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Plan of action for the eradication of harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children in Africa.
[Unpublished] 1987. 14 p.The traditional and harmful practices such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing, and unprotected delivery continue to be the reality for women in many African nations. These harmful traditional practices frequently result in permanent physical, psychological, and emotional changes for women, at times even death, yet little progress has been realized in abolishing these practices. At the Regional Seminar of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa, held in Ethiopia during April 1987, guidelines were drawn by which national governments and local bodies along with international and regional organizations might take action to protect women from these unnecessary hazardous traditional practices. These guidelines constitute this "Plan of Action for the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children in Africa." The plan should be implemented within a decade. These guidelines include both shortterm and longterm strategies. Actions to be taken in terms of the organizational machinery are outlined, covering both the national and regional levels and including special support and the use of the mass media. Guidelines are included for action to be taken in regard to childhood marriage and early pregnancy. These cover the areas of education -- both formal and nonformal -- measures to improve socioeconomic status and health, and enacting laws against childhood marriage and rape. In the area of female circumcision, the short term goal is to create awareness of the adverse medical, psychological, social and economic implications of female circumcision. The time frame for this goal is 24 months. The longterm goal is to eradicate female circumcision by 2000 and to restore dignity and respect to women and to raise their status in society. Also outlined are actions to be taken in terms of food prohibitions which affect mostly women and children, child spacing and delivery practices, and legislative and administrative measures. Women in the African region have a critical role to play both in the development of their countries and in the solution of problems arising from the practice of harmful traditions.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1996. , 54 p.This document contains the UN's 1996 assessment that ranks the nations of the world according to their achievements in specific areas of human well-being. The introductory comments by the Executive Director of the UN Children's Fund notes that the ratios between national wealth and social progress are not static and depend upon such factors as history and culture, political stability, the accountability of governments, and the sense of realism and honesty adopted as a country faces its problems. Past successes teach the importance of avoiding complacency in working toward progress in eliminating avoidable human suffering. The six commentaries then cover the major topics of 1) maternal mortality (female genital mutilation), 2) nutrition, 3) health (progress in immunization), 4) education (with data on the number of girls out of school), 5) the Convention on the Rights of the Child (national performance gaps and action to date), and 6) the industrial world (child poverty in rich nations and levels of youth illiteracy, tobacco use, suicide, pregnancy, and injury deaths). The report also includes statistical tables that illustrate 1) social indicators for less populous countries, 2) progress in meeting 1995 goals, 3) statistical profiles, and 4) information on the age of the data.