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BJOG. 2018 Feb; 125(3):288.Against a background of an increasing demand for surgical intervention for the treatment of FGM/C related complications, Berg et al
Note for typesetter: Please update reference when assigned to an issue.have conducted a systematic review of 62 studies involving 5829 women, to assess the effectiveness of defibulation, excision of cysts and clitoral reconstructive surgery. Berg et al report that defibulation showed a lower risk of Caesarean section and perineal tears; excision of cysts commonly resulted in resolution of symptoms; and clitoral reconstruction resulted in most women self-reporting improvements in their sexual health. However, Berg et al highlight that they had little confidence in the effect estimate for all outcomes as most of the studies were observational and conclude that there is currently poor quality of evidence on the benefits and/or harm of surgical interventions to be able to counsel women appropriately. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 56 p.This report, the first such published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), looks at FGM through the lens of population dynamics and the demographic dividend, based on current evidence and data. It offers quantitative information that both supports evidence-based programming, and frames financial implications for Member States and international donors. Evidence to define the size of the target population and orient actions around areas of greatest impact is of high value in developing interventions and formulating policies. UNFPA remains strongly committed to engaging with Member States, civil society, UN agencies and all other stakeholders to accelerate the elimination of FGM worldwide. Protecting girls upholds their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and enables them to realize their full potential.
Accelerating change by the numbers. 2016 annual report of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting: Accelerating change.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017 Jul. 92 p.The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives. This main document, "By the Numbers," analyses progress in quantitative terms, using the Results Framework as a basis. It provides an account of how the budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries (excepting Yemen). The profiles present facts on the national context, summarize key achievements, and share operational and financial information.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017. 80 p.The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives: The main document analyses progress in quantitative terms, provides an account of how our budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries. This companion booklet uses a qualitative and narrative approach to examine more specifically the challenges, complexities and achievements on the ground. It explores the innovative approaches the Joint Programme teams, partners and activists employ to deconstruct the social norms that allow FGM / C to continue in many communities.
Female genital mutilation/cutting and violence against women and girls strengthening the policy linkages between different forms of violence.
2017 Feb; New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Feb. 20 p.Violence against women and girls (VAWG) manifests in different forms. These include intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual violence, sexual exploitation and trafficking, and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and child, early and forced marriage, among others. Programmes to end harmful practices and programmes to end intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence are often planned and implemented separately, despite all being rooted in gender inequality and gender-based discrimination against women and girls. While this is intended so that programmes can be tailored accordingly, it can result in isolation of initiatives that would otherwise benefit from sharing of knowledge and good practices and from strategic, coordinated efforts. This policy note explores policy and programming interlinkages and considers entry points in the areas of (i) national legislation, (ii) prevention strategies, (iii) response for survivors, and (iv) data and evidence, for increased coordination and collaboration to advance the objectives of ending FGM/C and other forms of VAWG, in particular intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. The note builds on the background paper “Finding convergence in policy frameworks: A background paper on the policy links between gender, violence against women and girls, and female genital mutilation/cutting” (available below). This policy note is intended for multiple audiences, including those directly involved in policy development, planning and implementing initiatives, those providing technical support, and advocates for ending all forms of VAWG, including FGM/C. This work is the result of a collaboration of UN Women with the UNFPA–UNICEF Joint Programme on FGM/C.
Testing the effectiveness of integrating community-based approaches for encouraging abandonment of female genital cutting into CARE's reproductive health programs in Ethiopia and Kenya.
Washington, D.C., Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 2004 Dec.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-98-00012-00; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-98-00023-00)Between 2000 and 2002, CARE International, with technical support from the Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program of the Population Council, implemented an operations research (OR) project among the Afar people of Ethiopia and Somali refugees in Daadab camps in Kenya. The OR project aimed to assess the effectiveness of community-based female genital cutting (FGC) strategies in increasing the knowledge of harmful FGC effects and positive FGC related attitudes and intended behaviour among the intervention communities. Both communities are predominantly of Islamic faith and practice infibulation, the most severe form of FGC. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, CARE integrated FGC interventions into existing community-based reproductive and primary health care information and service delivery activities. The study in Ethiopia was designed to test the effectiveness of education activities using behaviour change communication (BCC) approaches and advocacy activities by religious and other key leaders in the intervention site. No interventions occurred in the control sites. In Kenya, both the intervention and comparison sites had education/BCC activities. The intervention site had advocacy activities in addition to education/BCC activities. The OR study assessed the effectiveness of BCC and advocacy activities versus no interventions in Ethiopia, while in Kenya the comparison was between BCC strategies alone and the combination of BCC and advocacy activities. (excerpt)