Your search found 39 Results

  1. 1
    312466

    Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence.

    Butchart A; Harvey AP; Mian M; Furniss T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. [98] p.

    There is thus an increased awareness of the problem of child maltreatment and growing pressure on governments to take preventive action. At the same time, the paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of interventions raises concerns that scarce resources may be wasted through investment in well-intentioned but unsystematic prevention efforts whose effectiveness is unproven and which may never be proven. For this reason, the main aim of this guide is to provide technical advice for setting up policies and programmes for child maltreatment prevention and victim services that take into full account existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions and that use the scientific principles of the public health approach. This will encourage the implementation of scientifically testable interventions and their evaluation. It is hoped that, in this way, the guide will contribute to a geographical expansion of the evidence base to include more evaluations of interventions from low-income and middle-income countries, and a greater variety of evaluated interventions. The long-term aim is to be able to prepare evidence-based guidelines on interventions for child maltreatment. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    289974
    Peer Reviewed

    The National Breastfeeding Policy in Nigeria: the working mother and the law.

    Worugji IN; Etuk SJ

    Health Care for Women International. 2005 Aug; 26(7):534-554.

    In this article, we examine the National Breastfeeding Policy in Nigeria, the extent to which the law guarantees and protects the maternity rights of the working mother, and the interplay between the law and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Our aim is to make people aware of this interplay to lead to some positive efforts to sanitize the workplace and shield women from some of the practices against them in employment relations in Nigeria as well as encourage exclusive breastfeeding by employed mothers. We conclude that the provisions of the law in this regard are not in accord with the contemporary international standards for the protection of pregnancy and maternity. It does not guarantee and protect the freedom of the nursing mother to exclusively breastfeed the child for at least the 6 months as propagated by Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the National Breastfeeding Policy. Moreover, there is no enabling law to back up the National Policy Initiative as it affects employer and employee relations. We, therefore, suggest a legal framework for effective implementation of the National Breastfeeding Policy for women in dependent labour relations. It is hoped that such laws will not only limit some of the practices against women in employment but also will encourage and promote exclusive breastfeeding behaviour by employed mothers. (author's)
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  3. 3
    099389

    National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.

    Malaysia. National Population and Family Development Board. Technical Working Group for ICPD

    [Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. [4], 64 p.

    Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
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  4. 4
    087732

    Workers, [with] Family Responsibilities Convention. [Status].

    International Labour Organisation [ILO]

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Tenth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1993. 289.

    On 9 June 1992, Slovenia became a party to this Convention. The Convention requires that parties accept as their national policy that men and women with family responsibilities should be able to exercise their right to work without discrimination against them because of these responsibilities. The Convention applies to workers with dependent children and workers with other family responsibilities.
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  5. 5
    086760

    Workers Family Responsibilities Convention. [Ratification update].

    International Labour Organisation [ILO]

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, 9th Cumulative Suppl., compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1992. 255.

    The following countries became parties to the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention during 1990-1991: a) Australia, 30 March 1990; and b) Ethiopia, 28 January 1991. The Convention requires that workers accept as their national policy that men and women with family responsibilities should be able to exercise their right to work without discrimination against them because of their responsibilities. The Convention applies to workers with dependent children and workers with other family responsibilities.
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  6. 6
    087721

    [Resolution No.] 47/5. Proclamation on Ageing [16 October 1992].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-SEVENTH SESSION. 1993; 1:13-4.

    This document contains the text of the 1992 UN General Assembly's Proclamation on Aging. The Proclamation notes that an unprecedented aging of populations is taking place and that this is occurring at an especially rapid pace in developing countries and reaffirms the 1982 International Plan of Action on Aging and the UN Principles for Older Persons. The international community is urged to promote implementation of the International Plan of Action on Aging, to disseminate widely the Principles for Older Persons, to support programs addressing the aging of populations, to strengthen the Trust Fund for Aging, to include older persons in development programs, to create awareness about population aging and related matters, and to provide the resources urgently needed to adjust to "humanity's coming of age." National incentives on aging should be supported in the context of national cultures and conditions to achieve appropriate policies and programs, should view older people as contributors to society not burdens, should seek to create a balance between tradition and innovation in development, should respond to the special needs of older women and older men, and should support families providing care to aging relatives.
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  7. 7
    078624

    Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November 1989.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:95, 485-501.

    This document contains the text of the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention opens with a preamble which notes, among other things, that children are entitled to special care and assistance, that the family is the natural environment for the nurturing of children, and that international cooperation is important for improving the living conditions of children, especially in developing countries. Part 1 of the Convention contains 41 Articles which specify the rights of children to such things as protection against discrimination; proper care and protection; survival and development; a name and nationality; a unified family; freedom of expression, thought, conscience, religion, association, and peaceful assembly; access to information; adoption; having special needs met (in the case of handicapped children); health; social security; an adequate standard of living; education; rest and leisure; and protection from economic exploitation, illegal drugs, and sexual abuse. In addition, no child under the age of 15 years should serve in any armed forces. Parts 2 and 3 of the Convention deal with administrative issues such as the establishment of a Committee on the Rights of the Child as well as ratification, reservations, amendments, and denouncements of the Convention.
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  8. 8
    097305

    Health and the family: introduction.

    WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS QUARTERLY. RAPPORT TRIMESTRIEL DE STATISTIQUES SANITAIRES MONDIALES. 1993; 46(4):212-3.

    Securing family health might be possible through reliable data collection from surveys or surveillance systems that can help to identify subgroups at risk and to find cost effective, sustainable, and appropriate adaptations to local problems. Women and children have become more vulnerable, as societies change. During periods of crisis, such as in disaster situations, a nation's success in responding depends on the strength of the health and social infrastructure and its development status. Families also need support. Lee Nah Hsu and Oussama Tawil discussed the impact of drug abuse on families and the role of the family and social network in prevention and treatment. The public health system must be prepared to identify and implement health interventions that will allow families to be sustained and shoulder the burdens of social and economic change. There can be shared responsibility between families and communities for health and well being. Key issues for women will be integrating health care into systems of child care (Judith Evans and P.M. Shah articles in World Health Statistics Quarterly) and the mental health of women (Lorraine Dennerstein's article). The status of women is changing, but the "double burden" of home and work jeopardizes women's health. Stress related diseases now affect women also. A family's ability to protect its family members has been weakened by poverty, industrialization, environmental degradation, migration, and war. Some social change has been positive, as in the case of medicine and clean water. The family unit is no longer two parents with children. The family has been addressed in this issue of WHO Statistics Quarterly as a contribution to the UN 1994 designation of 1994 as the International Year of the Family.
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  9. 9
    101391

    Country statement submitted by the government of Lithuania.

    Lithuania

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 227-33.

    Assessment of the demographic situation in Lithuania is difficult because of interactive changes in economic and social conditions, policy, and demographic structure. The net reproduction rate until the 1990s was near one. After the 1990s, fertility declined and emigration increased. The population declined to 3,751,000 in 1993. There is an increase in the aging of population; in 1992, the proportion over 60 years of age was 16.5%. Fertility decline contributed the most to population aging, and the substantial immigration prior to 1990 slowed the aging process, whereas mortality had little impact. Net immigration prior to 1990, which was primarily within the republics of the former USSR, was about 7-9000 annually. Immigration was 21,900 in 1988 and 6,200 in 1992. Net emigration was -21,500 in 1992. Jewish emigration was high, partly because of receiving country policies. In 1990, family policy was formulated to broaden financial support for families with children. Since 1991, the health of the population has deteriorated. In 1991, the number of disabled among the working age population increased 30%. Life expectancy was 70.5 in 1992; with female life expectancy about 11 years higher. 55.3% of all mortality is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Health care policy is being formulated according to WHO health principles and with an emphasis on life styles, environment, and primary health care issues. Short- and long-term policy measures will be in accordance with principles of equity and human justice. Programs will be monitored and evaluated.
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  10. 10
    101390

    Country statement submitted by the government of the Republic of Latvia.

    Latvia

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 221-6.

    Conscious efforts to increase population began after 1980 in Latvia, and the government adopted longterm plans in 1986 to increase social development, life expectancy, and the net reproduction rate. At present, although abortions exceed births, the total fertility rate is approaching replacement level. Divorce decreased and leisure time for working women increased. After independence in 1990, a new demographic program was established to support families, increase fertility, regulate employment, and provide social protection, balanced migration and population distribution, humane living conditions, and health care for all. In 1992, a Demographic Commission was charged with drafting a population policy. Prior to 1991, immigration to Latvia was the highest in Europe; thereafter, immigration has declined. Policy has been established with the goal of zero immigration and repatriation or emigration of foreigners. There is no family policy per se, but allowances and financial subsidies are provided to at-home mothers with children and to pregnant women. Contraception is available at public and private facilities, and family size is individually determined. Abortion is legal. Although sterilizations are permitted, vasectomies have not been performed. Motor vehicle accidents and suicide contribute to a high proportion of deaths. Cardiovascular disease and cancer are other major causes of death. Maternal health is considered poor. Health and mortality conditions are reflective of unhealthy life styles and insufficient medical care. Economic conditions inhibit investment in health care improvements. Latvia is involved in population conferences and UN initiatives.
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  11. 11
    101404

    Country statement submitted by the government of Turkey.

    Turkey

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 341-54.

    In Turkey, the proportion of nuclear families has increased from 58.1% to 73% over the past 20 years. Household size averages 4.8 persons, and average age at marriage is 18.2 years. 0.79% of women are divorced and 8.05% are widowed. 20% of marriages are consanguineous, and 1.6% are polygamous. There are 8.3% religious-only marriages, which do not protect the rights of women. In 1983, Turkey accepted a more liberal fertility regulation policy, making abortion legal and emphasizing family planning. The crude birth rate declined from 51/1000 in 1933-53 to 29/1000 at present. The crude death rate declined from 31.4/1000 to 8/1000. Total fertility dropped from 6.6 to 4. Annual growth is 2.2%, and the government desires an annual growth rate of 1.5% by the year 2000. Contraceptive prevalence is 77%, of which 38% is for effective methods. A separate Women's Ministry is being established to increase the status of women and raise literacy among women. Life expectancy is 64.3 years for males and 66.6 years for females. 50% of child mortality occurs in infants. Infant mortality was 62.3/1000 in 1989, and maternal mortality was 132/1000 live births. Targets for the year 2000 include a decrease in infant mortality by 33%, in child mortality by 50%, and in perinatal deaths and maternal mortality by 50% as well as minimization of health differentials. Major causes of adult mortality are cardiovascular disease, accidents, intoxication, infection, and respiratory disease. Total and youth dependency ratios are decreasing, whereas the elderly dependency ratio is increasing. Economic integration of all countries in the European Community is expected to yield a desirable homogeneity which will be sensitive to cultural diversity. The government has determined the amount of support it can devote to population affairs through foreign aid, the women's status ministry, and health reform. The most recent five-year development plan expects increases in remittances from workers abroad. Turkey is also the recipient of migrants, particularly from Iran, Iraq, and Bulgaria.
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  12. 12
    101402

    Country statement submitted by the government of Sweden.

    Sweden

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 325-30.

    Population growth in Sweden has been unregulated. The total fertility rate of 2.1 is at replacement level and satisfactory. The aging of the population is expected to occur around 2010. Immigration in 1991 was 44,000 persons, with 18% from other Nordic countries, 61% claiming relatives in Sweden, and 35% claiming refugee status. During 1992, 60,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia requested asylum. The large numbers of asylum-seekers has resulted in a policy shift that restricts entrants to those fulfilling the UN definitions. The immigration policy has been in effect since 1968 and was formulated without any connection to population policy. Sweden has ratified UN conventions on migrant workers and has been part of the free Nordic labor market, which allows freedom of labor migration between Scandinavian countries. 85% of Swedish mothers have worked outside the home. Family policy is supportive of the dual roles of working and child care. There is a parental insurance system which compensates for lost income for both parents while caring for a newborn child at home. Day care facilities meet demand, and there is financial support for families with children, particularly single-parent families. Consensual unions are common. Contraceptives and family planning services are readily available. Life expectancy is 74.8 years for males and 80.4 years for females. Health inequalities linked to socioeconomic groups have been addressed by the 1992 establishment of a National Institute of Public Health. Sweden has played a dominant role in international development since the 1960s. 7.0% ($165-170 million) of Sweden's total foreign aid program was directed to population issues in 1992. Strategies focus on human rights, socioeconomic factors, and unbalanced development. Many countries in Africa have received support. Women are viewed as key to development and population issues for health, ethical, social, and human rights reasons. Sweden is also concerned about the relationship between environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, and population issues.
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  13. 13
    101398

    Country statement submitted by the government of the Federation of Russia.

    Russia

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 289-302.

    The population growth rate in Russia over the past 20 years has been 5-7%/1000 annually, and the proportion of aged has increased to 19.4%. Approximately 47,500 people emigrated in 1989, 103,600 in 1990, and 43,000 in 6 months of 1992. The government is working to conform to international standards and protocols on migration. There is a slight decline in marriages, an increase in single-parent families with children, and a formal divorce rate of 2%. Only those in registered marriages are protected under the law. The birth rate declined from 2.02 in 1989 to 1.73 in 1991. Preschools, paid leave, and preferential work schedules are available as a means of balancing domestic and child care responsibilities with work load. Family policy provides for the implementation of a comprehensive program to encourage family self-reliance, social protection, and family planning within state-funded and privately-funded organizations. Abortion is the most commonly used method of fertility regulation, and there were 3.6 million abortions in 1991 and 1.8 million births. The abortion rate of 100.3/1000 reproductive age women is considered high. Life expectancy is 63.5 years for men and 74.3 years for women. A decree passed in June 1992 placed priority on UN goals of child survival, and services were expanded to include perinatal units in hospitals, allowances for pregnant women receiving prenatal care, and sufficient maternity leave, particularly for those with at risk pregnancies or births. Standards were also established for ensuring survival of those exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. 33% of deaths are due to accidents, poisonings, and injuries. 30% of disability among the working age population is due to respiratory diseases. Infectious disease morbidity is high. 4.4% of the total population receives out-patient psychiatric help at specialized clinics for disorders such as alcoholism (80% of patients). 15% of the urban population live in an environment meeting international standards of health for air pollution. In the recent past, fund limitations have constrained participation in international events. Russia is interested in receiving bilateral and multilateral technical assistance in drawing up population policies suitable to its new circumstances. In order to institute modern data collection and analysis techniques, a micro census is planned for 1994 and a regular census for 1999.
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  14. 14
    101395

    Country statement submitted by the government of Poland.

    Poland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 261-71.

    Economic changes in Poland have restricted social welfare development and services. Population has been below replacement level since 1989, and life expectancy has declined with a relatively high infant mortality. There is considerable emigration of the young and skilled, and 2.5 million were unemployed in 1992. There will be an increase in the population aged 45-64 years and among pensioners. Although there is no formal population policy, the government has aimed to reach replacement level fertility, to improve the quality of life, to balance the distribution of the population, and to formulate better international agreements on economic migration into and out of Poland. There is public concern about uncontrolled immigration from countries of the former Soviet Union, since Poland is a transit stop for refugees on their way to Germany or Scandinavia. Preferential treatment is been given to Polish migrants in the former Soviet Union. Illegal foreign labor has increased, and crime is a problem. There are plans for policy reform and for the establishment of an Immigration Office. Marriage is declining, and cohabitation is increasing. The birth rate declined from 19.7/1000 in 1983 to 14.3 in 1991. 8% of total births were to juveniles, 6% were born out of wedlock, and 8% were low birth weight. Contraception is available through pharmacies; sterilization is not performed, and abortion regulations are under debate. Unfavorable lifestyles and health behaviors contribute to a poor health situation and an increase in male mortality in all age groups. Circulatory system diseases are a primary cause of death, followed by cancers, injuries, and poisoning. Infant mortality was 15.0/1000 live births in 1991, mostly due to perinatal complications (50%) and developmental defects (27%). Hepatitis B infection is high in Poland, with 30 cases/1000; tuberculosis is declining, but was still high at 42.3/100,000 in 1990 and accounted for 40% of all infectious disease mortality. HIV infections numbered 1996 cases by 1991. Life expectancy is 66.1 years for males and 75.3 years for females. The Polish health strategy conforms to WHO directives and emphasizes general health promotion and at-risk populations. Poland is particularly concerned about population problems in the Eastern and Central European region and in countries of the former Soviet Republic.
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  15. 15
    085991

    Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention (ILO No. 156).

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:94.

    The following countries ratified the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention in 1988; 1) Argentina, 17 March 1988; 2) Greece, 10 June 1988; 3) Netherlands, 24 March 1988; and 4) San Marino, 19 April 1988. (full text)
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  16. 16
    101387

    Country statement submitted by the government of Ireland.

    Ireland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 195-7.

    Ireland's government considers that population size, growth, and structure are reflected in policies to secure a reasonable standard of living and to guarantee rights in the case of unemployment, disability, sickness, or old age. In 1992, legislation established family planning services through health services. Guidelines have been issued on sex and family life education. The Health Department has a comprehensive health promotion program for improving health status, for targeting specific groups and illnesses, and encouraging healthier life styles. Maternity benefits to those with insurable employment are available for 70% of wages, and tax benefits are available to low-income earners. Ireland supports the full and equal participation of women in the development process and agrees with the European Community's guidelines on family planning programs. A first-time contribution to the UN Population Fund was made in 1993, and further contributions are under consideration.
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  17. 17
    101386

    Country statement submitted by the government of Hungary.

    Hungary

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 187-93.

    Hungary has both below replacement fertility and high mortality. There has been a deterioration in the stability of families, with a high divorce rate. Population policy is aimed toward reducing the population decline and providing a more favorable age structure. The objective is to reduce mortality, increase fertility, and strengthen material and social conditions of families. Due to resource limitations, the government will rely on the moral renewal of society. An Office of Refugee Affairs was established in 1989. In 1991, there were 75,000 refugees or displaced persons, including ethnic Hungarians. Many new arrivals are from the former Yugoslavia. Marriage and remarriage have declined since the mid-1970s. There is postponement of marriage and first and second births. 87% of children are born to married women. Family policy, since 1992, provides for free prenatal care and pregnancy allowances, at the same time regulating abortion. Social allowances are given to families with children for child raising. Male mortality is particularly high among those aged 30-59 years. High mortality was attributed to life style risk factors and mental hygiene, level of health care, and the role of environmental factors. Hungary is very interested in international cooperation within the European Community and gives support to population activities.
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  18. 18
    101380

    Country statement submitted by the government of Finland.

    Finland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 147-52.

    In the 20 years following World War II, Finland's population growth declined markedly. Recent increases confirm fertility at 1.79 for 1991, which is higher than it has been since 1970. Fertility is expected to increase until 2010. The country is very homogenous: the largest minority are Swedes, who comprised 6% of the population in 1991, and Lappish people. There are integrated labor markets between Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark. Migrants with Finnish origins from the former Soviet Union have increased. Refugees numbered 6000 in 1993. Finnish family policy strives to secure close and firm human relationships for children and family members, to improve economic conditions for families, and to secure the preconditions for balanced population development. Family type does not determine the nature of family support. Parental leave amounts to 263 week days and is 66% of annual income. Child home care for children under 3 years of age and municipal day care are provided. Men's life expectancy was 71.4 years in 1991; women's was 79.3 years. Infant mortality was low at 6/1000 in 1991. Cardiovascular diseases are a primary cause of death; declines have occurred in this disease group since 1970. Accidents and suicide are very high in Finland compared to other Nordic countries. Lower social classes have a higher mortality rate. Future emphasis will be on outpatient treatment, promotion of health prevention, and a balance between health care and illness treatment. Finland's position is that rapid population growth is related to poverty and slow socioeconomic development. Increased levels of education and gender equality are viewed as necessary for poverty alleviation. Improvements in basic health care also contribute to social development and thus slower growth. International funding has increased and was 85 million in 1991. Development and population related aid will be reduced in 1993 to 0.4% of the gross national product.
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  19. 19
    101372

    Country statement submitted by the government of Austria.

    Austria

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 61-6.

    About 7% of the total population of 7.9 million in Austria are international migrants, mostly from the former Yugoslavia and Turkey. Austria has also received displaced persons and illegal immigrants. OECD has recommended that Austria and other European countries contribute at least 1% of public development aid to population related projects. Austria has been increasing its contributions to reach this recommendation as one means of responding to migration pressure. A comprehensive foreigner and immigration policy has been devised which distinguishes between refugees and asylum seekers and displaced persons and other immigrants. Legal settlement is dependent on the socioeconomic capacity of Austria. Austria has also been active internationally in conferences and agreements. Migratory gains between 1981 and 1991 have contributed to a population growth of 3.2%. Smaller birth rates have contributed to an increased older population aged over 60 years (20.3% in 1991; 6.8% aged 75 years and older). In 1987, the total fertility rate was 1.43 children and the net reproduction rate was 0.68. Family policy has redistributed income to favor low-income families and granted generous maternity leave. The general policy direction is for further increased education about contraception and expansion of services for young people. Free condom distribution is currently being piloted in schools. Life expectancy has been increasing and in 1991 was 72.6 years for males and 79.2 years for females, mostly due to reduced mortality among the aged.
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  20. 20
    098758

    Ten priority steps for children.

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1994; 15(3):296.

    In a joint letter dated January 28, 1994, the executive heads of UNICEF and the World Health Organization appealed to all heads of governments and states to achieve 10 priority goals for improving the well-being of children around the world. The letter said that achievement of these goals along with intensified efforts to reduce malnutrition, expand access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and promote universal primary education, would enable each country to pursue other socioeconomic development goals. The 10 priority goals to be achieved by the end of 1995 are: 1) to raise immunization coverage to at least 80%; 2) to eliminate neonatal tetanus; 3) to reduce measles deaths; 4) to eradicate poliomyelitis; 5) to increase the use of oral rehydration therapy to 80% to help control diarrhea; 6) to support breast-feeding in maternity hospitals and to terminate the free supply of breast-milk substitutes to health care systems; 7) to achieve universal iodination of salt; 8) to eliminate vitamin-A deficiency; 9) to eradicate guinea-worm disease; and 10) to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child in every country. The letter states that the achievement of these goals is dependent not so much on additional financial resources as on the political will, vision, and commitment of leaders. The World Summit for Children, held at the United Nations in New York in 1990, endorsed a set of ambitious goals for the survival, protection, and development of children to be achieved by the year 2000. Since then some 100 developed and developing countries have prepared national programs of action to implement these goals. More than 150 countries around the world have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. WHO and UNICEF believe that the attainment of the mid-decade targets would help achieve the goals for the year 2000.
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  21. 21
    099913

    Statement of Turkey.

    Alpago O

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    In her address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Turkey's Minister of State noted that Turkey's population policy began to reflect an antinatalist viewpoint in the 1950s. She also called for an end to all forms of discrimination against women and asked the international community to support efforts to strengthen the family, which the Turkish government regards as the basic element of society. Whereas Turkey does not support abortion as a method of family planning, the country recognizes the right of women to safe motherhood and opposes coercion in any form. In Turkey, accessibility, availability, acceptability, and affordability of health care is stressed. Turkey has also increased its attention to the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Since the 1970s, Turkey has recognized the need to address environmental concerns, and sustainable development is one of the main objectives of government policy. Other important issues are the collection of population data and placing priority on solving the problems of international migration. Turkey has pledged its support to the UN and the ICPD.
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  22. 22
    099872

    The Indonesian Population and Family Planning Program.

    Suyono H

    Jakarta, Indonesia, National Family Planning Coordinating Board [BKKBN], 1993. 9 p.

    In his address to the October 1993 Bellagio Forum on Population and Development in Bellagio, Italy, the State Minister for Population and Chairman of Indonesia's National Family Planning (FP) Coordinating Board described some of the features of his country's successful population and FP program. Indonesia's achievement is due to the fact that the thoughts, attitudes, concerns, interests, and involvement of the people have been foremost in the policies and plans. During the 1960s and early 1970s, Indonesia paid site visits to other countries to learn about their programs and to determine how successes could be translated to Indonesia. Early decisions included devising a clear policy with well-defined objectives, regarding FP as more than a medical or health program, building the program upon existing cultural and social structures, and evolving the program through a series of states. The policies which evolved from these basic decisions include achieving a change in attitudes about family size so that people would desire a small family, instituting a massive multi-pronged communication effort which encouraged peer or near-peer motivation, and using the existing cultural traits of cooperation and paternalism to build a strong system of community participation. The first stage of the program (program expansion) was to build the program infrastructure. The second stage (program maintenance) involved building community institutions. During the third stage (institutionalization), communities began to be responsible for the FP effort so that, in fact, FP became a people's movement rather than a government program. The newest stage in the FP program requires shifting the focus to the whole family and involves issues ranging from income and child rearing practices to caring for the elderly and discouraging divorce. This shift acknowledges that the family is the core institution from which development occurs and that programs must adjust to family needs rather than vice versa. Finally, while it is not a formally-stated policy, the Indonesian population program places a top priority on the creativity which its staff exhibits in developing new ideas.
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  23. 23
    099914

    Statement of Venezuela.

    Pulido Bricono M

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    The head of Venezuela's delegation to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) addressed the conference on September 5th. Latin America has experimented with so many diverse economic models that it is beginning to understand that underdevelopment responds to cultural causes rather than to the variables of programs or models. Venezuela has a density of 13 inhabitants per square kilometer and a population growth rate of 2.3%. Venezuela believes that the solution to the problems of population and development is to create the conditions that will alleviate poverty. Some of the dilemmas which face the international community are how to decide how much development is compatible with ecological rationality, what role social justice will play in technological and educational cooperation, how the responsibilities and duties arising from the degradation of the planet will be shared, and how we will establish alternatives to development. Many analysts believe that sustainable development will occur only after an international body oversees global development or after decisions about the use of resources are completely decentralized and localized. Any effort should be focused on achieving global development that preserves the resources of the underdeveloped world and achieves changes in the patterns of production and consumption in industrialized nations. In addition, human beings must transform the manner in which they relate to each other to increase equity for women. By bolstering educational and health systems and improving social programs, other countries can follow Venezuela's example and reduce birth rates without a public population policy. Venezuela believes that the ICPD should focus on poverty and education as the causes of underdevelopment and on strengthening the family as a major development strategy. This would direct primary concern to those who are living in abject poverty rather than worrying only about those who are not yet born.
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  24. 24
    099679

    Programme of action of the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development. [Draft].

    United Nations

    [Unpublished] 1994 Sep 19. 115 p.

    This unedited version of the Programme of Action of the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) opens with a 15-point preamble which sets the stage for presentation of the 15 principles upon which the action plan was based. Each of the next chapters addresses a major issue which is broken into subcategories. The basis of action, objectives, and recommended actions are described for each subcategory. The overall theme of the ICPD was the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development, and that is the first major theme presented. The next major theme is gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The third issue is the family and its roles, rights, composition, and structure. Population growth and structure is considered next, followed by the issues of reproductive rights and reproductive health; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; and partnership with the nongovernmental sector. Woven into these major themes are considerations of poverty; the environment; socioeconomic issues; special population groups; family planning; sexually transmitted diseases; HIV infections and AIDS; human sexuality; primary health care; maternal-child health; population information, education, and communication; research methodology and dissemination; and program management and resource development, mobilization, and allocation. The final chapter presents a follow-up to the ICPD with the basis for actions, objectives, and recommended actions given for national, subregional and regional, and international activities.
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  25. 25
    078934

    Resolution No. 44/82. International Year of the Family, 8 December 1989.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:77, 463-4.

    Resolution No. 44/82, December 8, 1989, of the UN General Assembly declaring 1994 the International Year if the Family begins with resolving to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, with a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being, which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relation between nations, guided by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, according to which the widest possible protection and assistance should be accorded to the family. The Resolution recognizes the efforts of Governments at the local, regional, and national levels in carrying out specific programs concerning the family, in which the UN may have an important role to play, and in raising awareness, increasing understanding, and promoting policies that improve the position and well-being of the family. 1994 is the International Year of the Family; major activities for the observance of the Year should be concentrated at the local, regional, and national levels and assisted by the UN and its system of organizations, with a view to creating among Governments, policy-makers, and the public a greater awareness of the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. The General Assembly requests the Secretary-General to prepare a draft program for the preparation for the observance of the Year, to submit a progress report to the General Assembly, and take specific measures, through all the communication media at his disposal, to give widespread publicity to the activities of the UN system in the area of family issues and to increase the dissemination of information on this subject.
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