Your search found 34 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    From the girl child to girls' rights.

    Croll EJ

    Third World Quarterly. 2006; 27(7):1285-1297.

    Within the development context, much of the new interest in girls has occurred under the rubric 'the girl child', which has become an increasingly common phrase on international and national platforms. This paper, based largely on field and documentary research across East, South and Southeast Asia, suggests that this platform has not translated into effective, sustained or transformative national programmes or local projects in support of girls. It also argues that the cause of girls might be served better by an emphasis on girls' rights embedded in frameworks that both gender entitlements and expectations of children and take campaigns directly into the familial environment. (author's)
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  2. 2

    1994 proclaimed 'Year of the Family'; rededication to social progress asked - by General Assembly.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1):[2] p..

    The Year will highlight global awareness of family issues and the improvement of national mechanisms directed at tackling serious family-related problems. Also on 8 December, the Assembly commemorated (44/57) the 20th anniversary of the proclamation in 1969 of the Declaration on Social Progress and Development. The Assembly asked (44/70) for increased international co-operation to implement the World Programme of Action for the UN Decade of Disabled Persons 1983-1992. Margaret J. Anstee, Director-General of the UN Office at Vienna, warned that by the end of the century, the number of disabled people would have risen to 30 to 40 per cent of the population of some countries. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Exploitation of women workers in family enterprises decried - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Jun; 28(2):[1] p..

    Women who work in family enterprises without payment are being exploited, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) declared, calling for guaranteed payment, social security and social benefits for them. As it concluded its tenth annual session (21 January-1 February, New York), the Committee also recommended that the value of women's domestic work be added to countries' gross national products. Nations should provide information on disabled women and on measures taken to ensure equal access for them to education, employment, health services and social security. The 23-member watchdog body monitors how countries implement the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Families at risk: UN tackles the challenge - proposals to help unfortunate families - International Year of the Family, 1994 - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1):[3] p..

    In today's world, many families face daunting challenges that threaten their ability to function and, indeed, to survive. Disease, war, poverty, famine, environmental problems, unemployment, drugs, crime and the scourge of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are taxing families in both the developing and developed worlds, often beyond their ability to cope. "War and political conflict are widespread today, and they exact a heavy toll", said the Secretary-General at the launching of the international Year of the Family on 7 December. "Separation and loss physically threaten family cohesion. Trauma and displacement inflict overwhelming emotional distress. Economically, unplanned development disrupts traditional patterns of family life. Industrial strategies are often pursued with little regard for their impact upon the family. The inability of some families to provide for themselves weakens family cohesion and undermines self-respect." (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    World population ageing: 1950-2050.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2001. [48] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/207)

    The Population Division of the United Nations has a long tradition of studying population ageing, including estimating and projecting older populations, and examining the determinants and consequences of population ageing. From the groundbreaking report on population ageing in 1956, which focused mainly on population ageing in the more developed countries, to the first United Nations wallchart on population ageing issues published in 1999, the Population Division has consistently sought to bring population ageing to the attention of the international community. The present report is intended to provide a solid demographic foundation for the debates and follow-up activities of the Second World Assembly on Ageing. The report considers the process of population ageing for the world as a whole, for more and less developed regions, major areas and regions, and individual countries. Demographic profiles covering the period 1950 to 2050 are provided for each country, highlighting the relevant indicators of population ageing. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Parents providing care to adult sons and daughters with HIV / AIDS in Thailand. UNAIDS case study.

    Saengtienchai C; Knodel J

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2001 Nov. [132] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/01.72E; National Institute on Aging Grant No. AG15983)

    This study provides a qualitative analysis of the circumstances and consequences of parental caregiving to adult children with AIDS in Thailand based on open-ended interviews, primarily with parents of adult children who died of AIDS. The results reveal the circumstances that lead to parental caregiving, the tasks involved and the stress they created, how parents coped with this stress, and the consequences for their emotional, social and economic well-being. The results make clear that routine caregiving to those with AIDS often requires extensive time from the main caregiver. Caregiving assistance is especially needed in the final stage of illness when the AIDS-afflicted person often requires help with even basic bodily needs and functions. Financial demands can also accumulate to the point where the adult son/daughter’s and parents’ own resources are exhausted. Such a situation can be overwhelming for anyone, but it is particularly so for an older person. With varying degrees of success, Thai parents often solicit the help of other family members in caregiving, paying expenses and providing emotional support. In addition, viewing their role in terminal-stage caregiving as part of the responsibility that parents have for their children (regardless of age), refusing to view the child as a burden, and avoiding blaming their son/daughter for becoming infected, all help Thai parents cope with the emotional stress of caring for their terminally ill son or daughter. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    The Secretary-General's global call to action against HIV / AIDS. Fact sheet.

    United Nations Special Session on HIV / AIDS (2001: New York)

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun 9. [2] p. (DPI/2214/F)

    This fact sheet presents five priorities for action, six key factors to achieve these goals, and recommends partnering to carry out the campaign.
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  8. 8

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on HIV / AIDS and Families.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on HIV / AIDS and Families

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 30-2. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    All social policies dealing with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) must be scrutinized in terms of their impact on the family, specifically enhancement of the family unit to cope with the impact of AIDS and promotion of an integrated approach in which families are kept together whenever possible. Thus, health and social welfare interventions should seek to support and complement the family as a functional unit rather than to replace it. Family counseling and self- help groups should be organized to enhance coping skills and prevent family disruption. Young families in particular lack the problem solving skills required to deal with the crisis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the marital conflict this diagnosis creates. Not only can infected individuals become isolated within their own families, but the family unit itself is often shunned by the community. The psychosocial stress is exacerbated by the poverty that results from the frequent loss of work and income. HIV-infected illicit drug users tend to isolate themselves from sources of medical care and are unable to provide infected offspring with the care required. The families of homosexual and bisexual men may become aware of the parent's sexual orientation at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection. Uninfected mothers become overwhelmed with dealing with unpredictable medical needs of family members under conditions of economic and emotional stress, and there is a need for respite care. Since women play a key role in maintaining the family unit, government policies should seek to empower women and children to express their own needs.
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  9. 9

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on the Psychosocial Aspects of HIV Infection / AIDS in Mothers and Children.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on the Psychosocial Aspects of HIV Infection / AIDS in Mothers and Children

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 33-5. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    Sensitive attention to the psychosocial impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on mothers and children and the maternal-child bond must be an integral part of all health and social service programs. Comprehensive, community-based counseling services must be available to help family members deal with issues such as guilt, fear, rejection, and discrimination. Given the centrality of motherhood to the self- definition and self-esteem of many women, HIV-infected women often choose to bear children, yet may experience extreme guilt when HIV is transmitted to their infant. HIV-infected children face neurodevelopmental disabilities that my be exacerbated by family poverty, homelessness, malnutrition, a lack of access to adequate medical care, and serious physical and psychological problems in the parents. These children should receive early intervention from physiotherapists, speech and language therapists, psychologists, and social workers. Although HIV-infected children should have the opportunity to interact with other children with confidentiality maintained, parents must decide how and when to inform a child of his or her HIV status. A neglected group is the uninfected siblings, who may encounter stigmatization outside the home and inappropriate nursing care burdens in the home. Respite care for these siblings and HIV-infected children should be considered when a parent is acutely ill. Children orphaned by HIV disease should be guaranteed the potential of normal development through placement in foster care or adoption.
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  10. 10

    The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.

    New Internationalist Publications

    [Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.

    This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
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  11. 11

    Children of AIDS: Africa's Orphan Crisis, by Emma Guest. Book review.

    Franklin L

    AIDS Analysis Africa. 2002 Feb-Mar; 12(5):2-3.

    This book review notes that the AIDS epidemic is altering the population pyramid to one which has many children at the base, a fair number of elderly people at the top, and precious few middle-aged people in the middle to support them. The book poses the single question that the South African government has been avoiding: how will the children be cared for and who will take responsibility for them? In recording the stories of children cared for by grandmothers, aunts and older sisters, author Emma Guest confirms that the African extended family continues to shoulder the burden of the epidemic. The book also documents some inspirational innovation and hope in the face of seeming hopelessness, asserting that not only are orphans the most vulnerable group in this crisis, they are also struggling to survive within the context of open discrimination. Moreover, guest details the efforts of international aid agencies in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Africa.
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  12. 12

    Creating violence-free families: a symposium summary report, New York, 23-25 May, 1994.

    Friedman SA

    New York, New York, Baha'i International Community, 1994. [4] p.

    This is a summary report on the Symposium on Creating Violence-Free Families initiated by the Baha'i International Community's Office for the Advancement of Women in collaboration with the UN Children's Fund and the UN Development Fund for Women. Grassroots practitioners, academics, mental health professionals, and representatives from more than 30 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and two UN agencies attended the symposium. Participants agreed that domestic violence affects all aspects of society and human development. They explored strategies and raised questions concerning prevention as well as intervention. The symposium derived the following conclusions: 1) family violence must be publicly acknowledged as a problem; 2) the social and economic costs of family violence are incalculable; 3) family violence is a human development issue; 4) family violence is a human rights issue; 5) a violent society produces violent families; 6) family violence must be addressed by the world community; 7) NGOs play a major role; 8) the media must stop glorifying violence; and 9) educational systems need to redesign curricula, texts, sports programs, and other activities to promote gender equality. Recommendations for research, education, training, advocacy, services and international and national legislation are also provided.
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  13. 13

    Role of men in the lives of children. A study of how improving knowledge about men in families helps strengthen programming for children and women.

    Foumbi J; Lovich R

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1997 Dec 1. [3], 37 p.

    This background paper on the role that men play in the lives of children and women opens by presenting the rationale for the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) support of activities focused on men and boys. This is followed by a review of UNICEF's initiatives to involve men in development programs created for children and women and of current literature on studies and projects that have considered 1) the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of men about issues that affect child health, educational achievement, and general welfare and 2) the male perspective on gender roles, women's employment, violence, and socialization of children. Lessons learned include 1) men play unique and positive roles in the lives of their children and can be persuaded to support efforts to reduce gender inequality, 2) family roles and relationships are changing, 3) socialization is crucial, 4) a life cycle approach is needed to improve family relationships, 5) male-focused strategies can integrate men in problem-focused projects, and 6) men can be motivated to act in the best interests of their children. When developing programs, the first step in creating strategies to involve men in the lives of children is to analyze the situation. The paper also discusses specific strategies and basic program components to involve men in efforts to improve the situation for children and women and describes expected outcomes of such male-targeted outcomes in terms of assessing 1) role changes, 2) the value of male-focused strategies on defined project goals, and 3) other special gains for women.
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  14. 14

    Families take care. World AIDS Day.

    POPULI. 1995 Jan; 22(12):4.

    The theme of World AIDS Day, December 1, 1994, is "AIDS and the Family." It was chosen by the World Health Organization (WHO) because 1994 is the International Year of the Family. According to WHO's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA), nearly 14 million persons were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1994. Families of persons infected with HIV face losses of income, care, nurturing, stability, and food, as well as emotional loss, when these people sicken and die. The GPA definition of family extends to "any group of people linked by feelings of trust, mutual support, and a common destiny. The concept need not be limited to ties of blood, marriage, sexual partnership, or adoption." All families should protect their members from HIV and care for those who fall ill. 700,000 children in Africa were born to HIV-positive women in 1993. These children will be orphaned or, if infected, die. Unless family members step forward to support these children, they will turn to prostitution to survive and spread the virus further. Almost 50% of newly infected adults are women (WHO). As the traditional care-givers, uninfected women are affected by HIV in the family. In some societies, women widowed by AIDS are rejected and stripped of their belongings. WHO Director General Hiroshi Nakajima states that compassionate families with bonds based on love, trust, nurture, and openness are best able to protect their family members and to care for and support those members who are infected with HIV. GPA Executive Director Michael Merson adds that youth learn about safe behavior and nondiscrimination in families.
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  15. 15

    AIDS care in the family.

    Anderson S; Kaleeba N


    The number of people falling ill as a result of HIV infection will rise dramatically in coming years, regardless of existing prevention efforts. Since AIDS is a chronic disease lasting months or years, the home is increasingly the option of choice for care for both sick individuals and health care systems. If the majority of people living with AIDS are to receive care within the family, a comprehensive range of medical, nursing, and counselling services must exist from hospital to home. The best care depends on a continuity of services, with referrals to help the sick receive comprehensive services as close to the home as possible. When care moves out of health care facilities into the family, community dynamics enter the picture. People living with AIDS, and sometimes the families caring for them, may be rejected. Without support, communities and families may abandon their traditional caring roles, and AIDS patients may be left homeless. The booklet of the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) entitled Living with AIDS in the community aims to help individuals, families, and communities to live positively with AIDS. In considering family care, the effect of HIV/AIDS on households is immense. Spending on care for AIDS patients may reduce the amount available for the health care of other family members. Communities should develop supportive networks composed of neighbors, religious groups and clubs in order to avoid the full burden falling on female members of the family. Care provided by family, friends or neighbors is not devoid of problems. Many may be worried about their lack of knowledge or about giving emotional support to someone who is terminally ill. They may also fear catching AIDS themselves. GPA recently published an AIDS Home Care Handbook to help health care workers teach and guide families.
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  16. 16

    Battered dreams. Gender violence and development.

    Carrillo R

    POPULI. 1992 Nov; 19(5):7-9.

    In a 1988 survey of issues of concern to women's groups in developing countries, MATCH International, a Canadian nongovernmental organization (NGO), found that violence against women was the most frequent problem raised. In the United States, as rape occurs every 6 minutes and domestic battery causes more injuries to women than car accidents, rapes, and muggings together according to the National Center on Women and Family Law. Almost 1 in 4 women will be physically abused by a current or former partner at some point in their lives, according to the American Medical Associations. 3 different studies showed consistently that women were battered even when pregnant, and 25-62% of those surveyed where in shelters for battered women. Police report that domestic disputes account for 40-60% of the calls they receive. Reports from France suggest 95% of all victims of violence are women, 51% of these at the hands of their own husbands. In Denmark, 25% of women cite violence as the reason for divorce. A 3-year study in Austria uncovered a high level of wife abuse, as did official statistics from Poland. UN data in 1989 showed that about 1/2 of murder victims in the United Kingdom were killed by their husbands, lovers, or boyfriends. The Mexican Federation of Women Trade Unions reported that 95% of women workers were victims of sexual harassment committed with impunity. In a 1990 survey of child prostitution in Cochabamba, Bolivia, 79% of the girls said they became prostitutes after becoming victims of incest and rape by male relatives. At all 3 World Conference on Women (Mexico City 1975, Copenhagen 1980, and Nairobi 1985), activists demanded women's full participation in society. The United Nations Nairobi document with the forceful Resolution 258 calls for prevention and institutional assistance to women victims of violence encountered in everyday life in all societies.
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  17. 17

    Women and AIDS in Zimbabwe.

    Ray S

    In: Tradition and transition: NGOs respond to AIDS in Africa, edited by Mary Anne Mercer, Sally J. Scott. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Institute for International Programs, 1991 Jun. 15-22.

    Many people at risk of HIV infection are changing their behavior drastically when they are referred for HIV testing, as a result of more access to information. Featured as a theme for World AIDS Day, women are particularly vulnerable, since they have less power than men to influence their interpersonal relationships. Women with HIV/AIDS often are asked to make the unrealistic decision to avoid childbearing, but the status of a women in Africa depends on her reproductive ability. The traditional role of women as caregivers both as professional health workers, or in home care, is critical in HIV/AIDS disease. Preservation of the health of the 5-14 age group, who is uninfected, is a priority. Adolescents must be specially targeted in preventive counseling on the consequences of early sexual activity such as teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Sex education in the schools should start at a much earlier age. Studies in Zimbabwe show that women are being infected 5-10 years earlier than men, and there are even cases in 15, 16, and 17 year old women. Most HIV-infected people are afraid of being ostracized or fired from jobs. Women have lost their jobs when their HIV status became known, although the Minister of Health has issued a directive that HIV infection is not a valid reason for discharging an employee. Women are especially vulnerable because they may be rejected by their families and their partners, while having small children who also may be infected. Empowerment of women is needed so that destructive relationships do not continue only because of economic dependence. Ministries of Health, Labor, and Social Welfare need to develop strategies with NGOs to cope with demand to find resources for increasing numbers of desperate people. Community-based care is ideal, and positive trends are emerging to combat the destructive effects of AIDS that divide families leaving the most vulnerable uncared for.
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  18. 18

    Food, family, God and earth: compete for the whole.

    Spivy-Weber F

    In: Growing our future: food security and the environment, edited by Katie Smith, Tetsunao Yamamori. West Hartford, Connecticut, Kumarian Press, 1992. 118-20. (Kumarian Press Library of Management for Development)

    The balance between food, family, God, and earth is considered by the Navajo and delegates to the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) as a prerequisite for restoring the environment. These priorities function as ideals at the individual, family, tribe, regional, national, and world levels. These priorities must be continuously checked and rechecked even after the Earth Summit. In the US, the circle of food, family, God, and earth leans more toward livelihood. More emphasis is needed on nature, family, and spiritual values. People are changing life styles in the direction of recycling, watching their diets, engaging in political action, and using the Earth's and natural resources in less destructive ways. There is a town in Florida that annually measures the quality of life of its citizenry, and adjusts local politics or state and federal policies to improve the standard. In Arcadia, California the political splits over the Gulf War were so great that agreement on local issues was impeded until the disagreements were aired over television in a 3-hour dispute resolution. The Earth summit asks ordinary people to express their views on what needs and should be done clearly and demonstrably. The UN is open to organization participation; television and telecommunications make this possible. The limitations are only ingenuity, occasionally money, and willingness. Energy policy is high on the agenda, and speaking out will assure that politicians do what you want rather than what politicians want. Any other issue is also open to the opportunity to action, e.g., food security, water quality, and poverty. Collective political voices are powerful. Collective effort not competition to be first is needed.
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  19. 19

    Adolescence education. Social aspects. Module two.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. [2], 73 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    The revised UNESCO secondary school teaching manual provides lessons on family life education. Materials are based on the those available from the Population Education Clearing House. 4 Modules cover various aspects of adolescence education: Module 1, Physical Aspects; Module 2, Social Aspects; Module 3, Sex Roles; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. This report on the Social Aspects begins with a general discussion of the program and conceptual framework for the adolescence education package. 6 lessons are included in this module. Lesson 2.1 is devoted to adolescent sexuality or sexual behavior. Each lesson has a set of objectives, time required, and materials, and usually has procedures, information sheet, and suggested activities outlines. Lesson 2.2 is concerned with sexuality in childhood and adolescence. Lesson 2.3 deals with love. Lesson 2.4 consists of dating and relationships. Lesson 2.5 provides information on adolescent pregnancy in terms of the growing number and the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the premarital and marital states. The other objective is to explore individual feelings and attitudes about adolescent pregnancy and sexual behavior. Lesson 2.6 is on a moral code of ethics, their roles and function. An example of the information sheet on love is as follows: several paragraphs describe various aspects of love as sharing, caring, action, time and sacrifice, not always agreement, a relationship, the glue to hold families together, and so on. There are different types of love: love for parents, love among siblings, love for friends, conjugal love. Mature love is differentiated from immature love by the degree of caring about the other person as more important to you than having the other person care for you. Immature love is the reverse where one is more concerned with having the other person care about you and involves more taking than giving. Communication is sometimes blocked in order to avoid hurting the other's feelings, is directed to another instead of directly to one's partner, or is misdirected to a small action instead of focusing on the larger concern. Partners must conscientiously work on getting through to each other. Spontaneity and mutual confidence will develop as each becomes more comfortable with the other.
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  20. 20

    [Rural-rural migration: the case of the colonies] Migracion rural-rural el caso de las colonias.

    Blanes J; Calderon F; Dandler J; Prudencio J; Lanza L

    In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.

    A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    The return of international labour migrants in the ESCAP Region.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):129-45.

    The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for the sending countries; relationships between employers and employees, the government and private sectors, and white and blue collar workers are affected. Social change and technological innovation will become more rapid, women's status and family roles will change markedly, and behavior is likely to become less conformist and more individualistic. (author's modified)
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  22. 22

    [Introduction to the Second Latin American Seminar on the Migrant Woman] Introduccion al Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano sobre la Mujer Migrante.

    Goldschmidt I

    In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 7-12.

    Social Service International (SSI) is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization which aids individuals who require assistance because of voluntary or forced expatriation or who require help for other social problems of an international character. Each national office is completely autonomous in its country and can adapt its programs to local needs. The General Secretariat in Geneva strives to assure that high quality services are maintained in each country. SSI has 17 national offices as well as volunteer correspondents in over 100 countries. SSI assists an average of 150,000 refugees and migrants in over 160 countries each year. In recent years Latin America has seen a massive increase in international migration because of political and economic problems. The consequences for families have been disastrous, but no adequate infrastructure has yet been developed to assist migrants and their families or to take preventive measures. Programs for training specialized personnel such as social workers and psychologists are also lacking. Private social agencies to aid recently arrived migrants have existed for many years in countries with histories of significant immigration, but they have tended to be limited to persons of a single nationality or religion and to have few specialized professional workers. SSI's 2nd major objective is to study the conditions and consequences of migration for individuals and families. Latin American women live in patriarchal societies whose norms still marginalize them or limit their participation. Women who migrate face discrimination in employment and education in addition to their other problems. The conclusions and recommendations of the seminar on migrant women are intended to improve understanding of the situation of such women at the regional and local level and to alert governmental and nongovernmental international organizations of the need for programs to improve the circumstances of migrant women.
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  23. 23

    UNESCO/IPDC Regional Seminar on the Media and the African Family, Livingstone, Zambia, 6-10 January 1986. Report.

    UNESCO. International Programme for the Development of Communication

    [Unpublished] 1986 Jan. v, 63 p.

    A seminar was planned and conducted by UNESCO's Population Division during January 1986 to promote increased media attention to issues which affect family stability and welfare. Especially important are the social, economic, and health problems created by high rates of population growth, urbanization, and migration. The seminar intended to give participants an opportunity to: examine the changing characteristics and emergin problems of the African family; review and appraise both past and current efforts on the part of the media to promote understanding of the interrelationships between socioeconomic conditions and family welfare, composition, stability, and size; and develop plans to increase the involvement and effectiveness of the media in promoting understanding of these interrelationships and in enabling families to make decisions and take action to enhance their welfare and stability. This report of the seminar is presented in 2 sections. The 1st section presents the participants' review of the changing nature of the African family over recent decades and the socioeconomic and sociocultural problems which have emerged as a consequence of these changes. Additionally, the 1st section reviews the extent to which communication systems in the region have tried to deal with the population related issues which affect family welfare. A "Communication Plan of Action" is proposed by the participants as a logical outcome of their 2 analyses and as a synthesis of their recommendations for the manner in which communication systems in the region must develop in order to meet ongoing and future population-family life changes. The Plan of Action identifies the following strategies as necessary to realize the increased involvement of the media in family issues and problems: institutionalizing population family life content within the curricula of media training institutions within the region; intensifying preservice and inservice training of media personnel to enable them to deal effectively with the demographic, social, and economic issues which impinge upon family welfare; highlighting population family life communication matters; ensuring that research on population family life issues be widely disseminated to media personnel and media based organizations; sensitizing political and administrative decisionmakers to population family life issues so that media communication can be supported and opportunities for media coverage can be extended; emphasizing in national development plans the importance of the media in generating public awareness of and response to the constraints placed upon national development and improved family welfare by rapid population growth and large-scale urban migration; and encouraging the involvement of community organizations in media programs. The 2nd section of the report includes the participants examination of the communication planning process.
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  24. 24

    Growing up in a changing world. Part two: youth organizations and family life education: ideas into action.

    Fordham J

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Programme Development Dept., 1985. 107 p.

    This publication, Part 2 of "Growing up in a Changing World," was produced by the International Planned Parenthood Federation at the request of the Informal Working Group on Family Life Education. It provides practical guidelines for organizations that want to incorporate family life education into their program. Whereas Part 1 focused on the concept of family life education, Part 2 provides concrete material on training and project activities. A basic training program for youth leaders should include specific content areas in family life education and the use of participatory learning methods so leaders can organize educational activities for other young people in the community. The training should cover the communication process and give youth leaders practice in organizing group discussions. Project planning, management, and evaluation are also important aspects of leadership training. The activities suggested in this publication are all participatory in approach and based on the belief that people learn best through activities in which their own knowledge and experience are valued. The descriptions of activities include the following components: introduction, objectives, materials, time, preparation, and procedure. Of importance is assessment of the suitability of these sample activities for use with specific groups of young people. In considering suitability, 3 factors should be kept in mind: 1) there may be opposition by parents or religious leaders to subjects concerned with sex education and family planning, and ways should be sought to overcome this resistance; 2) activities must be appropriate to the learning abilities, characteristics, and circumstances of the target population; and 3) speical care is needed when developing or adapting activities for use with young people who are illiterate.
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  25. 25

    [National Conference on Fertility and Family, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, April 13, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., a 13 de abril de 1984.

    Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]

    Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 228 p.

    Proceedings of a national conferences on the family and fertility held in April 1984 as part of Mexico's preparation for the August 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses outline the background and objectives of the conference, while the 1st paper details recommendations of a 1983 meeting on fertility and the family held in New Delhi. The main body of the report presents 2 conference papers and commentary. The 1st paper, on fertility, contraception, and family planning, discusses fertility policies; levels and trends of fertility in Mexico from 1900 to 1970 and since 1970; socioeconomic and geographic fertility differentials; the relationship of mortality and fertility; contraception and the role of intermediate variables; the history and achievements of family planning activities of the private and public sectors in Mexico; and the relationship between contraception, fertility, and family planning. The 2nd paper, on the family as a sociodemographic unit and subject of population policies, discusses the World Population Plan of Action and current sociodemographic policies in Mexico; the family as a sociodemographic unit, including the implications of formal demography for the study of family phenomena, the dynamic sociodemographic composition of the family unit, and the family as a mediating unit for internal and external social actions; and steps in development of a possible population policy in which families would be considered an active part, including ideologic views of the family as a passive object of policy and possible mobilization strategies for families in population policies. The conference as a whole concluded by reaffirming the guiding principles of Mexico's population policy, including the right of couples to decide the number and spacing of their children, the fundamental objective of the population policy of elevating the socioeconomic and cultural level of the population, the view of population policy as an essential element of development policy, and the right of women to full participation. Greater efforts were believed to be necessary in such priority areas as integration of family planning programs with development planning and population policy, creation of methodologies for the analysis of families in their social contexts, development and application of contraceptive methodologies, promotion of male participation in family planning, coordination of federal and state family planning programs, and creation of sociodemographic information systems to ensure availability of more complete date on families in specific population sectors. The principles of the World Population Plan of Action were also reaffirmed.
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