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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Female genital mutilation as an issue of gender disparity in the 21st century: Leveraging opportunities to reverse current trends.

    Ayele W; Lulseged S

    Ethiopian Medical Journal. 2016 Jul; 54(3):107-108.

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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    The global challenge to improve the sexual and reproductive health of women affected by FGM/C.

    McCauley M

    BJOG. 2018 Feb; 125(3):288.

    Against a background of an increasing demand for surgical intervention for the treatment of FGM/C related complications, Berg et al Note for typesetter: Please update reference when assigned to an issue. have conducted a systematic review of 62 studies involving 5829 women, to assess the effectiveness of defibulation, excision of cysts and clitoral reconstructive surgery. Berg et al report that defibulation showed a lower risk of Caesarean section and perineal tears; excision of cysts commonly resulted in resolution of symptoms; and clitoral reconstruction resulted in most women self-reporting improvements in their sexual health. However, Berg et al highlight that they had little confidence in the effect estimate for all outcomes as most of the studies were observational and conclude that there is currently poor quality of evidence on the benefits and/or harm of surgical interventions to be able to counsel women appropriately. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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  3. 3

    Demographic perspectives on female genital mutilation.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 56 p.

    This report, the first such published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), looks at FGM through the lens of population dynamics and the demographic dividend, based on current evidence and data. It offers quantitative information that both supports evidence-based programming, and frames financial implications for Member States and international donors. Evidence to define the size of the target population and orient actions around areas of greatest impact is of high value in developing interventions and formulating policies. UNFPA remains strongly committed to engaging with Member States, civil society, UN agencies and all other stakeholders to accelerate the elimination of FGM worldwide. Protecting girls upholds their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and enables them to realize their full potential.
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  4. 4

    Female genital mutilation/cutting and violence against women and girls strengthening the policy linkages between different forms of violence.

    United Nations. UN Women; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; UNICEF

    2017 Feb; New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Feb. 20 p.

    Violence against women and girls (VAWG) manifests in different forms. These include intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual violence, sexual exploitation and trafficking, and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and child, early and forced marriage, among others. Programmes to end harmful practices and programmes to end intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence are often planned and implemented separately, despite all being rooted in gender inequality and gender-based discrimination against women and girls. While this is intended so that programmes can be tailored accordingly, it can result in isolation of initiatives that would otherwise benefit from sharing of knowledge and good practices and from strategic, coordinated efforts. This policy note explores policy and programming interlinkages and considers entry points in the areas of (i) national legislation, (ii) prevention strategies, (iii) response for survivors, and (iv) data and evidence, for increased coordination and collaboration to advance the objectives of ending FGM/C and other forms of VAWG, in particular intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. The note builds on the background paper “Finding convergence in policy frameworks: A background paper on the policy links between gender, violence against women and girls, and female genital mutilation/cutting” (available below). This policy note is intended for multiple audiences, including those directly involved in policy development, planning and implementing initiatives, those providing technical support, and advocates for ending all forms of VAWG, including FGM/C. This work is the result of a collaboration of UN Women with the UNFPA–UNICEF Joint Programme on FGM/C.
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Female Genital Mutilation: a visual reference and learning tool for health care professionals.

    Abdulcadir J; Catania L; Hindin MJ; Say L; Petignat P

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2016 Nov; 128(5):958-963.

    Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Health care providers for women and girls living with female genital mutilation have reported difficulties in recognizing, classifying, and recording female genital mutilation, which can adversely affect treatment of complications and discussions of the prevention of the practice in future generations. According to the World Health Organization, female genital mutilation is classified into four types, subdivided into subtypes. An agreed-upon classification of female genital mutilation is important for clinical practice, management, recording, and reporting, as well as for research on prevalence, trends, and consequences of female genital mutilation. We provide a visual reference and learning tool for health care professionals. The tool can be consulted by caregivers when unsure on the type of female genital mutilation diagnosed and used for training and surveys for monitoring the prevalence of female genital mutilation types and subtypes.
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  6. 6

    Eliminating female genital mutilation: a new rite of passage for girls in Kenya.

    Mohamud A; Radeny S; Yinger N; Muuya L

    [Nairobi], Kenya, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH], 2000 Mar. 31 p.

    In Kenya, the Demographic Health Survey estimates that 38% of women aged 15-49 years have undergone one form of female genital mutilation (FGM) or another. Despite an intense post-colonial debate, the newly independent Kenya has not established specific laws or programs against FGM. In response, the Maendelo Ya Wanawake Organization, a national women's organization committed to improving the health and well-being of Kenyan women, was established with the support of Program for Appropriate Technology in Health. The organization has implemented a 2-year pilot project aimed to raise awareness about the harmful effects of FGM; promote a positive image of uncircumcised girls; and develop an alternative rite of passage for girls to replace initiation by cutting. Among its activities include garnering community support; training staff and community volunteers; and raising public awareness to effect and enable behavior change. Moreover, the project has incorporated strategies such as modification of education programs and working with communities to develop alternative rites of passage. Overall, the project has been successful where it is attributed to the support from the local women's and international organizations, and project donors who continually support the pilot project leading to behavior change.
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  7. 7

    Report of the Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children.

    Warzazi HE

    [Unpublished] 1986 Feb 4. Prepared for United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Forty-second session, 3 February - 14 March 1986. Item 19 of the provisional agenda. (E/CN.4/1986/42)

    The results of the working group on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children as presented during the 42nd session of the UN Commission on Human Rights are reported. Among the various traditional practices identified was the problem of female circumcision. Several aspects of female circumcision were explored; namely, the definition of female circumcision, forms of female circumcision and the age at which it is carried out, origins and scope of the phenomenon, evolution of the problem, countries practicing female circumcision and reasons for the practice, effects on physical and mental health of women and children, and measures undertaken for the eradication of female circumcision at the regional, national and international levels. Conclusions that were drawn from available data and the recommended actions to abolish female circumcision are presented.
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  8. 8

    Female genital cutting: World Health Organization fact sheet.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Washington, D.C., United States Agency for International Development [USAID], [1999]. [6] p. (HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)

    Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) involves a partial or total incision of the external female genitalia or other injury to the organ whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons. There are different types of FGM known to be practiced today, with excision of the clitoris and labia minora accounting for up to 80% of all cases and infibulation as the most extreme form, which constitutes 15% of all procedures. All these procedures are irreversible, and harmful to the health of women and girls, and their effects last a lifetime. Its immediate and long-term health consequences vary according to the type and severity of the procedure performed. In cultures where it is an accepted norm, FGM is performed by a traditional practitioner without anesthesia and proper sterilization among girls of various ages for different psychosexual, sociological, hygiene and aesthetic, myths and religious reasons. Over 130 million individuals have undergone FGM with an estimated 2 million girls at high risk of being subjected with this practice annually most especially in 28 African countries. International organizations, nongovernmental organization and other interested partners have worked towards the elimination of FGM, but the overall progress have been slow which can be due to lack of coordination of prevention programs and limitation of resource investment. UN interagency teams, on the other hand, direct its efforts at changing the public view through education and awareness campaign on the harmful health effects of FGM.
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  9. 9

    Traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls. General Assembly resolution 52/99 of 12 December 1997.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 1997 Dec 12 4 p.

    This report presents the resolution 52/99 of the UN General Assembly concerning the traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls. The General Assembly re-affirms that traditional and customary practices affecting the health of women and girls, female genital mutilation (FGM) in particular, constitute a definite form of violence against women and girls and a serious form of violation of their human rights. Expressing concerns about the continuing large-scale existence of such practices, the body welcomes all efforts undertaken by the UN, as well as by the government and nongovernmental organizations, geared to eradicate these harmful practices. Emphasis is placed on the need for governments to analyze policies and programs relating to poverty, as well as health and violence against women; national legislation and measures prohibiting these practices, women empowerment; education and information on the dangers of such practices; collaboration with relevant treaty bodies; and providing financial assistance for developing countries. The General Assembly hereby calls upon all States to implement their international commitment in this field, ratify relevant human rights treaties, intensify efforts to increase awareness on the dangers of FGM, support women organizations, and work in collaboration with agencies in protecting the minority groups.
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  10. 10

    FGM condemned as Nigeria celebrates World Health Day.

    GROWING UP. 1998 Jun; 6(2):15.

    Nigeria joined the other countries of the world to commemorate the World Health Day in Abuja, where people from different walks of life came to witness the big occasion. Mrs. Maryam Abacha, the chairperson of the occasion identified female genital mutilation (FGM) as one of the factors responsible for maternal mortality in Nigeria. FGM is a deliberate psychological, social and sexual damage to female genitals, which inflicts social trauma on the victim; thus, it is medically, scientifically and spiritually illogical. For whatever purpose it is done, this does not solve the interest of the sexual disposition of a woman. Finally, a call was made for Nigeria to adopt the resolution by the UN Organization, which banns FGM worldwide.
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  11. 11

    WHO fact sheet. Violence against women.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Press Office

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996 Aug. 3 p. (Fact Sheet No. 128)

    The WHO Global Commission on Women's Health, a high level advocacy body which promotes women health issues nationally and internationally, focused on the issue of violence against women at its meeting in 1996. Violence against women has become widely recognized as a major issue of women's human rights; however, there has also been growing awareness of the impact of violence on women's mental and physical health. Studies have shown that the most pervasive form of gender violence is violence against women by their intimate male partners or ex-partners, including the physical, mental and sexual abuse of women and children and adolescents. Approximately 40 population-based quantitative studies conducted in 24 countries revealed a range of 20-50% of women being victims of physical abuse by their partners; 50-60% of them were raped as well. Victims of violence are likely to develop behaviors that are self-injurious, such as substance abuse and smoking.
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  12. 12

    Cooperation by UNICEF in the elimination of traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa (Extract).

    Ngom MT

    In: Report on a Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, organized by the Senegal Ministry of Public Health and the NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Dakar, Senegal, Ministry of Public Health and NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women adn Children, 1984. 182-4.

    This contribution begins with a statement of praise for the efforts of the Senegal conference, complimenting the conference's recognition of positive and negative influencing practices. Positive practices should be encouraged with arguments and striking examples. Attention is drawn to UNICEF document PRO-71, the product of the 1980 Inter-Organization Consultation Meeting on Combating the Practice of Female Circumcision (FC), through the improvement of women's status, and the elimination of false ideologies such as those related to the necessity of FC for the preservation of female modesty, virginity, and chastity. Further attention is drawn to the efforts of a multi-disciplinary study group on FC set up in Ivory coast. Finally, the readiness of UNICEF to further female and child health development, and growth chart, oral rehydration, breastfeeding immunization, food supplementation, family spacing, and female education developments, are discussed.
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