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  1. 1
    792618

    Seminar on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children, Khartoum, Sudan, February 10-15, 1979.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean

    Alexandria, Egypt, WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1979 Mar. 43 p.

    The papers presented at this seminar were "Nutritional Taboos and Traditional Practices in Pregnancy and Lactation Including Breast-feeding Practice"; "Dietary Practice and Aversions during Pregnancy and Lactation Among Sudanese women"; "Traditional Feeding Practices in Pregnancy"; "Nutritional Taboos and Traditional Practices in Pregnancy and Lactation Including Breast-feeding Practices"; "Traditional Practices on Confinement and After Childbirth"; "Traditional Practices in Relation to Childbirth in Kenya"; "Traditional Practices in Child Health in Sudan"; Traditional Practices in Pregnancy and Childbirth in Ethiopia"; "Tobacco and Reproduction Health: Practices and Implications in Traditional and Modern Societies"; "Female Circumcision in the World of Today: a Global Review"; "Mental Aspects of Circumcision"; "Female Circumcision in Egypt"; and papers on female circumcision from Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia. Other papers included "Psycho-Social Aspects of Female Circumcision"; "Sudanese Children's Concepts About Female Circumcision"; "A Study on Prevalence and Epidemiology of Female Circumcision in Sudan Today"; "Early Teenage Childbirth and its Consequences for both Mother and Child"; "Child Marriage and Early Teenage Pregnancy"; and, "Early Marriage and Teenage Deliveries in Somalia". Recommendations included breast-feeding for the health of the child and day nurseries for the mothers who work.
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  2. 2
    027633

    The Hosken Report: genital and sexual mutilation of females. 3rd rev. ed.

    Hosken FP

    Lexington, Massachusetts, Women's International Network News, 1982 Nov. 338 p.

    This report documents the existence and prevalence in Africa and in other regions of the world of the cultural practice of female circumcision and genital mutilation (FC/GM). This serious problem is examined so that it can be abolished. Until recently the problem was hidden from the public, and most health, government and international agency officials denied that the practices were widespread. In 1979 at a World Health Organization (WHO) seminar on traditional health practices, the problem received international attention. Recommendations made by the seminar participants urged nations to adopt policies to abolish FC/GM, to establish commissions to coordinate activities aimed at abolishing the practices, and to intensify efforts to educate the public and health professionals about the problem. In 1984 it was estimated that 79.97 million women in Africa had FC/GM operations performed at some time during their life. The proportion of women who have had FC/GM operations was almost 100% in Somalia, 90% in Ethiopia, 80% in Sudan, Mali, and Sierra Leone, and 60% in Kenya, Ivory Coast, and Gambia. Information is provided on 1) the extent of the practices, 2) the health problems associated with FC/GM, 3) the 1979 WHO seminar, 4) the history of FC/GM, and 5) the cultural beliefs supporting the practices. Case histories provide detailed information on the practices in 11 African countries, 4 countries on the Arab Pennisula, and 2 Asian countries, including Sudan, Somalia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The existence of FC/GM practices in many other countries, including Western nations, is also documented. These practices are also discussed in reference to the depressed status of women in many African countries, and the role of women in these countries is examined in regard to legal matters, education, employment, agriculture, family planning, development, and urbanization. Political factors hindering the abolition of the practices and the hesitancy of international agencies such as WHO, US Agency for International Development, and the UN Children's Fund, to deal with the problem are discussed. There is some evidence that FC/GM operations are being conducted in hospitals in a number of African countries, and efforts must be made to prohibit the introduction of these practices into the modern health care system. Suggestions are provided for action and education programs aimed at abolishing FC/GM practices. An annotated bibliograpy, containing 78 references, is also provided.
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