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  1. 1

    Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Evidence from Literature.

    Asim M; Nawaz Y

    Children. 2018 May 4; 5(5)

    Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000(-)2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO) weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan.
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  2. 2

    World Federation policy statement. IV. Incentives and disincentives relating to voluntary surgical contraception.

    World Federation of Health Agencies for the Advancement of Voluntary Surgical Contraception

    [Unpublished] 1981 Nov. 3 p.

    The recommendations of the 1974 Symposium on Law and Population are endorsed including taking into account the value system and customs of a society to counteract family planning (FP), obstacles and urging that government-sponsored FP programs be considered basic human rights. The incentives and disincentives of the International Conference on Family Planning held in Jakarta in 1981 are also approved. These relate to ethical, social, and political issues and the availability of FP information, education, and services; evaluation of the effectiveness of incentives to enhance community improvement, peer recognition, and social rewards; and the minimalization of cash incentives because of the potential for abuse. The balancing of individual rights to collective rights is also accepted as declared by the 1977 Expert Group Meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. In addition, the World Federation advocates principles on contraception of Health Agencies for the Advancement of Voluntary Surgical incentives and disincentives in voluntary surgical contraception to limit family size; psychological and social incentives; fees for service; discouragement of immediate financial incentives for acceptors; and continuous institutional monitoring and education of these guidelines. Assistance of member countries of the World Federation is a primary objective in this effort.
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  3. 3

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  4. 4

    Winners of poster contest chosen.

    Population Headliners. 2001 Nov-Dec; (285):4.

    Young artists from the Asian and Pacific region took part in the 2001 International Poster Contest organized by the UN Population Fund. Artists from The theme of the contest was "Population and Environment," focusing on the connection between family size and the environment. The contestants were asked to examine how the environment has changed since their parents' time, how as individuals they can make a difference, and how the status of girls and women can affect the environment. The grand prize went to Angelina Ooi Wei Wei of Malaysia, who was also the first place winner in the 6-8 year old category. All contestants received certificates and the winners received art supplies and special certificates.
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  5. 5

    Declining fertility [letter]

    Mosher SW

    SCIENCE.. 1998 November 20; 282(5393):1419.

    In the 1998 Revision: World Population Estimates and Projections (1), the UN has revised its population projections downward. It was estimated that at the mid-century, population would reach only 8.9 billion, a loss of nearly 1 billion people. The UN low-fertility projection, which is considered more accurate than its medium-fertility projection, estimates that only 7.3 billion people would inhabit the world in 2050. The factors that account for this dramatic decline are fertility decline, rising rates of AIDS, and more accurate prognosticating by the UN. About half of the world's population (44%) has decided not to reproduce or they are dying of AIDS before they can. The UN Population Division reports that the global average fertility level now stands at 2.7 births/woman, a mere 0.6 above the replacement level. Fertility is now declining in all parts of the world. Over the past 25 years, the number of children per couple has fallen from 5.1 to 2.6 in Asia, from 5.0 to 2.7 in Latin America, and from 6.6 to 5.1 in Africa. In Europe, the number of children per couple has fallen to 1.42, one-third less than the 2.1 required to maintain population stability.
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  6. 6

    Family planning: a health and development issue.

    Watanabe E

    JOURNAL OF FAMILY WELFARE. 1992 Sep; 38(3):74-7.

    The impact of family planning (FP) on the health and lives of women and children is being increasingly recognized in developing countries including India. The acceptance of FP grows when child survival rates improve, and the practice of FP can help avoid deaths of infants and mothers which occur when mothers are too young or too old or when births are spaced too closely. FP could reduce about 25% of the 125,000 maternal deaths which occur each year in India and could help women avoid dangerous illegal abortions. FP used for birth spacing improves infant survival as well as the quality of the mothers' lives. Education is one of the most crucial determinants of a woman's socioeconomic status and, therefore, of their children's health and survival. It is, thus, important for girls to have access to universal primary education. UNICEF supports FP within the context of child survival and development activities such as the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programs which include promotion of accessible contraception. UNICEF also promotes increasing the marriage age to 18 years, a two-child family norm, and communication activities to create a demand for FP. UNICEF is working with the Indian government to provide uneducated adolescent girls with nonformal education and vocational training so they can seek employment rather than early marriage. Through such activities, UNICEF is demonstrating its belief in the far-reaching benefits of FP.
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  7. 7

    Population and human rights in Africa.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 416-28. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    Human rights relating to population questions in Africa cannot be divorced from the meaning and implications of human rights in all other spheres. In developing Africa, many important population issues implicate human rights: the welfare of children, youths, the aged, and women; regulation of the levels and patterns of fertility; mortality, morbidity; and migration, internal as well as external, including refugee movements; family welfare and marriage; problems of employment, wages, equal pay, and working hours; access to adequate education and means for cultural expression and identity; and problems of family planning in relation to mother and child care. The relationship between human rights and fertility involves: 1) the rights relating to marriage and the family, specifically to enhance the legal status of women in the home, community, and in national development; and 2) the rights to freely and responsibly decide the number and spacing of children, including the increase, as well as the decrease in fertility. Migration, population distribution, and human rights have been promoted and respected in varying degrees, depending on each country's internal and external policies. Internal migration, distribution, and settlement in nearly all the independent African countries have resulted in rapid urbanization despite inadequate infrastructure. To counter the overurbanization, many support the spreading of development projects throughout the entire country promoting balanced development between rural and urban areas. Historically international migration was customary; with the advent of sovereignty, crossing borders even among related ethnic groups has come under close scrutiny. The international community has come to accept responsibility for protecting and caring for refugees. Human rights, morbidity, mortality, and health care include the right to good health and freedom from disease and sickness, the right to food and freedom from hunger and malnutrition. Increased action at national and international levels is necessary to encourage the governments of Africa to promote the realization of human rights with respect to current and projected population trends.
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  8. 8

    [The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.

    Schmid J

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.

    This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
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  9. 9

    Liberia: population and development.

    Brown E

    In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, [1986]. 232-47.

    This paper summarizes those aspects of the 1984 World Development Report which deal with population prospects and policies in Liberia. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only area of the world where there has not yet been any decline in the rate of growth of the population, and Liberia with a population of 2 million and growing at the rate of 3.5%/year has 1 of the highest growth rates in that area. The birth rate is 50/1000 of the population, and the death rate is 14/1000. The fertility rate is nearly 7 children/woman and is not expected to decline to replacement level before year 2030. Infant mortality is 91/1000, and half of all deaths occur among children under 5. Projecting these demographic trends into the future leads to the conclusion that the population will double in 20 years and exceed 6 million by 2030. Although fertility will begin to decline in the 1990s, the population will continue to increase for a few years with the growth rate declining to 2%/year by 2020 and 1.2%/year by 2045. Such rapid population growth will cause great stress on the country's ability to provide food, schools, and health care. For the children themselves, large, poor families, with births spaced too close together, means malnutrition, poor health , and lower intellectual capacity. And the cycle of poverty continues over the generations as the families save less and expend more on the immediate needs of their children. In macroeconomic terms, a growth rate of l2%/year means a massive explosion of need for food, water, energy, housing, health services and education, with a gross domestic product (GDP) growth of only 2%/year; and this projection is probably optimistic. The rural sector will not be able to support the 23% additional rural labor force, which will migrate to the towns, adding to the already high urban growth rate of 5.7%/year from natural increase. In this society, where literacy is only 20% and secondary education completed by only 11% of the girls, it is estimated that only %5 of eligible couples practice birth control despite the fact that it costs less than $1.00 per capita. Government must step in to ensure that resources exist for population planning at county and local levels. Government is responsible for making demographic data accessible and for coordinating population program inputs. Government should also make sure that family planning programs can be implemented through integration with existing health services. A project including restructuring of health care management, financing and delivery, as well as development of a national population policy, has been proposed for World Bank and other international agencies' support.
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  10. 10

    Changing perspectives of population in Africa and international responses.

    Sai FT

    [Unpublished] 1987. 13, [3] p.

    Africa's colonial legacy is such that countries contain not only a multiplicity of nations and languages, but their governments operate on separate cultural and linguistic planes, remnants of colonial heritage, so that neighboring peoples often have closed borders. Another problem is poor demographic data, although some censuses, World Fertility Surveys, Demographic Sample Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys have been done. About 470 million lived in the region in 1984, growing at 3% yearly, ranging from 1.9% in Burkina to 4.6% in Cote d'Ivoire. Unique in Africa, women are not only having 6 to 8.1 children, but they desire even larger families: Senegalese women have 6.7 children and want 8.8. This gloomy outlook is reflected in the recent history of family planning policy. Only Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius began family planning in the 1960s, and in Kenya the policy failed, since it was begun under colonial rule. 8 countries made up the African Regional Council for IPPF in 1971. At the Bucharest Population Conference in 1974, most African representatives, intellectuals and journalists held the rigid view that population was irrelevant for development. Delegates to the Kilimanjaro conference and the Second International Conference on Population, however, did espouse the importance of family planning for health and human rights. And the Inter-Parliamentary Union of Africa accepted the role of family planning in child survival and women's status. At the meeting in Mexico in 1984, 12 African nations joined the consensus of many developing countries that rapid population growth has adverse short-term implications on development. Another 11 countries allow family planning for health and human rights, and a few more accept it without stating a reason. Only 3 of 47 Sub-Saharan nations state pro-natalist policies, and none are actively against family planning.
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  11. 11

    The story of two mothers.

    Wallace W; Penn C

    PEOPLE. 1988; 15(1):7-12.

    The stories of 2 Kenyan mothers and their families, the subjects of an IPPF film, illustrate the health benefits to women and children of family planning. 1 woman, aged 40, lives on a small farm with her 9 children. She is very resourceful but must constantly struggle to feed her children. She must also cope with the effects of polygamy; her husband has moved away to live with another wife. She was denied the benefit of education, and repeated pregnancies with little space between them have damaged her health. Now that she has contraceptive injections and has not had a child for 2 years, she feels her health has benefited and that she has regained her strength. The 2nd woman, aged 32, educated, and better off than the first, nevertheless knew little about contraception until after her 1st pregnancy. Her desire to limit the size of her family so that she might give more time to each child, her husband's consciousness of family planning, and her health difficulties during pregnancy contributed to effective spacing and contraception past the birth of her 3rd child. Now she is happy about her decision for tubal ligation surgery and has been able to develop as a gospel singer and songwriter.
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  12. 12

    Growing up in a changing world. Part two: youth organizations and family life education: ideas into action.

    Fordham J

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Programme Development Dept., 1985. 107 p.

    This publication, Part 2 of "Growing up in a Changing World," was produced by the International Planned Parenthood Federation at the request of the Informal Working Group on Family Life Education. It provides practical guidelines for organizations that want to incorporate family life education into their program. Whereas Part 1 focused on the concept of family life education, Part 2 provides concrete material on training and project activities. A basic training program for youth leaders should include specific content areas in family life education and the use of participatory learning methods so leaders can organize educational activities for other young people in the community. The training should cover the communication process and give youth leaders practice in organizing group discussions. Project planning, management, and evaluation are also important aspects of leadership training. The activities suggested in this publication are all participatory in approach and based on the belief that people learn best through activities in which their own knowledge and experience are valued. The descriptions of activities include the following components: introduction, objectives, materials, time, preparation, and procedure. Of importance is assessment of the suitability of these sample activities for use with specific groups of young people. In considering suitability, 3 factors should be kept in mind: 1) there may be opposition by parents or religious leaders to subjects concerned with sex education and family planning, and ways should be sought to overcome this resistance; 2) activities must be appropriate to the learning abilities, characteristics, and circumstances of the target population; and 3) speical care is needed when developing or adapting activities for use with young people who are illiterate.
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  13. 13

    International family planning: the reasons for the program.

    McPherson MP

    [Unpublished] 1985 Nov 25. 8 p.

    For some time there has been an active debate centering on the relationship between population growth and economic growth and the relationship, if any, between abortion and family planning programs. This debate has been characterized by strongly held and often polarized convictions, yet the debate usually fails to consider a most important set of reasons for family planning programs. Specifically, there has been little attention directed to the interests of families and individuals. This is unfortunate since the availability or lack of family planning services is of enormous consequences to some families and individuals. These family and individual interests fall into 3 categories: the desire of couples to determine the size and spacing of their family; mother and child survival; and reduction of abortion. The right of the family to choose the number and spacing of their children was strongly reaffirmed by international consensus at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. Governments should not dictate the number of children couples can have, but family planning services should be encouraged so that people really do have the option, if they desire, of fewer children. Families make decisions in their own interest based upon their social and economic and religious situation. Change, including urbanization and lower child mortality, has created a new situation for millions of families throughout the developing world. One can debate the impact of population growth on economic growth in a family, but there is no question that many families feel they can do more for each child if they have fewer children. The unfulfilled desire of 3rd world families to have fewer children is not just Western speculation. Surveys show a large number of women who would like to space or limit their family size but cannot because no services are available. The health and survival of mothers and children provides a 2nd important reason for family planning. 1 of the most serious consequences of women having many children in quick succession is that more children and mothers die. There are dramatic statistics that family planning saves lives. Sound economic policies and various development efforts are critical to economic growth, but family planning has been part of successful packages in some key countries in recent years. Based upon that, sound economic and population policies are mutually supportive components of a country's plans for economic growth. This was the position taken by the Agency for International Development and remains its position. Strong family planning programs should be supported in the interests of families and individuals.
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  14. 14

    The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects

    Oppong C

    In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.

    There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
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  15. 15

    The ILO population/family welfare education programme.

    Richards JH

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 177-83.

    The International Labor Organization (ILO) has enlarged its traditional concern and responsibility for labor welfare to encompass the worker's welfare not only at the workplace but also in his living environment. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the ILO's Population/Family Welfare Education Programme. The basic objective of this program is to improve the quality of life of workers and teir families through educational activities aimed at creating an appreciation of interrelations between family income and expenditure, family budgeting and determining of priorities for various needs of the family, including family size. The program is implemented at country level through labor ministries, employers' groups, trade unions, or co-operatives. The program is designed for workers in the organized sector; its content and approach are refined for 4 main sub-groups: male workers, young workers undergoining vocational training, young unmarried female workers, and plantation workers and cooperative members in rural areas. In all cases the ILO program uses existing welfare and educational institutions, and is presented in terms of family level relationships. Once the inter-relationships of needs and resources within the context of the family is considered, it becomes apparent that needs are predominantly determined by family size. To the extent that couples are prepared to regulate their fertility, this decision may be influenced by family decision making. On the other hand, the potential for influencing family resources is limited. Family well-being can thus be seen in terms of family needs, resources and decision making. Workers must therefore be shown that they can determine their family size. This is the basic family welfare education message. It has a distinct ILO flavor about it and has proved to be acceptable to governments, employers, trade union leaders and members.
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  16. 16

    Population and the role of the family, statement made at the Scientific Conference on Family and Population, sponsored by the International Union of Family Organizations, Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland, 26 May, 1984.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1984]. 5 p. (Speech Series No. 112)

    The family is the fundamental guarantor of the past, present and future of society. The social norms and values of a culture are transmitted from generation to generation through the family. Through the family, fresh influences are modulated and filtered and eventually harmonized with accepted norms. It is a highly influential instrument of social change. The family is also the guardian of social stability. In many developing countries the major social change affecting the family has been the fall in fertility which has been going on since the mid-1960s and has become a definite trend. The implication of lower fertility is that the nuclear family will become more socially significant than the extended family. This raises questions such as the role and care of the elderly, and women's role as workers outside the home. 2 main considerations are imbedded in the recommendations to the International Conference on Population in 1984: 1) that free choice in the size and spacing of the family is a basic human righ and that access to informatin and the means of family planning is a part of that right; 2) that it is the right and responsibility of governments to develop and implement population policies in the context of national development goals. These twin principles of respect for the rights of individuals and respect for national sovereignty are fundamental to all international agreements and action in population.
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  17. 17

    Women and World Population Year, decision-making for development, statement made at the Women's Forum on Population and Development, New York, 25 February 1974.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1974]. 8 p.

    This statement briefly traces the history of development and population programs from the 1960's till the present and discusses what these programs can do for women. The cumulative effect of apparently minor innovations which help to ease the work load in the home is far greater than it might appear. There are significant material benefits but more important are the effects of the way a woman perceives herself. She has, for the 1st time, opportunity to widen her horizons, Increased education, employment and equality tend to lower family size as well. It is therefore important to ensure the commitment and participation of women in family planning programs, so that women become active rather than passive tools of policies which ultimately affect their lives.
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  18. 18

    Asia: an area assessment, statement made at the Second Asian Population Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 1 November 1972.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1972]. 13 p.

    This report offers a critical evaluation of population policies in Asia. Suggestions for future strategies to solve the problem of high fertility include: 1) studies involving in depth village level research in order to deepen understanding of the factors influencing family size; 2) greater attention to be paid to education on population problems and their implications, as well as the basic principles of human reproduction and family planning; 3) scrutinizing all relevant social legislation such as tax and welfare benefits and family allowances to determine their probable influence upon childbearing; and 4) integrating population policies with economic and social development. In order to carry out these activities, training personnel is of the utmost importance. Furthermore, research leading to the elaboration of systemic models of the development process should be intensified.
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  19. 19

    The population question in developing countries.

    Pathak GS

    In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 11-6.

    The rapid growth of population around the world has become the focus of international concern. This conference, which focuses on the theme of population growth and human development, uses a 3-fold perspective to understand and analyze population issues. 1st, human solutions to the population problems, which are essentially the problems of ordinary men and women who have their own private histories and recognizable identity as members of a family group, are recommended. 2nd, no population policy can be effectively formulated and implemented in isolation. It is always as an integral part of the total socioeconomic development strategy of the country. 3rd, the conference, which was organized by a voluntary organization with assistance from the UN and other international organizations, is a sign of the increasing realization that population problems cannot be solved except through international cooperation. A basic concern of the developing countries of Asia is to bring about a decline in fertility rates. Governments and voluntary organizations have collaborated in various action programs designed to promote the kind of social atmosphere that is required for responsible decision making in voluntary family limitation. The experience of most of the developing countries of Asia with respect to the sociocultural changes, which are thought to be conducive to the small family norm, has not been encouraging. Fertility control has been imposed from the top, and has not been understood by the common people, who are often illiterate and influenced by the customs of tradition. Through social education, public opinion, and legislation, the problems of excessive population can be conquered.
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  20. 20

    A communications research and evaluation design for the Korean Family Planning Program.

    Copp BE

    M. A. thesis, Univ. of Chicago, Division of the Social Sciences, Dec. 1973. 90 p.

    In the summer of 1971 the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK), with the concurrence of the Korean government, launched a new phase in the Korean family planning program--"Stop at Two" movement. With this step the 10 year old family program became the 1st in the world to openly advocate and propogate through communications the 2-child family norm. Since then the movement has been vigorously pressed through all communications channels in spite of traditional norms and the need for major outside funding. The decision to actively bring the "Stop at Two" idea to the public was based largely on the implications for the future of the success of the 1st 10 years of the national family planning program. The Korean government has set an optimistic population growth rate target for the next 5 years--1.5 to be achieved by 1976. To reach these goals it is estimated that 45% of the eligible population will have to be regularly using some form of contraception. At 1 time or another the PPFK, supporting the national program, has used every conceivable method of communication to inform, motivate, and persuade the Korean population to adopt family planning. An attempt has been made to carefully analyze problem areas in the family planning program for which communication research is needed or would be relevant. An effort is made to show how the information obtained could be used to deal effectively through communication with the conditions presented by the problem. Communication research and evaluation techniques which would be most valuable to Korea are described. A research and evaluation design which spells out the components of a program of research intended to support the already published communication strategy of the Korean family planning over the next 3 years is included.
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  21. 21

    Population education programme in the organised sector.

    Bidur KC

    In: Joshi JP. Report on Workshop/Seminar on Population Education, December 11-15, 1978, Hari-Har Bhawan, Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal, Agricultural Development Bank, Institutional Division, [1978]. 45-52.

    Nepal's 4-year Population Education in the Organised Sector Project, initiated in 1976, is being executed by the Department of Labor with the financial support of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and assistance from the International Labour Office. The main objective is to create awareness of population programs among the people of the organized sector and motivate them to adopt family planning through population education activities with a long range view to support family planning in the industrial sector, in cooperatives, and among women. The project's goals are: 1) gain family planning acceptance among 50% of the eligible couples in the industrial sectors included in the project, 2) gain acceptance of 30% of eligible couples in cooperatives and the women's sector, 3) establish labor management committees for population education in the factories, 4) study how family planning practice spreads from the industrial plants to the surrounding areas, and 5) set up the institutional framework capable of expanding population education and family planning in the organized sector and to build up groups of motivators whose estimated number by the end of the 2nd year should be around 200. Representatives from the industrial, cooperative, and women sectors will participate in seminars, motivator training courses, study tours, and research projects. A National Advisory Committee will assist in monitoring the project, while Zonal Advisory Committees carry out programs in local areas. The author reports the following progress: 1) in Kathmandu 3 national level seminars have been conducted, 2) Motivators Training Courses were held in 22 places, 3) labor-management followup seminars were held in 3 areas, and 4) a total of 1031 participants were involved in these activities. The motivators were able to motivate 4500 family planning acceptors and it is believed that the idea of the benefits of a small planned family has been accepted by many.
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  22. 22

    Population and family welfare education for workers: a resource book for trainers.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]; International Labour Office [ILO]. Population and Labour Policies Branch

    Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1980. 64 p.

    The chapters included in this resource book for trainers, prepared for a regional audience, present those topics that are most relevant in an organized sector population/family welfare education program, i.e., a program directed to any group of workers which can be approached through an appropriate organizational channel. This book has been prepared with the trainers of instructors in mind, i.e., for those who are going to help prepare the actual factory level instructors to become efficient in family welfare education. It is most important that trainers and instructors in a family welfare education program appreciate the fact that the program is directed to explaining the relationships between the pressure of the labor supply and the well-being of the worker's family. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters of this volume present the following: objectives of International Labor Organization (ILO) Population/Family Welfare Education Program; population concepts and factors affecting population growth (population concepts and factors affecting population growth); population growth and employment; family welfare, living standards, and population change; communication in population/family welfare education; and methods of contraception. The basic objective of most ILO-designed country population education programs is to facilitate the understanding of population and family welfare factors in so far as they affect the working conditions and quality of life of the workers. The programs are generally designed to encourage active involvement and participation of the regular members of the labor force. Implicit in the objectives is the motivation to the acceptance of family planning as a means of fertility regulation. The implementation of a program at the plant level is generally a combination of work undertaken by a trainer and volunteer motivators. The trainer can present the case for family planning welfare through various mediums, and the motivators follow up by talking to colleagues either individually or in small groups.
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  23. 23

    Final act of the International Conference on Human Rights, Teheran, 1968.

    United Nations

    In: United Nations. The United Nations and population: major resolutions and instruments. Dobbs Ferry, New York, Oceana Publications, 1974. 48-51.

    The International Conference on Human Rights met in Teheran from April 22 to May 13, 1968 to review the progress made in the 20 years since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and to formulate a program for the future. The Conference proclaimed the following: 1) the full realization of civil and political rights without the enjoyment of economic, social, and cultural rights is impossible since human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible; 2) the existence of over 700 million illiterates throughout the world is a great obstacle to all efforts at realizing the aims and purposes of the Charter of the UN and the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; 3) the discrimination of which women are still victims in various regions of the world must be eliminated; and 4) the protection of the family and of the child remains the concern of the international community. In the belief that it is timely to draw attention to the connection between population growth and human rights, the International Conference does the following: 1) observes that the present rapid rate of population growth in some areas of the world hampers the struggle against hunger and poverty and reduces the possibility of rapidly achieving adequate standards of living; 2) recognizes that moderation of the present rate of population growth would enhance the conditions for offering greater opportunities for the enjoyment of human rights and the improvement of living conditions for each person; 3) considers that couples have a basic human right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and a right to adequate education and information in this respect; and 4) urges Member States and UN bodies and specialized agencies concerned to give close attention to the implications for the exercise of human rights of the present rapid rate of increase in world population.
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  24. 24

    The state of world population 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1981. 6 p.

    Assesses world population status and prospects in 1981 through a consideration of population projections, historical patterns of population growth, the quickening pace of decline in world population growth rates, regional diversity, the significance of family size, assistance for population programs, and the need for greater commitment to the population control effort. U.N. projections of the level at which world population will stabilize range from 8.0 billion to 14.2 billion; the level will depend on the speed and extent of decline in fertility. Global resources, environment, and development will be severely strained by this large population. Comparison of historical experiences of population decline supports the belief that the demographic transition can be brought about in the less developed countries in the remaining years of this century. The estimated growth rate of 1.73% per year between 1975 and 1980 for the world's population confirms the downward trend in global population growth. The growth rate of developing countries remains higher than it was in 1950-55 despite worldwide family planning efforts. Annual increments in total population will be progressively higher for the rest of this century despite the decline in the annual global growth rate. Different world regions will attain stabilization at different times in the future. South Asia and Africa will account for 60% of the world's total population at the time of stabilization. A large proportion of the world's poor are unable to exercise their right to decide the number of children they want through lack of access to contraception. International assistance to population control programs will continue to be needed into the foreseeable future.
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  25. 25

    United Nations/World Health Organization Meeting on Socio-Economic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, Mexico City, 19-25 June 1979.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Population Bulletin. 1980; (13):60-74.

    The objectives of the United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO) Meeting on Socioeconomic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, held in Mexico City in June 1979, were the following: to review the knowledge of differential mortality and to identify gaps in the understanding of its socioeconomic determinants and consequences; to discuss the methodological and technical problems associated with data collection and analysis; to consider the policy implications of the findings presented and to promote studies on the implications of socioeconomic differentials in mortality on social policy and international development strategies; to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the utilization of the 1980 round of population censuses for in-depth studies of mortality differentials; and to stimulate national and international research on differential mortality. Participants discussed the state of knowledge of socioeconomic differentials and determinants of mortality and described the socioeconomic measures available, the methods of data collection and analysis used, and the findings themselves. A number of characteristics had been employed in the study of differential mortality, and these could be grouped under the following headings: occupation; education; housing; income, wealth; family size; and place of residence. The techniques or methods used to analyze mortality were direct and indirect methods, and these are examined. Inequalities in mortality were found to be closely associated with inequalities in social and economic conditions. Any effort to reduce or remove those inequalities would have to be based on a clear understanding of their causes and interrelationships in order to succeed. Participants indicated a desire to see a resurgence of mortality research, and some research suggestions are outlined.
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