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  1. 1

    Accelerating change by the numbers. 2016 annual report of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting: Accelerating change.

    UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2017 Jul. 92 p.

    The 2016 Annual Report for the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting provides two perspectives. This main document, "By the Numbers," analyses progress in quantitative terms, using the Results Framework as a basis. It provides an account of how the budget was allocated and offers profiles of each of the 17 programme countries (excepting Yemen). The profiles present facts on the national context, summarize key achievements, and share operational and financial information.
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  2. 2

    Coordinated strategy to abandon female genital mutilation / cutting in one generation: a human rights-based approach to programming. Leveraging social dynamics for collective change.

    Gillespie G; De Vita MG

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2007. [53] p. (Technical Note)

    The coordinated strategy presented in this technical note describes a human rights-based approach to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) programming. The note aims to provide guidance to programmers who are supporting large-scale abandonment of FGM/C in Egypt, Sudan and countries in sub-Saharan Africa. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of FGM/C as a social convention, this coordinated strategy includes an in-depth examination of the research documented by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in 'Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female genital mutilation/cutting', Innocenti Digest. Its focus is limited to the social dynamics of the practice at the community level, and it applies game theory, the science of interdependent decision-making, to the social dynamics of FGM/C. This strategy does not cover everything that occurs at the community level, but rather, looks at the practice from the perspective of a particular type of social convention described by Thomas C. Schelling in The Strategy of Conflict. It introduces an innovative approach to FGM/C programming that is intended to bring about lasting social change. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Southern feminist perspectives on population and reproductive rights: continuing challenges.

    Sen G

    Development. 1999 Mar; 42(1):25-8.

    Women have long suffered from social control restricting their right to self determination in sexual/reproductive matters. In the South, this control has been exercised by Northern countries' promotion of population control, the Roman Catholic Church's opposition to birth control, and the poor quality of national health services. While women in all three regions of the South have had to struggle with these problems, regional variability in priorities and attitudes has challenged creation of a unified women's rights agenda. Acknowledging these challenges, the Southern feminist organization Development Alternative with Women for a New Era (DAWN) identified the following as impediments to implementing the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development: 1) cultural/religious biases and practices that lower women's status, 2) bureaucratic and insensitive state mechanisms, and 3) privatization of services with weak regulation. Examples of the implementation struggles caused by these factors can be found in Egypt, as it struggles with religious leaders in its attempt to eradicate female genital mutilation, and in India, which is trying to change its entrenched bureaucratic, target-driven family planning service delivery. The unauthorized use of quinacrine as a chemical agent for female sterilization in India posed a third challenge arising from unregulated privatization until a court banned the drug this year.
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  4. 4

    All talk? Gruesome practice gets attention, little action.

    DiConsiglio JM

    FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1994 Jan-Feb; 7, 29.

    While female genital mutilation has been brought into the open and is a topic of much conversation, the global community has yet to invest the necessary funds or devise a blueprint for eradication. International agencies defend their response by citing their concern that a full-blown attack on the traditional practice will simply drive it underground. Female genital mutilation can range from cutting or removing the clitoris to full-scale excision and infibulation of the genitalia. In fact, international agencies can do little more than provide funds and resources to local nongovernmental organizations working to eradicate the abuse. Population Action International (PAI) notes that recent publicity has made female genital mutilation a "hot topic." The US Congress is considering legislation to outlaw the practice that is being imported along with immigrants. PAI claims that the US Agency for International Development (USAID) was reluctant to become involved in the controversy, but USAID officials say that African nations were reluctant to accept USAID's help. USAID has funded research studies on female genital mutilation and expects that its approach will follow the lead of other international agencies that have integrated eradication programs within existing projects. To date, local efforts to eradicate the practice have led to only minor successes because female genital mutilation is intrinsically tied to the status of women in developing countries. Experts insist that local organizations must lead the eradication effort with funding from international agencies.
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  5. 5

    Regional Plan of Action to Accelerate the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation in Africa.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 1997. [5], 47 p.

    Female genital mutilation is known to be prevalent in 27 of the 46 countries in the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). This practice has severe consequences for the reproductive health and human rights of girls and women. To promote the health of populations in its African Region, WHO has prepared this Regional Plan of Action (1996-2015) to Accelerate the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation. This multisectoral, multidisciplinary plan seeks to reduce the numbers of females 1-20 years of age undergoing this procedure in countries that have already implemented intervention programs to eliminate the practice, encourage other countries to issue policies and legislation against female genital mutilation, manage its health consequences within existing primary health care programs, and increase female school enrollment. Goals have been established to reduce the proportion of females undergoing female genital mutilation by 40% and increase the number of African countries with policies against this practice by 55% by the year 2015. The plan's major components are program development and management; research for intervention development, monitoring, and evaluation; advocacy at the regional, national, and community levels; education and training of human resources for health to promote capacity-building at all levels; and development of education and training materials. Described in detail in this document are short-term (1996-98), medium-term (1999-2006), and long-term (2007-15) goals and objectives; implementation strategies; the monitoring and evaluation process; and the budget.
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  6. 6

    Cooperation by UNICEF in the elimination of traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa (Extract).

    Ngom MT

    In: Report on a Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, organized by the Senegal Ministry of Public Health and the NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Dakar, Senegal, Ministry of Public Health and NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women adn Children, 1984. 182-4.

    This contribution begins with a statement of praise for the efforts of the Senegal conference, complimenting the conference's recognition of positive and negative influencing practices. Positive practices should be encouraged with arguments and striking examples. Attention is drawn to UNICEF document PRO-71, the product of the 1980 Inter-Organization Consultation Meeting on Combating the Practice of Female Circumcision (FC), through the improvement of women's status, and the elimination of false ideologies such as those related to the necessity of FC for the preservation of female modesty, virginity, and chastity. Further attention is drawn to the efforts of a multi-disciplinary study group on FC set up in Ivory coast. Finally, the readiness of UNICEF to further female and child health development, and growth chart, oral rehydration, breastfeeding immunization, food supplementation, family spacing, and female education developments, are discussed.
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