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  1. 1

    Accelerating change by the numbers. 2016 annual report of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting: Accelerating change.

    UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017 Jul. 92 p.

    The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives. This main document, "By the Numbers," analyses progress in quantitative terms, using the Results Framework as a basis. It provides an account of how the budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries (excepting Yemen). The profiles present facts on the national context, summarize key achievements, and share operational and financial information.
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  2. 2

    17 ways to end FGM / C. Lessons from the field.

    Jensen J; Diop NJ; Jubero M; Legesse B

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017. 80 p.

    The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives: The main document analyses progress in quantitative terms, provides an account of how our budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries. This companion booklet uses a qualitative and narrative approach to examine more specifically the challenges, complexities and achievements on the ground. It explores the innovative approaches the Joint Programme teams, partners and activists employ to deconstruct the social norms that allow FGM / C to continue in many communities.
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  3. 3

    Female genital mutilation/cutting and violence against women and girls strengthening the policy linkages between different forms of violence.

    United Nations. UN Women; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; UNICEF

    2017 Feb; New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Feb. 20 p.

    Violence against women and girls (VAWG) manifests in different forms. These include intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual violence, sexual exploitation and trafficking, and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and child, early and forced marriage, among others. Programmes to end harmful practices and programmes to end intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence are often planned and implemented separately, despite all being rooted in gender inequality and gender-based discrimination against women and girls. While this is intended so that programmes can be tailored accordingly, it can result in isolation of initiatives that would otherwise benefit from sharing of knowledge and good practices and from strategic, coordinated efforts. This policy note explores policy and programming interlinkages and considers entry points in the areas of (i) national legislation, (ii) prevention strategies, (iii) response for survivors, and (iv) data and evidence, for increased coordination and collaboration to advance the objectives of ending FGM/C and other forms of VAWG, in particular intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. The note builds on the background paper “Finding convergence in policy frameworks: A background paper on the policy links between gender, violence against women and girls, and female genital mutilation/cutting” (available below). This policy note is intended for multiple audiences, including those directly involved in policy development, planning and implementing initiatives, those providing technical support, and advocates for ending all forms of VAWG, including FGM/C. This work is the result of a collaboration of UN Women with the UNFPA–UNICEF Joint Programme on FGM/C.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Africa battles to make female genital mutilation history.

    Wakabi W

    Lancet. 2007 Mar 31; 369(9567):1069-1070.

    During the past 2 years, substantial progress has been made in changing attitudes towards female genital mutilation in countries such as Guinea, Egypt, Tanzania, Kenya, and Senegal. But the practice remains widespread across Africa. Wairagala Wakabi reports. In Guinea, where 97% of all women undergo female genital mutilation, about 150 communities made a declaration to collectively abandon the practice at the beginning of this year. Attitudes towards the harmful procedure are also changing in other countries in Africa such as Egypt, Tanzania, Kenya, and Senegal. But despite this growing momentum against the practice, it is still prevalent in these countries and it remains widespread in at least 28 countries on the continent. Poor education and low levels of income among women in African countries, coupled with inadequate governmental support in efforts to eradicate the practice, mean it will take longer to stamp out. Human rights activists place much of the blame for slow progress at the door of governments. "The struggle to have communities in Africa abandon female genital mutilation is taking too long because it's only civil society who have taken it seriously. Governments are yet to take up the matter to the expected level", says Faiza Mohamed, Africa regional director of women rights group Equality Now, which works with 23 organisations in 16 African countries. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Female genital mutilation.

    Kelly E; Hillard PJ

    Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2005; 17:490-494.

    The purpose of this review is to aid the healthcare practitioner in caring for children, girls, and women who have undergone female genital mutilation or who are at risk for female genital mutilation. The bulk of the literature published in the area of female genital mutilation over the past year addresses the laws, social needs, immigration status and assimilation of African women who immigrate into western countries. Clinicians continue to publish case reports of complications and the surgical management of type III female genital mutilation during labor. Additionally, as people continue to try to eliminate female genital mutilation through human rights campaigns and the legal system, they have also become increasingly aware that understanding the motives behind this traditional practice may be an avenue towards change. The fundamental understanding of female genital mutilation will allow the clinician to address the emotional and physical needs of the children, girls, and women who have undergone this traditional practice or who are at risk for undergoing this practice. This understanding will allow the practitioner to individualize the history and physical examination, and to provide appropriate management with recognition and treatment of complications. Increased knowledge of the laws against female genital mutilation will allow the healthcare provider to educate and advise at-risk girls and women as well as their parents. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Female Circumcision, 13-16 June 1988, Mogadisho, Somalia.

    Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo [AIDoS]; Somali Women's Democratic Organization

    Rome, Italy, AIDOS, 1989. VIII, 148, [3] p.

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1988 International Seminar on Female Circumcision in Somalia. The first part relays the introductory addresses presented by the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, the Somali Minister of Health, the Italian Ambassador to Somalia, the World Health Organization's resident representative in Somalia, and the President of the Somali Women's Democratic Organization. Part 2 offers five reports on efforts towards international cooperation to eliminate female genital mutilation undertaken by North/South women's organizations, the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, the Foundation for Women's Health Research and Development, and the World Health Organization. Part 3 includes three reports on religious and legal aspects of female genital mutilation, and part 4 presents reports of eradication efforts ongoing in Egypt, Nigeria, the Gambia, and Sudan. The fifth part of the volume is devoted to six reports on aspects of the practice of female genital mutilation in Somalia as well as eradication efforts that involve an information campaign and training. Part 6 reprints the reports of the working groups on health, the law, training and information, and religion, and the final part covers the final resolutions and closing addresses by a UN Children's Fund representative, a representative of the UN Commission for Human Rights, and the Assistant Secretary General of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party. The Inter-African Committee's Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, approved by the seminar, is contained in the first appendix, and a list of seminar participants is attached in the second.
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  7. 7

    Plan of action for the eradication of harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa.

    Inter-African Committee [IAC]

    [Unpublished] 1987. 14 p.

    The traditional and harmful practices such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing, and unprotected delivery continue to be the reality for women in many African nations. These harmful traditional practices frequently result in permanent physical, psychological, and emotional changes for women, at times even death, yet little progress has been realized in abolishing these practices. At the Regional Seminar of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, held in Ethiopia during April 1987, guidelines were drawn by which national governments and local bodies along with international and regional organizations might take action to protect women from these unnecessary hazardous traditional practices. These guidelines constitute this "Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa." The plan should be implemented within a decade. These guidelines include both shortterm and longterm strategies. Actions to be taken in terms of the organizational machinery are outlined, covering both the national and regional levels and including special support and the use of the mass media. Guidelines are included for action to be taken in regard to childhood marriage and early pregnancy. These cover the areas of education -- both formal and nonformal -- measures to improve socioeconomic status and health, and enacting laws against childhood marriage and rape. In the area of female circumcision, the short term goal is to create awareness of the adverse medical, psychological, social and economic implications of female circumcision. The time frame for this goal is 24 months. The longterm goal is to eradicate female circumcision by 2000 and to restore dignity and respect to women and to raise their status in society. Also outlined are actions to be taken in terms of food prohibitions which affect mostly women and children, child spacing and delivery practices, and legislative and administrative measures. Women in the African region have a critical role to play both in the development of their countries and in the solution of problems arising from the practice of harmful traditions.
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  8. 8

    Genitorts in the global context: female genital mutilation as a tort under the Alien Tort Claims Act, the Torture Victim Protection Act, and the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act.

    Karp A

    WOMEN'S RIGHTS LAW REPORTER. 1997 Spring; 18(3):315-27.

    This article analyzes the possibility of civil law suits being brought to court in the US under the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), the Torture Victim Protection Act (TVPA), and the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) in cases where female genital mutilation (FGM) is the injury for which redress is sought. The article opens by reviewing the practice and prevalence of FGM and shortcomings in national and global (UN) responses. Next, the article reviews possible legal tools against FGM through a discussion of 1) the plausible torts (battery, intentional infliction of emotional distress, medical malpractice, wrongful death, loss of consortium, and strict liability); 2) the proper plaintiffs (the victim and/or her relatives); 3) the proper defendants (circumcisers, physicians, parents, hospitals, community and religious leaders, political subdivisions, states and state agents, other influential states, and the UN); and 4) the statutory authority contained in the ATCA, TVPA, and FSIA. The second part of the article discusses the best strategy for using existing tort principles, which is to use torts that fall within the definition of torture and to target defendants visiting or residing in the US. After proposing that a unique argument could be made that FGM is a form of mass-organized extinction of female sexuality and bodily integrity or a crime in the "war of violence against women" or "mass torture," the article concludes that FGM is so shielded by the cloak of respectability and religious requirement that intensive action, including litigation in US courts, may be needed to bring its barbarity in clear view of its practitioners. While lawsuits that offer no hope of satisfying claims will not survive, tort-based actions can be entered against aliens performing FGM.
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  9. 9

    Egypt reimposes ban on FGM.

    PANORAMA. 1998; 1.

    This article discusses Egypt's Supreme Administrative Court's reaffirmation of a legal ban on female genital mutilation (FGM) as a violation of human rights. UNICEF, the World Health Organization, and the UN Population Fund agreed to a joint initiative to decrease FGM within 10 years and eliminate the practice within 3 generations. The international interagency effort aims to assist governments in developing and implementing clear national policies for the abolition of FGM. The Executive Director of UNICEF commended Egypt's clarity and authoritativeness in affirming the rights of women and girls, a stance that will affect conditions also outside of Egypt. The affirmation that FGM is not in accordance with Islamic law will help enormously in ending this cruel, ritualized form of violence against women and girls. The Executive Director recognized that the abolition of FGM would require a long time to achieve, because change involves altering attitudes and cultural norms. The International Planned Parenthood Secretary General congratulated the Egyptian Prime Minister on the public announcement of the ban on FGM. Many countries look to Egypt for leadership in determining how to uphold female human rights.
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  10. 10

    The recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development: the possibility of the empowerment of women in Egypt.

    Jewett J


    This paper opens by pointing out that Muslim support of the recommendations contained in the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was gained only because ICPD participants agreed that individual country compliance would be limited by national constitutional statutes and religious doctrine. If Egypt interprets the ICPD's "full respect for ... religious and ethical values and cultural backgrounds" to mean "limited by" these factors, Egyptian women will remain unable to control their fertility. After this introduction, the first section of the paper summarizes the ICPD recommendations. Part 2 describes Islamic notions of women's role in society, and the third part shows how these ideas are mirrored in Egyptian society through an analysis of the importance of family and motherhood, Egyptian sexual standards, the veiling of women, and female genital mutilation. Part 4 considers the Islamic influence on Egyptian law, and the fifth part outlines past Egyptian efforts to achieve equality between the sexes. The paper ends by presenting the reforms that Egypt will have to institute to implement the ICPD recommendations. These include eliminating laws that perpetuate traditional gender roles and sexual standards. Egypt will also have to promote education as a key to empowering women and implementing the ICPD recommendations. It is also noted that women's organizations must play a key role in the reform process and that the process must take Islamic law into account.
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  11. 11

    The political and legal struggle over FGM in Egypt before and after the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Kirberger E; Randolph K; Toubia N

    In: Intersections between health and human rights: the case of female genital mutilation, by Elizabeth Kirberger, Kate Randolph, Nahid Toubia. New York, New York, Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women, 1995. 10-7.

    During a workshop on eradication of female genital mutilation, a speaker noted that female genital mutilation has become a highly political issue in Egypt since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Before the ICPD, female genital mutilation had no place in the Islamic agenda although the practice had received the attention of several nongovernmental organizations. Attitudes towards female genital mutilation are tied to larger views about women's status and to political attempts to control women and their sexuality. Airing of the CNN film depicting the mutilation of an Egyptian girl forced the government to denounce the practice and to promise the international community that it would work to eradicate it. After the ICPD, the Islamic organization Al-Azhar launched a campaign against the eradication of female genital mutilation in an attempt to squash any fledgling move toward women's liberation and to embarrass the government. The campaign depicted female genital mutilation as a part of Egypt's cultural identity which must be preserved to resist Western oppression and domination. Female genital mutilation was a safe issue for the Islamic groups to forward since they knew the government would be unsuccessful in using legislation to eradicate it. The Minister of Health responded to this pressure by proclaiming that female genital mutilation must be performed by physicians. The Grand Mufti, the official interpreter of Islamic law, simply referred the matter to physicians. Those in Egypt who are fighting to change women's status and attitudes can not afford further sensationalization of this issue. Rather than using legislation in a futile attempt to change attitudes, court cases have been entered as a tool to raise awareness about the way female genital mutilation has been used as a political tool. These court cases carry the risk of failure but action has been enjoined against the Minister of Health for violating the code of medical ethics and a 1959 ministerial degree forbidding the practice of female genital mutilation in public hospitals. The court case against Al-Azhar charges that the organization violated its mandate by issuing a fatwa claiming that female genital mutilation is part of Islam. Only the Mufti has the authority to issue a fatwa.
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  12. 12

    Visions and discussions on genital mutilation of girls: an international survey.

    Smith J

    The Hague, Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for International Cooperation, Development Cooperation Information Department, 1995. [6], 216, [1] p.

    The Netherlands Institute of Human Rights conducted an inventory of international, regional, and national documents, legislation, and rules on female genital mutilation (FGM) to generate an overview of existing FGM-related regulations. Chapter 2 of the study's report presents the various forms of FGM and the countries where FGM is practiced. It also examines religion, tradition, culture, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The chapter also presents the views and attitudes of various famous researchers and authors. The legal approach to FGM has been receiving increasing attention, reaching the level of considering FGM as a health issue. Chapter 3 reviews international and regional regulations as they apply to FGM. The views and initiatives of international and regional governmental and nongovernmental organizations, particularly those initiatives aiming to eradicate FGM, are addressed in chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses the countries of origin (e.g., Somalia), while chapter 6 discusses those of destination (e.g., Canada). Specifically, these chapters cover these countries' national legislation and their government's views on FGM. These chapters also address initiatives and programs of those national nongovernmental organizations involved in the eradication of FGM. The report concludes with a summary of the findings and various conclusions.
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