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Gender-based violence in Viet Nam: Strengthening the response by measuring and acting on the social determinants of health. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/4C/2011; Draft Background Paper 4C)The successful completion of the NSDVVN with subsequent dissemination of results and feedback into policymaking demonstrates several key lessons for addressing health inequities by acting on the social determinants of health. First, data collection is time-consuming and costly, but necessary. Selection of research methodology and indicators must be considered and goal-oriented, as the indicators measured (or not) will significantly impact the potential uses of data. Finally, including men in research provides an entry point for men and boys to become agents of social change with respect to policy implementation. Of note, the NSDVVN provided some measure of gender inequality, but root causes are frequently more challenging to quantify than health disparities themselves. The 2011-2020 NSGE has potential to prevent GBV by acting on its key determinant, gender inequality. Viet Nam can now draw upon this research and its increased capacity to more directly assess gender inequality -- a baseline for evaluating the effects of the NSGE and its Plans of Action on gender equality and GBV. (Excerpt)
Measuring and responding to gender-based violence in the Pacific: Action on gender inequality as a social determinant of health. Republic of Kiribati. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/4B/2011; Draft Background Paper 4B)The successful implementation of the FHSS with the subsequent development of responsive policies to tackle the problem of GBV in Kiribati demonstrate several key lessons for other problems to be addressed, perhaps in other contexts. First, data collection is a time-consuming and expensive process, but it is necessary to assess and understand health issues in order to develop responsive policies. Communities and municipalities / provinces should be informed of the study (with a safe name, if deemed necessary) prior to its initiation, so as to facilitate collaboration. If staff capacity and/or expertise is lacking, appropriate sources of support should be identified and utilized, not only to ensure a successful research project, but in order to build national capacity. It was important in Kiribati that government officials carried out the study and follow-up activities -- and that they were publicly perceived to do so. Consistent (and appropriate) stakeholder engagement throughout the intervention was critical for credibility, successful implementation and acceptance of results. The selection of the research methodology must also be considered and goal-oriented: the indicators included in an investigation (or not) will determine, in large part, the information collected and its potential uses. The WHO multi-country study offers a validated methodology for measuring GBV, which has proved to be replicable in the Pacific. The Kiribati FHSS was able to inspire policy responses to both GBV and its key determinant, gender inequality, because it included gender-sensitive indicators and metrics of gender inequality itself (qualitative in this instance). Additionally, the qualitative research sufficiently focused on men, validating while attempting to understand their perspectives so that men and boys may be involved as agents of social change. Given the apparent recognition in Kiribati that gender inequality fuels its epidemic of GBV, monitoring and evaluation of its policies on EVAW and gender equality should include an assessment of gender inequality. The FHSS included some metrics of gender inequality, but as mentioned above, the NAP on EVAW will need to be supplemented by additional monitoring to adequately measure changes in gender inequality. As challenging as it was to accumulate sufficient political will and attention to GBV for completion of the FHSS, a more thorough assessment of gender equality should be conducted so as to provide a baseline against which the effects of the National Policies on Gender Equality and EVAW can be measured. While the determinants of GBV itself -- largely gender equality, are more challenging to quantify than its incidence or prevalence, WHO’s Regional Office for the Western Pacific has identified some indicators of gender equity and repeat focus groups could provide quantitative data. (Excerpt)
Gender-based violence in Solomon Islands: Translating research into action on the social determinants of health. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/4A/2011; Draft Background Paper 4A)The successful implementation of the SIFHSS with resultant policy development provides several key lessons for addressing other health inequities, perhaps in other contexts. First, data collection is a time-consuming and expensive process, but is necessary to effectively understand health issues for responsive policymaking. The selection of research methodology and indicators must be well-considered, comprehensive and goal-oriented: the indicators measured (or not) will significantly determine, the information collected and its potential uses. The WHO multi-country study provides a validated methodology for measuring GBV, replicable in all regions, including the Pacific.The SIFHSS was able to catalyze policy responses to both GBV and its key determinant -- gender inequality -- because, building on WHO methodology, it included gender-sensitive indicators and metrics of gender inequality itself (qualitative in this instance). Furthermore, the qualitative research sufficiently focused on men, at once validating and attempting to understand their perspectives so that men and boys may be meaningfully involved as agents of social change. Second, research implementation should be completed in a context-specific and respectful manner that allows for study rigor as well as the safety and well being of its research team. Recruitment, selection and training are important for the successful completion of the study, and applicants should be given detailed information of the work required and living situation during fieldwork, including time away from home. Positive attitudes and teamwork skills are invaluable. Communities should be informed of the study (with a safe name, if necessary) in advance so as to facilitate collaboration and reduce study team harassment. Travel logistics, accommodation and board in research sites should be anticipated and pre-organized. If staff capacity and/or expertise is lacking, external sources of support should be identified and utilized to ensure a successful project while building national capacity. (Excerpt)
Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle.
Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 503 p.The family is the basic unit of society within which reproductive behavior, socialization patterns, and relations with the community are determined. The concept of the family life cycle provides an important frame of reference for the study of the history of a family traced through its various stages of development. The World Health Organization has developed a comprehensive program relating to the statistical aspects of the interrelationships between health and the family. The main objectives are: 1) to clarify the basic conceptual issues involved and to develop a family life cycle model; 2) to explore the statistical aspects of family-oriented health demography research; 3) to test and apply the methodology to the study of populations at different socioeconomic levels; and 4) to set forth some implications of the findings for social policy, health demography research, and the generation of a database for such studies. Demography research on the family consequences of mortality changes should not be limited to the study of their effect on the size and structure of the family, but should also deal with the impact on the timing of events and the life cycle as a dynamic phenomenon that is subject to change. This publication is from the 1981 Final Meeting on Family Life Cycle Methodology. The background documents fall into 3 main topics: 1) conceptual and methodological issues, 2) review of available evidence on the interaction between mortality and the family life cycle; and 3) case studies.
[National Conference on Fertility and Family, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, April 13, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., a 13 de abril de 1984.
Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 228 p.Proceedings of a national conferences on the family and fertility held in April 1984 as part of Mexico's preparation for the August 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses outline the background and objectives of the conference, while the 1st paper details recommendations of a 1983 meeting on fertility and the family held in New Delhi. The main body of the report presents 2 conference papers and commentary. The 1st paper, on fertility, contraception, and family planning, discusses fertility policies; levels and trends of fertility in Mexico from 1900 to 1970 and since 1970; socioeconomic and geographic fertility differentials; the relationship of mortality and fertility; contraception and the role of intermediate variables; the history and achievements of family planning activities of the private and public sectors in Mexico; and the relationship between contraception, fertility, and family planning. The 2nd paper, on the family as a sociodemographic unit and subject of population policies, discusses the World Population Plan of Action and current sociodemographic policies in Mexico; the family as a sociodemographic unit, including the implications of formal demography for the study of family phenomena, the dynamic sociodemographic composition of the family unit, and the family as a mediating unit for internal and external social actions; and steps in development of a possible population policy in which families would be considered an active part, including ideologic views of the family as a passive object of policy and possible mobilization strategies for families in population policies. The conference as a whole concluded by reaffirming the guiding principles of Mexico's population policy, including the right of couples to decide the number and spacing of their children, the fundamental objective of the population policy of elevating the socioeconomic and cultural level of the population, the view of population policy as an essential element of development policy, and the right of women to full participation. Greater efforts were believed to be necessary in such priority areas as integration of family planning programs with development planning and population policy, creation of methodologies for the analysis of families in their social contexts, development and application of contraceptive methodologies, promotion of male participation in family planning, coordination of federal and state family planning programs, and creation of sociodemographic information systems to ensure availability of more complete date on families in specific population sectors. The principles of the World Population Plan of Action were also reaffirmed.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 107-23. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Family was assinged the identification of those areas in current scientific knowledge and concerns regarding fertility and family that were of greatest salience for policy formulation and implementation. Particular attention was to be paid to shifts that had occurred since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest. This article is mainly an overview of the work of the Group and is organized around 3 main themes: 1) advances in knowledge of fertility levels and trends; 2) advances in understanding the relations between development, fertility and the family; 3)theoretical advances and practical experience with regard to policy formulation and implementation. 1) Knowledge of existing patterns of fertility and their composition has increased markedly over the last decade as a result of more data, better estimation techniques for measuring fertility levels and of new approaches to studying the reporductive process and family formation (e.g., the development of analytical models that allow quantification of the role of the various proximate determinants of fertility). A far-reaching realization is that proximate determinants of fertility may respond to the same set of factors but their responses may exhibit different elasticities. 2) In the understanding the relations between development, fertility and family, 2 main areas of concern can be identified. He level and type of analyses to date, especially the empirical ones, have been carried out at the micro-level, focusing on the individual decision maker. Although such models are advances over earlier ones developed largely from classical demographic transition theory, yet, their use has not been entirely satisfying because of the common failure to adequately specify the concepts involved and/or to substitute for them broad socioeconomic indicators in empirical work. In addition, institutional supports for and interrelations with particular patterns of fertility and family have been neglected, resulting, theoretical and practical impoverishment. The 2nd area of concern is the identification of those dimensions of family structure and function that are most intimately interlocked with modernization and fertility change. The discussion focuses on the interplay between modernization, the relationship between the generations, and between the sexes. Finally, there is an increasing awareness that a number of aspirations regarding fertility and family may be contradictory with respect to general advances in policcy formulation and implementation. 4 important trends can be discerned: 1) assessment of the potential utility and effectiveness of policy and programmatic efforts; 2) trends in the definition of desirable goals; 3) new directions in terms of the institutiona means for achieving these goals; and 4) shifts in the perception of the individual's freedom of choice.
In: Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle. Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 37-63.The population census is a unique opportunity to gather data about families and fertility. For studying the life cycle of the family not only statistics about the family structure are necessary but also about fertility. Family statistics relate to the socio-biological institution of the family. Fertility statistics are calculated on the basis of a question asked to all women about the number of children born to them. The typology of families gives a 1st indication as to the process of family formation or dissolution in relation to marital status. The life cycle of the family usually starts with marriage and ends with the death of the surviving spouse. A review of the UN recommendations for the 1980 round of censuses show that data for the basic model can be derived from census data, if the information about the children born alive is collected. The UN Recommendations for the 1980 population censuses contain topics for which data should be collected and recommendations for the respective tabulations. Besides sex and age, the recommended topics for studying the family life cycle are: 1) marital status, 2) age at marriage, 3) duration of marriage, 4) children born alive (fertility data), 5) children living, 6) relationship to head of family, and 7) family composition. Information on marital status should be collected at least for persons aged 15 and over. The census report should explain clearly the definitions of each tabulated marital status category.
Operationalizing the family life-cycle concept within the context of United Nations recommendations for the 1980 censuses.
In: Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle. Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 65-88.This paper examines current models of the family life-cycle concept, reveals the results of experimentation with operationalizing the concept of an existing data base and comments on the potential of the concept for the 1980 Canadian Censuses. Roy Rodgers identifies 3 periods in the development of the family life cycle as pre-1948, 1948-1964, and post-1964. There are many factors affecting the entry and exit of families to and from the various stages of the life cycle, some of which are merely reflected in a progression through the normative model, but some of which would force the family into a deviant pattern. Operationalizing either the existing models, or models expanded to incorporate deviant life cycles is extremely difficult. The practice of doubling-up families is related to life-cycle differences, as are demands for different types of accommodation and shifts in tenure from owned to rented or vice versa. As there are cross-cultural or cross-ethnic differences in life-cycle patterns, so are there regional and urban-rural differences within Canada with indications that substantive differences in both the normative life cycle as well as deviant patterns are related to urban size groups, rural farms, and rural non-farm configurations. A new typology for 1981 Census publications, in many cases in cross-classifications showing socioeconomic characteristics of the families as well as characteristics of their accommodation, is proposed. 1 tabulation will show families by life cycle stage, by number of children and characteristics such as source and average income, percentage of income spent on shelter, availability of central heating, and size of dwelling.