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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 12 p. (Summary Brief WHO/RHR/17.20)Contraception is an inexpensive and cost-effective intervention, but health workforce shortages and restrictive policies on the roles of mid- and lower-level cadres limit access to effective contraceptive methods in many settings. Expanding the provision of contraceptive methods to other health worker cadres can significantly improve access to contraception for all individuals and couples. Many countries have already enabled mid- and lower-level cadres of health workers to deliver a range of contraceptive methods, utilizing these cadres either alone or as part of teams within communities and/or health care facilities. The WHO recognizes task sharing as a promising strategy for addressing the critical lack of health care workers to provide reproductive, maternal and newborn care in low-income countries. Task sharing is envisioned to create a more rational distribution of tasks and responsibilities among cadres of health workers to improve access and cost-effectiveness.
The Botswana Medical Eligibility Criteria Wheel: Adapting a tool to meet the needs of Botswana's family planning program.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2016 Jun; 20(2):9-12.In efforts to strive for family planning repositioning in Botswana, the Ministry of Health convened a meeting to undertake an adaptation of the Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use (MEC) wheel. The main objectives of this process were to present technical updates of the various contraceptive methods, to update the current medical conditions prevalent to Botswana and to adapt the MEC wheel to meet the needs of the Botswanian people. This commentary focuses on the adaptation process that occurred during the week-long stakeholder workshop. It concludes with the key elements learned from this process that can potentially inform countries who are interested in undergoing a similar exercise to strengthen their family planning needs.
[Washington, D.C.], Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 2007 Dec. 21 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-98-00012-00)Much of the programmatic and research experience gained over the past two decades has focused on increasing understanding of supply-side factors that limit the provision and use of the IUD, for example, developing training programs, demonstrating the ability of lower level medical staff to provide the method, and assessing the interaction between IUDs, STIs and, more recently, HIV. There is now sufficient empirical evidence from a range of settings to allow program managers and technical assistance organizations to develop guidelines and plans for strengthening the systems necessary to support country-level introduction or 'rehabilitation'; of the IUD within a program offering a range of contraceptive choices. The objectives were: To conduct a meeting of researchers and program managers from three continents and several international organizations to review reasons for under-utilization of the IUD and recent experiences in increasing awareness about the IUD; To develop proposals for operations research projects to test the most promising interventions to introduce and expand access to IUD services and to implement the projects with national partner organizations; To disseminate results of the successful strategies. (Excerpts]
Report on field test of the WHO Decision-Making Tool (DMT) for family planning clients and providers in Mexico. Draft. [Informe sobre pruebas de campo de la Herramienta de toma de decisiones (DMT, Decision-Making Tool) de la OMS para los clientes y prestadores de planificación familiar en México. Versión preliminar]
[Unpublished] 2003 Apr 13. 8 p.To test the usefulness of the flipchart on the quality of counseling, this study compared videotaped counseling sessions conducted by the same providers before and after they were trained to use the DMT and had practice using it. Data were collected at two points in time: a baseline round before the intervention began and a post-intervention round one month after providers were trained to use the DMT. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with providers and clients to complement the data from videotaped sessions. Participating in the study were 17 providers working at nine Secretary of Health facilities of the Government of Mexico, D.F. They included 9 doctors, 4 nurses, 3 social workers, and 1 psychologist. Eight of the participating facilities were hospitals, and one was a health center. At each facility, one doctor who routinely provided family planning services participated in the study. In some facilities, a nurse, social worker, or psychologist, each of whom routinely provided FP services, also participated in the study. Each provider was videotaped with about 8 clients, that is, 4 clients per round of data collection. Each set of 4 clients included one new client with a contraceptive method in mind, one new client without a method in mind, one returning client with a problem, and one returning client without a problem. Only 13 of the 17 providers had complete data from both the baseline and post-intervention rounds. (excerpt)
Report on the field test of the WHO Decision-Making Tool (DMT) for family planning clients and providers in Indonesia. Draft.
[Unpublished] 2003 May 14. 11 p.This field test assessed the acceptability and usability of the Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers (DMT) in ten Puskesmas (public clinics) in two districts of West Java province in Indonesia. The study was conducted by the INFO Project at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs (CCP) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and CCP's STARH Program in Indonesia. The assessment focused on the following areas: the comprehensibility, usability, and acceptability of the DMT among providers and clients; how the DMT can facilitate or hinder the family planning (FP) counseling process; how the DMT can help clients make appropriate decisions in order to solve problems regarding FP; how providers integrate the flipchart into their daily work; and changes needed to increase the impact of the DMT on the FP decision-making process and client-provider communication. WHO, the Population Information Program at CCP (now the INFO Project), and INTRAH developed a normative model of client-provider communication to provide a theoretical foundation for improving FP counseling. Drawing upon this model, the Promoting Family Planning team of the Department of Reproductive Health and Research at the WHO and CCP created the DMT in a flipchart format. The tool seeks to improve the quality of counseling by: promoting informed choice and participation by clients during family planning service delivery; facilitating providers' application of evidence-based best practices in client-provider interaction; and providing the technical information clients need in order to make optimal choices and to use contraceptive methods. (excerpt)
Meeting on training in reproductive health for CCEE / NIS. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, 26-28 June 1995.
Copenhagen, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. , 15 p. (EUR/ICP/FMLY 94 03/MT04; EUR/HFA Target 16)Responding to the needs for training in reproductive health, European public health training programmes have been increasingly offering training to participants from countries of central and eastern Europe/newly independent states of the former Soviet Union (CCEE/NIS). The WHO Regional Office for Europe convened a meeting to identify ways to better coordinate and cooperate in efforts made by the various schools, institutions and organizations with courses in reproductive health. After an overview of the current situation in reproductive health in CCEE/NIS (including the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS) and a summary of the relevant research activities in the Region, participants presented their training programmes and discussed training objectives for the future. Two working groups were formed to address clinical/research and management/behavioural training needs, respectively. Finally, the participants drew conclusions and made recommendations on ways to better coordinate training activities and facilitate twinning arrangements between relevant organizations, calling for coordination by WHO and the establishment of a clearing-house based in the WHO Regional Office for Europe. Governments, donors and individuals were called upon to support and advocate reproductive health programmes and services. (author's)
Evaluating the impact of the UNFPA regional training program. [Évaluation de l'impact du programme de formation régional du Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population (UNFPA)]
In: Training: best practices, lessons learned and future directions. Conference program and session handouts, 22-23 May 2002, [compiled by] JHPIEGO. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 2002 May. 291-306. (USAID Award No. HRN-A-00-98-00041-00)In order to cope with the many on-job training needs of population IEC programs in Africa, the UNFPA set up in September 1994, in Abidjan, a Population & Development IEC Regional Training Program for Francophone Africa (PREFICEP). lts aim was to enable a group of nationals in each of the 26 countries (see appendix) to plan, implement and evaluate efficient and culturally-adapted IEC and Pop/FLE projects, in order to contribute to the success of post-ICPD population programs. Target groups include project managers, IEC officers, trainers, Pop/FLE curriculum and teaching material designers. Accordingly, PREFICEP used to organize regional short-term training courses in Ivory Coast. From October 1995 to December 1997, 172 people from 24 countries were trained through 8 courses (see table 1). Each course was evaluated classically: pre-test, weekly evaluation, feedback through their trainees delegates, post-test and final evaluation. The results were utilized to improve the on-going course if possible, future ones. Nevertheless, questions remained about the actual impact of the field training was? To be more precise: at the trainees' level: What has become of them after their training ? How do they utilize what they have learned? Does their performance improve as a result of the training ? Do they continue to use what they have learned from our courses some number of months or years afterward ? Do they feel the need of any post-training support? at the national organizations' level : What is their point of view as employers of former trainees and about their performance? What is the impact of our courses on their organization's activities? How could we better address their needs and concerns at the major training donor level (UNFPA}: How do the field offices perceive our program? How do they see its impact on their national projects or programs? How could we better address their national need? (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1993. , 23,  p.In 1993 in Tanzania, the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) helped the Tanzania organization UMATI and the Ministry of Health (MOH) evaluate the 5-year Permanent and Long-Term (P<) Contraception Program. The program planned to use the findings to develop action workplans to address the issues and to expand services. The assessment team visited sits in Dar es Salaam, Iringa and Mbeya, and Arusha and Moshi. In 4 years, the program had expanded from 2 sites to 35 sites nationwide. It trained 250 family planning providers in tubal ligation. P< providers performed more than 9000 tubal ligations (90,000 couple years of protection). The program has surpassed all its service objectives, which contributed to a lack of resources. It established a national network of interested health providers and administrators. Demand for services outpaces the supply countrywide. Since clients and providers have accepted tubal ligation, the government has incorporated sexual sterilization into its national family planning program. It is now preparing to introduce the contraceptive implant Norplant. USAID/AVSC and UMATI/IPPF, (International Planned Parenthood Federation) support 3 full-time staff positions and plan on adding staff in area offices. Other than the 3 AVSC-funded positions in UMATI, UMATI, and MOH have provided all staff time. Other donors to the P< Contraception Program include the development agencies of the UK and Germany and perhaps the World Bank. The MOH has requested future goods from UNFPA for the Interim Norplant Expansion Program. The 2 major outcomes of the assessment were realization of the need to support full-time physician-nurse teams in each UMATI area office and MOH agreement to integrate training for P< methods into the national training strategy. UMATI and USAID planned to add 2 more area offices. Service obstacles were insufficient trained staff, expendable supplies, and equipment to expand to the 35 sites (25 were planned). The key management problem was failure to completely integrate the P< program into the UMATI mainstream.
In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar.  p. (BKF-05)The family planning (FP) program in Burkina Faso has grown steadily since its introduction in 1985, but information and service provision still occur primarily at the clinic level. One way of decentralizing the provision of FP information is to train traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in FP and encourage them to promote FP during their maternal and child health (MCH) care activities. Therefore, a TBA training project was implemented by the Ministere de la Sante de l'Action Sociale et de la Famille (MSASF), with support from the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACN-M). This operations research study, which cost US $28,608 and was conducted by the MSASF's Family Health Division (DSF) with support from the Population Council's Africa operations research/technical assistance (OR/TA) project, assessed the training project's effect on the training and supervisory capabilities of clinical staff with responsibilities for the TBAs, on the ability of TBAs to promote FP, and on the FP knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of women of reproductive age (WRA) in the target villages. The goal was to assist MSASF in improving the capacity of TBAs to provide high quality FP/MCH care at the community level. The 20-month evaluation used a quasiexperimental design to test the effects of the intervention. The clinical staff was assessed for its ability to train and supervise the TBAs, and 45 TBAs were followed before and after training to assess their ability to promote FP within their communities. A random sample of 20 WRA with children under the age of 5 years was interviewed in the village of each TBA to evaluate the effect on the communities' FP/KAP. The results will be presented in a written report and at a seminar for those responsible for the national FP program. Project activities began in March 1991. The baseline study for the evaluation showed that most of the supervisors have been FP providers and were generally knowledgeable about modern contraceptive methods. At the village level, the baseline study indicated that, while modern FP methods were largely unknown, WRA were interested in birth spacing and generally disapprove of an immediate resumption of sexual relations after delivery (64% would wait at least a year). When asked about their first source of information on birth spacing, 37% of the women mentioned the health clinics and only 2% TBAs. However, 17% of the women had discussed birth spacing with a TBA. Following the training, 2 supervision strategies evolved. In one province, an "integrated" approach combined supervision of the TBAs' MCH/FP activities with periodic immunization campaigns to avoid some of the problems relating to lack of supervisory resources. The second province relied on a traditional, project-specific supervisory approach. Preliminary results indicate that TBAs could play a vital role in sensitizing the population to FP activities.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Institute for Development Training, 1988. , 53 p. (AIDS Education for Family Planning Clinic Service Providers Module 1)A prototype manual produced by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) addresses general training needs for AIDS education for family planning service providers. The goal of the manual is to help health providers integrate AIDS education into ongoing clinic programs. The booklet, dealing with facts and feelings about AIDS is 1 of a series of 4 modules about various aspects of AIDS education. The module can be used independently, for group training, or as a supplement to existing AIDS programs. Lesson 1 discusses thoughts and worries about AIDS, and Lesson 2 examines present knowledge about AIDS and what knowledge is needed. Application of the knowledge gained is the focus of Lesson 3. Each lesson includes a problem-solving activity which encourages trainees to apply information in ways that are relevant to their work. A summary of each lesson and comments on each activity presented in the lesson identify the objectives reached and there is space for trainees to write down questions or ideas. The manual carries a recommendation that the examples and illustrations in the manual should be adapted to address the needs, culture, and language of the trainees. This will enhance the effectiveness of the module.
Chicago, Illinois, Planned Parenthood Association of Chicago, 1966. 16 p.Add to my documents.
Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 pFamily planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
PEOPLE AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES. 1997 May; 4(7):13-4.Member family planning associations in the East, South East Asia, and Oceania Region (ESEAOR) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) have long recognized the importance of having a strong volunteer base for resource development and program sustainability. About 60 volunteers currently participate in the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea's (PPFK) hotline counseling service for adolescents launched in 1985 with financial assistance from the IPPF. Upon recruitment, the volunteer trainees receive 40 hours of basic training, followed by refresher training courses held 6 times per year. The volunteers, mostly women, are encouraged to fill in for each other when unexpected family problems arise. The difficult and delicate nature of sexuality counseling, however, has led some volunteers to abandon work in the counseling program. The Japan Family Planning Association's (JFPA) Reproductive Health Center Clinic is staffed by 1 full-time doctor, 4 part-time doctors, 1 full-time clerical staff, 30 part-time co-medicals who are mainly nurses and midwives, and 6 peer counselors who operate the hotline on infertility. The co-medicals are qualified family planning workers (FPWs) and adolescent health workers (AHWs) who receive a small honorarium for their services. FPWs must attend and pass the examination of the Licensing Course for FPW implemented by the JFPA and the Family Planning Federation of Japan. AHWs are trained by the JFPA under the auspices of the Health Ministry and the Japan Society of Adolescentology.
In: Assessment of research and service needs in reproductive health in Eastern Europe -- concerns and commitments. Proceedings of a workshop organized by the ICRR and the WHO Collaborating Centre on Research in Human Reproduction in Szeged, Hungary, 25-27 October 1993, edited by E. Johannisson, L. Kovacs, B.A. Resch, N.P. Bruyniks. New York, New York, Parthenon Publishing Group, 1997. 95-9.The improvement of women's health and family planning services in central and eastern Europe is best executed by promoting research in human reproduction and by strengthening research mechanisms in those countries. A number of postgraduate courses in reproductive medicine have been organized in the United States, Australia, England, France, and Germany. They are directed to paramedical personnel, technicians, and medical professionals. The structure of the postgraduate course for training in reproductive medicine and biology at the University of Geneva could be adapted to the situation in central and eastern Europe. The course was initiated in 1991 a multidisciplinary training approach comprising clinical applications, biochemistry, behavioral science, and socioeconomic aspects. The staff of the Clinic of Infertility and Gynecological Endocrinology as well as experts from the Departments of Medicine, Surgery, Pathology, and Histology are participating as teachers in addition to teachers from the Division of Psychosomatic Gynecology and Sexology. Several staff members of the World Health Organization Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction also give lectures and seminars. An intensive academic course is the first step of the training course. The accepted students then attend lectures and seminars for 2 months, and finally they undergo a written examination. The course also involves a re-entry plan to facilitate the initiation or the improvement of clinical research in the trainee's home country. The diploma students who decide to participate in the re-entry plan are offered an opportunity to continue the training in their home country. The trainee has to deliver an interim progress report after 6 months, a full report after 12 months, and write up a mini-thesis for the diploma under the supervision of the training center.
In: Assessment of research and service needs in reproductive health in Eastern Europe -- concerns and commitments. Proceedings of a workshop organized by the ICRR and the WHO Collaborating Centre on Research in Human Reproduction in Szeged, Hungary, 25-27 October 1993, edited by E. Johannisson, L. Kovacs, B.A. Resch, N.P. Bruyniks. New York, New York, Parthenon Publishing Group, 1997. 43-50.The European Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has associations in 24 countries and is active in 10 other countries. Since 1989 most of its work focused on the countries of Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the former Soviet Union. The newly formed family planning organizations are the major service providers in these countries, although they struggle with funding shortages. In Romania the Society for Education on Contraception and Sexuality was formed in March 1990 and has trained more than 500 general practitioners, nurses, students, teachers, and gynecologists in family planning; organized national congresses and press conferences; and published articles. It uses the radio to promote its services and has 9 clinics in different cities. In Russia the Russian Family Planning Association was established in December 1991 and formed 17 branches in the country. It organized seminars on adolescent sex education and contraception, modern contraceptive methods, abortion prevention, and quality care in abortion. In Bulgaria the national association was restructured to collaborate with government departments and to develop training programs in family planning. Counseling centers are also scheduled to open. In the Czech Republic 2 new clinics are to open, collaboration with the Ministry if Education would result in introducing school-based sex education, and Norplant would also be offered in services. Hungary's Pro Familia was focusing on visiting nurses to provide advice on contraception and condoms; and a model clinic was opened in Budapest. In Slovakia the new association endorsed abortion legislation and sterilization and organized conferences for health professionals. In Albania the new association opened a clinic in Tirana and held sex education seminars for teachers. Problems relate to lack of contraceptives because of the severe economic situation, the attitudes of health professionals (low doctors' salaries and misinformation about contraception), the deteriorating status of women, and the over-medicalization of family planning services.
POPULATION, FAMILY PLANNING, AND PROSPEROUS FAMILY NEWSLETTER. 1996 Mar; (2):8.The Office of the Minister for Population Affairs in mid-1996 planned to send nine family planning consultants to several countries in Asia and Africa to help make a success of the family planning programs in these countries. Population Affairs Minister, concurrently Chairman of the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), Haryono Suyono, when opening a training program for the family planning consultants in Jakarta, said that the training program was organized under a cooperation between Indonesia, the UN Family Planning Agency, and the US Government. The training was also a realization of South-South cooperation in family planning and population affairs agreed upon at the World Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. Nine of the participants were from Minister Suyono's office and the Association of Indonesian Family Planning. The training will last four months and the participants will be thoroughly trained in computer application, English, and how a consultant should work. The instructors came from Johns Hopkins University in the US, BKKBN consultants, the International Population and Family Planning Training Centre, and English teachers from the US. The BKKBN has in the last five years trained a total of 29 family planning consultants for assignment in 10 Asian and African countries, including Ethiopia, Tanzania, Bangladesh, Laos, Fiji, and Vietnam. In the meantime, the International Family Planning and Population Training Centre in Jakarta has since 1987 trained 2500 family planning officials from 87 countries in Asia and Africa. (full text modified)
Arlington, Virginia, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 1994 Dec. xix, 84,  p. (POPTECH Report No. 94-011-015; USAID Contract No. CCP-3024-Q-00-3012)The Tanzania Family Planning Services Support Project (FPSS) aims to improve the health and welfare of women and children by providing women and couples the opportunity to choose freely the number and spacing of children. FPSS was implemented in 1991. The three interrelated project outputs are expanded delivery of quality family planning services, enhanced Tanzanian institutional capacity, and development of an institutional base. USAID/Tanzania requested a midterm evaluation, which was conducted in December 1994. It supports FPSS by directly providing funds to the government and cooperating agencies who provide technical assistance to the National Family Planning Program and the private sector. Other significant donors to the family planning sector include UNFPA, IPPF, Overseas Development Assistance, and German Association for Technical Cooperation. During 1991-94 modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 7% to 16%. New acceptors increased 40-50%. Monthly resupply clients increased 23%. In mid-1994, 79% of women and 90% of men were familiar with at least one modern contraceptive method. The proportion of facilities providing injectables, IUDs, and vaginal foam increased more than two-fold. Almost all the facilities provided oral contraceptives and condoms. The number of first attendances for family planning services increased 46%. FPSS supported a wide variety of training (e.g., 6 types of training courses), but the needs for more training were stifled by lack of trainers and of supervisors, weak distribution of training documents, failure to institutionalize family planning into the medical and nursing schools, and lack of equipment and supplies. There were solid improvements in contraceptive logistics and availability, strengthening of the family planning unit within the Ministry of Health, and flexibility by USAID/Tanzania's management in addressing changing country needs. Based on the findings, the team developed 12 major recommendations (e.g., development of a national strategy to achieve a sustainable family planning program).
International Planned Parenthood Federation medical and service delivery guidelines for family planning.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992. xviii, 169 p.The International Planned Parenthood Federation has developed these guidelines to help persons working in family planning services and education ensure adequate levels of quality of care. The guidelines conform to the three dimensions of technology assessment needed for any project: it must be scientifically, socially, and operationally sound. Providers should adapt the service delivery guidelines to local realities. They should consider the needs and resources of the various sites in which the guidelines will be applied. The guidelines can also be developed into educational and training materials. They serve as a guide to the delivery of family planning services, a reference document for assessing quality of care, a training instrument, and a tool for supervision. The first chapter addresses the rights of the client, ranging from the right to information to the right of opinion. The second chapter is dedicated to contraceptive counseling, while chapter 3 is dedicated to family planning training. Chapter 4 discusses hormonal contraception (combined oral contraceptives, progestagen-only pills, service management, progestagen-only injectables, and the subdermal implants, Norplant). IUDs are covered in detail in chapter 5. The barrier methods addressed in chapter 6 include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and spermicides. Chapter 7 covers both male and female voluntary surgical contraception. Natural family planning methods are addressed in chapter 8 entitled Periodic Abstinence. These methods include the basal body temperature method, the cervical mucus method (Billings method), the calendar or rhythm method, and the sympto-thermal method. The guidelines conclude with a detailed statement on diagnosis of pregnancy and a list of suggested reading material.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1990. , 13 p. (Programme Advisory Note)UNFPA has published this Programme Advisory Note to orientate its field officers and other program staff to practical issues and obstacles in the design and implementation of maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) training. It serves as a manual for needs assessment, project formulation, project monitoring, and evaluation. This Note emphasizes training activities for MCH/FP services in the community, at health centers, or in the smaller hospitals. It provides a brief description of the characteristics of countries with successful MCH/FP services (e.g., a clear straightforward policy pronouncing political commitment to MCH/FP). The Note begins with addressing issues and problems in MCH/FP training as they apply to health policies, including strategies and planning for training; curricula; and teaching and assessment methodology and materials. Integration of FP, MCH, and primary health care services, decentralization, definition of job descriptions, forecasting human resource needs, and multiplier/cascade training fall under the category of health policy-related issues and problems in training. Curricula-related issues revolve around coordination with job descriptions and between learning objectives and topics and learning objectives and teaching methods, integration of MCH/FP within curricula, time allocation, control of curricula and the process of curricula development, and in-service training. Teaching and assessment methodology and materials-related issues include the need for teacher training, appropriate teaching methods, teaching facilities, teaching/learning materials, and assessment methods. The Note then covers the role of external support and technical assistance for MCH/FP training, specifically technical capacities of donor agencies, cooperation, and modality of support. The modes of support include support for within country courses, fellowships to attend overseas courses and study tours, technical advisors, and supporting teachers.
International workshop report: Counselling and HIV Infection for Family Planning Associations, 13-17th March, 1989.
[Unpublished] 1989.  p.The International Family Planning Federation's AIDS Prevention Unit sponsored a five-day workshop on counseling and HIV infection for family planning associations (FPAs) at a facility for people with HIV/AIDS in March 1989. The objectives included sharing experiences in counseling on HIV/STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) in family planning programs, examining the integration of sexual health issues into family planning counseling, identifying training needs in interpersonal communication and sexual health issues, sharing approaches to meeting those training needs, and developing an action plan for counseling and sexual health. After introductions on the first day, participants divided into groups to address what they wanted to get out of the workshop, what they wanted to contribute to the workshop, and what their biggest concern is about integrating counseling with AIDS/STDs into their family planning programs. They also shared information on their programs about the status of FPAs in terms of counseling and HIV. The second day involved a name game and role playing to illustrate different levels of communication. Participants also discussed the difference between information, education, and counseling and took part in an exercise geared to trigger facts and feelings. On the third day, the group provided feedback on the facts and feelings discussion trigger, toured the London Lighthouse (the workshop site), and participated in counseling role plays. Activities on the fourth day aimed to process the role plays, to develop counseling skills, and to define sexual health. Participants also played the "safer sex" game. The last day of the workshop involved role plays of exploring the situation, showing materials participants had brought with them and talking about them, future plans, and discussion of the most valuable thing learned at the workshop. Participants also made conclusions and recommendations based on discussions at the workshop.
In: Natural family planning: current knowledge and new strategies for the 1990s. Proceedings of a conference, Part II, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, December 10-14, 1990, edited by John T. Queenan, Victoria H. Jennings, Jeffrey M. Spieler, Helena von Hertzen. [Washington, D.C.], Georgetown University, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, . 53-4.The Human Life Foundation and the US Department of Health and Human Services in collaboration with the International Federation for Family Life Promotion (IFFLP) in 1974 began developing a training guide in natural family planning (NFP). A task analysis of NFP programs and teachers in the US and Canada found that teachers need to have sufficient and accurate knowledge and skills in fertility awareness to effectively teach ovulation and symptothermal methods to couples. Teachers also need to provide follow-up services until couples reach autonomy. Training materials were therefore developed for NFP teachers including four modules of instructional guides with specific knowledge, attitude, and performance training objectives stated; eight objective, multiple-choice tests, with two versions for each module; and a rating scale to measure the required initial skill level for teaching NFP to client couples under supervision. Training objectives were revised after review by national and international NFP experts. Reliability of the multiple-choice tests proved to be 0.93-0.95 for all versions of each of the eight tests. Field testing of the modules with more than 200 NFP teachers in the US and Canada found the average score for each of the four modules to be 85%; a postinstructional mastery level of 90% was subsequently established as the passing score to become an NFP teacher in the US. Attitude scales were also developed and used primarily as an attitude/surfacing tool. In 1976, the US affiliate of the IFFLP formally revised and validated the objectives, and developed tests to measure their achievement. At the same time, the World Health Organization (WHO) used the same task-based, original objectives as a basis for developing the Family Fertility Learning Resource Package. The final version of the WHO package was field tested in five countries, published, and distributed by 1981. USAID-funded NFP demonstration programs were conducted in Zambia and Liberia over the period 1983-90 to study the use, methodology, and cost-effectiveness of establishing a national NFP service delivery system. The author points out that a number of the lessons learned by the IFFLP over the past 17 years can be applied universally: teacher evaluation is improved with valid, reliable, and objective testing tools; testing instruments must reflect the realities of the situation in which NFP is to be taught; evaluation must be integrated into the total training approach; and translation of technical evaluation tools requires precision and accuracy to maintain the discriminant functions of each item and overall test efficiency.
New York, New York, AVSC, 1993 Mar 16. vi, 43, 108, 47, 15 p.The March 1993 Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) workplan outlines strategic plans to expand services to USAID priority developing countries while reducing services in other countries and to add all contraceptive methods requiring a medical procedure to its services. AVSC plans on continuing to focus on voluntary sterilization. Its guiding principles still are expanding access to services, guaranteeing free and informed choice, and ensuring the safety and effectiveness of services. AVSC plans to develop comprehensive country programs and to take on special or global programs. Some anticipated special programs include medical quality assurance, voluntarism and well-informed clients, client-centered service systems, and vasectomy and male involvement. Managerial plans are country level planning and evaluation, continuous strategic planning, annual workplan development, decentralization, strengthening technical capacity, interagency collaboration and strategic alliances, and diversification of funding. AVSC's 1993 funding sources are dominated by USAID (57% from USAID central office and 27% from USAID missions). UNFPA and the World Bank together comprise 8% and private sources make up another 8%. AVSC plans to provide services in some countries for which USAID does not provide funding: Iran, Vietnam, the former Soviet Union, and the US. Specific issues that AVSC faces in fiscal year 1993 are insufficient USAID funding, resistance by other agencies to collaborate, addressing the highly competitive bidding game related to requests for proposals with the USAID Office of Population, assuring partners and supporters of its continued emphasis on voluntary sterilization, confronting the effect of adverse press coverage on vasectomy and prostate cancer, and remaining mindful of contraceptive choice issues.
Nairobi, Kenya, CAFS, 1992. 27 p.Described in this document are the courses and other activities of the Center for African Family Studies (CAFS), a training institution established by the African Regional Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. CAFS's programs include: 1) training courses aimed at developing program management skills, providing updates on contraceptive technology, disseminating information on family planning and population, and outlining appropriate IEC strategies; 2) seminar and consultations for opinion leaders and policy makers on population issues, including Women and Health issues; 3) research to strengthen family planning and population programs; and 4) workshops to produce teaching materials. The document describes the objectives and contents of the 17 courses offered by CAFS in 1992, as well as its research agenda. Also described are 9 additional courses offered in French.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 88 p.The UNFPA Annual Report provides a regional review of programs, including those that are interregional, a sectoral review, and other activities. The sectoral review covers family planning (FP), IEC, basic data collection, the use of population research for the formation of policy and development planning, women in population and development, special program interests, and population and the environment. Other activities include promotion of awareness and exchange of information, policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluations, the International conference on Population and Development, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of equipment and supplies, and multibilateral funding of population activities. The appendices include a glossary of terms, the 1991 income and expenditure report, government pledges and payments for 1991, project allocations in 1991 by country and region, governing council decisions for 1991, and 16 resolutions. In spite of the doubling of population from 2 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1990, there is optimism because of progress in country's formulation of population policy and programs, i.e., FP use has increased to 51% from 12% to 14% in 1971, and the average number of births has declined 37% from 6 (1965-70) to 3.8. This progress has been accomplished within a short generation, at low cost, and with 70% of the contributions coming from users and country governments in declining economic circumstances. The challenges ahead are dealing with mass poverty and environmental degradation. Actions to reverse the trends should be to change development priorities, attach poverty directly, shift to cleaner technologies, improve the status of women and girls, and include population in development planning. Highlights of 1991 are that income increased 5.6% and pledges 7.2%. The project expenditure rate was 80.6% vs. 80.1% in 1990, and the resource utilization rate was 102.1% vs. 100.2% in 1990. The number and cost of new projects was lower than in 1990. 55 countries were given priority status. Programs were reviewed in 28 countries. There was a 2% increase in professional women staff to 41%.
New York, New York, AVSC, 1991. 28 p.The annual report for 1990-1991 of the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) enumerates changes that came about in 1990, accomplishments of the last decade, and then summarizes activities by region with a brief feature on 1 country in each. Some of the developments in 1990 included introduction of Norplant, a training workshop in Georgia for physicians from newly independent CIS states, and the Male Involvement Initiative. The Gulf War delayed major activities requiring travel. Overall, in 1990 the AVSC provided 133,328 sterilizations, 72% female and 28% male in 50 countries, trained 325 doctors, led 58 courses in counseling and voluntarism training 568 counselors, and published or collaborated on numerous professional articles and teaching materials. In-country work emphasized no-scalpel vasectomy and minilaparatomy female sterilization under local anesthesia. As an example of country projects in 20 African nations, a client-oriented, provider-efficient system for improving clinic management and quality of care called COPE, was the focus in Kenya. Male responsibility was an emphasis in Latin America. In India, where sterilization is the most popular contraceptive method, training centers were upgraded in 12 states. In the US, AVSC conducted training sessions for physicians in laparoscopy under local anesthesia.