration have inspired many of the measures taken by the UN bodies to advance women's status. The issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) was considered in 1981 by the Human Rights Working Group on Slavery. That group considered information received from a nongovernmental organization on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children and recommended that the information be brought to the attention of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities decided in 1982 and 1984 that a study should be undertaken on all aspects of FGM and how the problem may be resolved. An interagency working group was subsequently commissioned to conduct the study. At its last session of 1989, the Commission on Human Rights asked the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities to consider measures to be taken at the national and international levels to eradicate the practice of FGM, and to submit a report to the commission at its 46th session in 1990. The author also briefly describes UN actions with regard to protecting the rights of the child.
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  3. 3
    118337

    Closing address.

    McDermott T

    In: Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia, [compiled by] Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [and] Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Rome, Italy, Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo, 1989. 127-8.

    The author, UNICEF Representative to Somalia, congratulates the Somali Women's Democratic Organization (SWDO) and the Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo (AIDOS) for their efforts in convening the 1988 International Seminar on Female Circumcision held in Mogadisho, Somalia. It is estimated that almost all girls in Somalia undergo female genital mutilation (FGM). That high rate of FGM directly influences the country's high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. The formation in 1978 of Somalia's National Commission for the Abolition of Female Circumcision was an important starting point in efforts to eradicate FGM. The government has since issued a strong statement of intent to eradicate FGM. That intent is backed by a program of action. UNICEF salutes the success of SWDO in mobilizing political will at the highest levels of government to solve the problem of FGM. Interest and momentum for change must now be sustained. Globally, UNICEF's approach is centered upon the conviction that FGM can be fought by promoting the awareness of the public, of health professionals, and of traditional health workers. The involvement of communities and their leaders is a key factor for success.
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  4. 4
    118335

    The role of the ILO training centre in the SWDO / AIDOS information campaign against infibulation.

    Bertino D

    In: Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia, [compiled by] Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [and] Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Rome, Italy, Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo, 1989. 111-5.

    The International Labor Organization (ILO) Training Center in Turin, Italy, is a specialized UN Agency created in 1963 by the ILO and the Italian Government to train for development. More than 33,000 participants have studied at the center. The center also designs and develops multimedia training material, often in collaboration with other institutions. In past years, the center has made a significant effort to contribute to the promotion of women's participation in the development process. The ILO Turin Center has helped the Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo (AIDOS) and the Somali Women's Democratic Organization (SWDO) in their campaign to eradicate infibulation in Somalia by structuring and editing project training materials. The training is designed to strike a balance between structured learning and guided, yet independent, discovery together with the acquisition of knowledge.
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  5. 5
    118321

    WHO activities in the area of female circumcision and women's health.

    Wassef HH

    In: Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia, [compiled by] Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [and] Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Rome, Italy, Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo, 1989. 43-5.

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) interest in promoting women's status and improving their role in economic and social development was formally acknowledged in its declaration of 1975 as International Women's Year and the proclamation of the next decade as the United Nations Decade for Women. The 1975 World Health Assembly passed a resolution urging governments to widen the range of opportunity for women in all aspects of health and to ensure their further integration in health activities. The assembly gave special attention to traditional practices and their effects upon women's health, with the main goal of promoting proven useful customs and eliminating harmful ones. The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional office has worked to collect information and stimulate interest in female genital mutilation (FGM). Adequate data have been collected to clearly document the deleterious health effects of FGM. Efforts must now be made to convince people at the local level to terminate its practice.
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  6. 6
    068422

    Midwifery: an international career.

    Vansintejan GA

    JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY. 1989 Nov-Dec; 34(6):355-8.

    a nurse-midwife born and trained Belgium recounts her decision to be a nurse-wife and her experience in the Third World. Her 1st international position was at a obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) ward in a hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia operated by Europeans. The foreigners here were still behaving as colonialists. All OB/GYN clients had undergone circumcision before reaching puberty. These genital mutilations caused them problems, such as infections and multiple episiotomies. Many pregnant women never received prenatal care. She learned prevention would have eased the suffering of many OB/GYN clients. This led her to a maternal-child health care project in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. This experience reinforced what she had learned in Somalia: women were not in charge and were victims of events beyond their control. Indeed this was especially true in Baltimore's slums than in Somalia. Then she earned her masters degree in public health at Johns Hopkins University. She later tool an assignment with a WHO community health development project in Haiti, the poorest country in the western hemisphere. By the end of the 1st year, health personnel had switched focus from curative care to preventive care, such as mass immunization campaigns. Since the early 1970s, Haiti did not train professional midwives. Yet schools for nurse midwives existed in virtually every other country. Under the auspices of WHO, she later went to Algeria to train nurse midwives at the Institute of Public Health. She has worked in a total of 32 countries. Later she worked at family planning clinic in Brooklyn and taught foreign midwives in New York City. Since 1979, she has worked on short term technical assistance projects, especially family planning projects, in developing countries. She pointed out the advantages and disadvantages of short term consultancies.
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