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Development of a scale to assess maternal and child health and family planning knowledge level among rural women.
Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 2000; 23(1):37-52.This paper presents a tool specifically developed for assessing the knowledge of rural women in Rohtak district of Haryana regarding maternal and child health. This tool can also be used for (i) identification of high risk women groups in the community by the programme managers as well as by the researchers; (ii) quantitative analysis of the relationship between various decisions making variables and the knowledge level of women regarding MCH and FP and (iii) impact evaluation of the IEC programme on the knowledge of women regarding maternal and child health. (author's)
[Latin America. Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys. Proceedings. November 8-13, 1981] America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981.
Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 65 p. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)This report of the proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPSs) in Latin America, held in Lima, Peru, in November 1981, includes the schedule of events; list of participants; opening discourses and presentations by the sponsors, Westinghouse Health Systems and the US Agency for International Development; country reports for Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico; and brief summaries of the work sessions on data evaluation, cooperation between the technical survey staff and the program administrators who will use the findings, survey planning, questionnaire design, fieldwork, the phases of CPS work, data processing, sampling, use of CPS data, graphic presentation of findings, and determination of unsatisfied demand for family planning services. Representatives of 17 countries and 8 international organizations attended the conference, whose main objectives were to introduce the CPS program to participants unfamiliar with it, contribute to improvement of future surveys by sharing experiences and introducing new techniques of investigation, discuss the application of CPS findings, and encourage dialogue between the technical personnel involved in conducting the surveys and the administrators of programs utilizing the results. The introduction to the CPS program by Westinghouse Health Systems covered the goals and objectives of the program, its organization and implementation, dissemination of results, basic characteristics of the survey, the status of CPS surveys in Latin America and a list of countries participating in the program, and a brief overview of contraceptive use by married women aged 15-44 by method in countries for which results were available. The country reports detailed experiences in survey design, fieldwork methodology, organization and administration of the surveys, and other aspects, as well as highlighting some of the principal findings.
In: The United Nations Population Award, 1993. Laureates: Dr. Frederick T. Sai and Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Shimbun. Acceptance speeches and other statements. Award ceremony, New York, 16 September 1993. [Unpublished] 1993. 5-9.This statement was made by Dr. Nicolaas H. Biegman in introducing the winners of the UN Population Award for 1993. 10 individuals and eight institutions received past awards. Current Committee members represent Burundi, Belarus, Cameroon, Ecuador, El Salvador, India, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Rwanda. The Secretary General and the Executive Director of the UN Population Fund also participate in the decision making. Past honorary members are Mrs. Robin Chandler Duke, a champion of health education and family planning (FP) and women's reproductive rights and Chairperson of Population Action International, and H.E., Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, a former President of Mexico and host of the 1984 International Conference on Population in Mexico City. Nonattendees and past honorary members include Mr. Takao Fukuda, the former Prime Minister of Japan, and Mr. Bradford Morse, former Ambassador of the UN Development Program. The award for 1993 was presented to Dr. Fred Sai and to the Population Problems Research Council (PPRC) of the Mainichi Shimbun, Japan. Dr. Sai was recognized for his achievements in assisting developing countries and for demonstrated expertise in population and FP and community health and nutrition. His considerable organizational skills were instrumental in the formation of National FP Associations in several African countries and of other international groups such as the Conference on Population and the 1987 WHO and UN Children's Fund Meeting on Infant and Young Child Feeding. Dr. Sai served as Chairman of the Preparatory Committee for the forthcoming UN Conference on Population and Development. His writings reflect both the practical need for comprehensive approaches to development and compassion and concern for ethical and human dimensions. Dr. Sai has promoted FP in his capacity as President of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Recognition is given to Mainichi Shimbun's PPRC for its lengthy outstanding achievements in promoting domestic population awareness and in encouraging Japan's support for global programs. Both awards show how individuals and institutions can find solutions and promote awareness and understanding of population issues.
In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 95-113. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] areas of interest include maternal and child health and family planning. Contraceptive prevalence in developing countries, estimated at 9% in the early 1960s, had risen to 50% in 1990. In Brazil, contraceptive prevalence rates increased from 32% in 1970 to 65% in 1986; in Malaysia, from 9% in 1966 to 51% in 1984; in Mauritius, from 25% in 1971 to 75% in 1986; in the Republic of Korea, from 9% in 1964 to 77% in 1988; and in Sri Lanka, from 34% in 1975 to 62% in 1987. UNFPA health education programs focus on human reproduction, sexuality, adolescent fertility, family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. In the developing countries, the young population has multiplied in recent years. With UNFPA support, the African Census Program was launched in 1971. To obtain information on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of fertility and family planning, more than 400 surveys were undertaken between 1960 and 1980. In many UNFPA-supported projects, activities improving the position of women include education, training, skill development, economic activities, and child care. According to United Nations surveys, 72 population units had been established by 1987, up from 61 units reported in the previous survey in 1983. In 1979, the United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN) was established. As of 1986, POPIN had a membership of some 100 institutions. UNFPA population goals by the year 2000 include: reduction in the number of children born per women; reduction in early marriage and in teenage pregnancy; reduction of infant mortality rates to 50 per 1000 live births and of maternal mortality by at least 50% by the year 2000; increase in contraceptive prevalence in developing countries by the year 2000 from 326 million to 535 million user couples; and increase in life expectancy to 62 years.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1988. , 16, 31 p. (Asian Population Studies Series, No. 86-A; ST/ESCAP/648)In China, grassroots family planning workers were surveyed on their attitudes toward contraceptive methods. The project was supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and was organized by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). India, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam were included in the project. The primary objective of the survey was to better understand family planning workers' attitudes about contraceptives, to better inform the workers on the advantages and disadvantages of various contraceptive methods. Although China offers a large variety of choices, certain methods such as the IUD and sterilization have been predominantly used. Choices vary greatly among regions. The study design, a profile of the respondents, and a discussion of knowledge and attitudes are explored. Charts representing the respondents' choices are presented; the choices demonstrate both knowledge and unsubstantiated bias. Also found, are misconceptions about certain method choices such as the pill and the injectable. The condom and the methods of rhythm and withdrawal were more commonly understood. The reasons for a good general knowledge of contraceptive methods among China's grassroots family planning workers are given. An English translation of the questionnaire used is appended to the text.
INDOCHINA ISSUES. 1988 Jan; (78):1-7.A campaign promoting "1 or at most 2 children" was launched officially in 1982 in Vietnam, a country which ranked 12th most populous in the world in 1987, with the 7th largest annual growth rate. Although major municipalities have registered less than 1.7% annual growth rates, in rural areas, particularly in the southern provinces, the growth rate ranges from 2.3-3.4%; 80% of the population resides in such locales. In April 1986, the Hanoi City People's Committee issued regulations designed to encourage the practice of birth control. Cash awards were offered to couples with only 1 child and payments for sterilization after the birth of a 2nd child. The birth of a 3rd child triggers higher maternity clinic charges, and an escalating scale of birth registration fees has been introduced to discourage failure to practice family planning. The most significant statistic to emerge from the birth control program is the gradual increase in the number of family planning acceptors over the past 5 years, slightly over 1 million couples estimated in 1981 to 4.5 million acceptors estimated for 1987. Between 1981-87 there was more than a doubling of acceptors for sterilization and IUD insertion. The IUD is used by 75% of couples practicing birth control, followed in popularity by the condom. Agencies in a UN triumvirate with special population concerns in Vietnam include the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the 3 years preceding 1987, several new UNICEF-supported public information projects were implemented, including the creation of an extensive maternal and child care network. This network was used to train cadres from the Women's Union as family planning motivators. In mid-1986, an experimental and innovative pilot project on "family life" or "parenting information" was initiated by UNICEF, UNFPA, and the Vietnamese Committee for the Protection of Mothers and the Newborn (CPMN). The desired growth rate of 1.1% by 2000 will have to rely on a variety of current program innovations. Surveys now being conducted in various regions of Vietnam reveal attitudinal problems in promoting smaller families. A survey of the members of 300 farming cooperatives in various areas of Vietnam in 1986 found that 60% of those questioned believed that the more children they had the better it would be for their family economy. Cooperative Vietnamese and UN efforts, particularly the innovative surveys and field research, represent valuable approaches, but considerable need remains for improvement in birth control knowledge and application and in the means to reduce child morbidity and mortality rates.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1985. xi, 102, 24 p. (IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys)An analysis of Caribbean contraceptive prevalence surveys is the focus of this report by the IPPF, Western Hemisphere Region, through its Caribbean Population and Development project. This booklet reports on 1 aspect of the project--the analysis of contraceptive surveys conducted in St. Kitts-Nevis and Montserrat to determine levels of contraceptive use and assess the effectiveness of information, education, and delivery services. Chapter 1 outlines the background, economic, social, and family structures, and organization of family planning services in St. Kitts-Nevis. The methodology of the survey is explained. Chapter 2 provides a demographic analysis of fertility, parity, and unplanned pregnancy rates. The level of awareness of contraceptives and contraceptive outlets is presented in Chapter 3. Patterns of contraceptive use, with user and non-user profiles, preferred sources for contraceptive outlets, user satisfaction with methods and outlets, male involvement in family planning, and the timing of contraceptive use are the topics covered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 provides an overview of contraceptive use, family planning programs, and sense of self-worth in St. Kitts-Nevis. Social sources of resistance to contraceptive use and the contraceptive intentions of non-acceptors are characterized in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 offers a summary and conclusions of the study findings, and the 1984 contraceptive prevalence survey used in St. Kitts-Nevis is supplied in the appendix.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):44-62.40 years ago, one of the 1st tasks of the United Nations (UN) Population Division was a series of pilot studies demonstrating how governments could improve knowledge of demographic levels and trends using inadequate statistics: India, the Sudan, the Philippines, and Brazil demonstrated the application of survey research to fertility analysis. Similar studies illustrated the policy-making value of census data. William Brass suggested that maternity histories be used to assess fertility change. The Division participated in the 1st national family planning (FP) programs in India, and then helped develop a standard questionnaire to serve as the basis for internationally comparable knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys and sought to promote cross-national comparative research on fertility and FP. It also developed technics for estimating fertility in the absence of adequate birth statistics, including the reverse-survival method and ways of using stable population models. Model-based estimates of fertility have been made from World Fertility Survey data. The Division has provided data and studies to measure FP program success and to serve in improving service and acceptance rates, participating in evaluations of the administration of its national FP programs in India and Pakistan, and in research on cost/benefit and cost-effectiveness calculations for fertility reduction programs. A basic component was the measurement of the impact of FP programs on fertility: the Division carried out studies to evaluate alternative measurement methods, and prepared a manual. As fertility data quality improved, the Division prepared a review of knowledge on determinants of fertility, and hypothesized that a threshold must be crossed before development leads to fertility decline. The Division now produces periodic overviews of fertility conditions and trends, and studies on world levels and condtions of fertility, and has made findings on breast feeding effects, "unmet" FP needs, and the role of type of parental union, marital disruption, and education and occupation.
In: Asia. Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys Regional Workshop. Proceedings. [Columbia, Maryland], Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981 Feb. 4-7. (Contraceptive Prevalence Studies 2)This paper presents the views of the Agency for International Development (AID) on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, focusing on why the agency supports them, what the agency wants to get out of them, and how they fit into the AID program. Both the developing countries and the donor community needed data bases that serve several purposes. There was a clear need for data on what was happening in countries with active family planning programs. Fairly substantial resources were being programmed into efforts to slow population growth, and it was important to ensure that these resources were used effectively and efficiently. There were also obvious time pressures. The longer the delay before slowing population growth, the more serious the problem would become. Clearly, timely data were needed. To respond to the varied data needs, early in its history AID's Population Office initiated a broad program of support for data collection, including censuses, surveys, civil registration systems, and family planning program statistics. There was also support for efforts to ensure that these data were evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted to facilitate their use. In 1971, AID along with the UN and the International Statistical Institute, began to develop what became the World Fertility Survey (WFS). The effort was launched more as a research than an administrative tool. During the course of developing the WFS, there was much reluctance on the part of many demographers and social scientists to clarify the link between fertility change and family planning action programs. In 1976, WFS carried out some field trials on a series of questions on perceived family planning availability and accessibility and thereafter developed a set of questions on availability, which were added to the core questionnaire. When the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) project was initiated with Westinghouse, AID asked that availability information be collected for all methods requiring a source. These data have been very valuable as a means of gaining insight into the role of availability in contraceptive use. The CPS was specifically designed to collect a limited set of highly program-relevant data quickly and to make these data available to program administrators and policy makers. First, CPS has been an important data source for documenting trends in contraceptive knowledge and use. Second, since many of the WFS, as well as the CPS, have included questions on perceived availability of family planning, it is possible to examine trends in availability. Regarding how the CPS might be improved, the CPS Workshop provides a good opportunity for an exchange of ideas. A description of the Workshop objectives are outlined.
New York, New York, Population Council, 1985 Sep. 5,  p. (Fertility Determinants Research Note No. 5)One of the notable features of population studies in the past 35 years has been the increasing reliance on sample surveys as the primary source of demographic data. Past surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of contraception in developing countries are important resources. These early KAP and fertility surveys, conducted 10 or more years ago, provide benchmarks for the study of how group differentials in behavior and attitudes evolve with time. Together with recent surveys, they help to monitor the pace and nature of the transition from 1 demographic regime to another within societies. Attempts to retrieve the earlier data produced constructive lessons and recommendations on how to safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 3 recommendations emerge that will help safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 1) Develop standards of documentation and maintenance, including how long questionnaires are to be retained, now much of the detail of sampling design should be saved, what constitutes an adequate description of interviewer characteristics and instruction. 2) Arrange for public access and the mechanisms to promote it. Funds should be budgeted for this purpose from the outset. Surveys that are still not generally available after a reasonable number of years lose much of their value and deprive the demographic community of a valuable resource. 3) Create structures to preserve and disseminate KAP and fertility surveys. The need for this is greatest for surveys not associated with large international programs. In all cases arrangements for longterm preservation must be made. Tables are included which describe 3rd world countries in which KAP or fertility surveys were conducted before 1981, and an inventory of pairs of surveys for potential use in conparative and over-time analysis.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 32 p. (COM/72/CONF.32-A/3)This paper describes the nature and current status of family planning communication research, focusing on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys; proposing some types of needed research; and analyzing the common problems of inadequate research utilization. The discussion's theme is that communication research offers the potential for providing eventual solutions to some of the problems currently impeding family planning programs in less developed countries. In the past, with few exceptions, family planning communication research has been unimaginative, repetitious, and irrelevant. Communication research provides a feedback function to program administrators about various inputs to the family planning program. This type of research also can provide a "feedforward" function by allowing sources of communication messages to better know their audiences and hence how to reach them more effectively. Communication research is itself a special kind of communication, providing a linkage between client audiences and agency officials. 1 of the best of the KAP studies and 1 which had a particularly laudatory effect of later research in family planning communication is the Taichung Study of Twaiwan Study in the early 1960s. The Taichung study data showed the importance of interpersonal channels and the 2 step flow of communication. It should be noted that the Taiwan Study was a field experiment rather than a survey. A typical field experiment begun in 1970 in Isfahan Province, Iran consisted of the following experimental treatments: an intensive mass media communication campaign that promote a family planning slogan "2 or 3 children is better; the loop and pill are safe;" the recruitment of various types of nonfamily planning change agents and aides recruited to promote family planning with their clients; and home visits by family planning field workers in a rural and an urban district of about 20,000 population. The main measures of the communication treatment efforts are changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice, which were measured by surveys prior to and after the campaigns. Most important are changes in rate of adoption, which seem to have increased by about 64%. In addition to the Isfahan Project numerous field experiments on family planning communication have been conducted in Jamaica, India, Korea, and Thailand since the Taichung Study in the early 1960s. Several conclusions, such as the following, may be generally considered from these experiments: home visits to clients by paraprofessional field workers are 1 of the most effective communication strategies to secure the adoption of family planning methods; and mass media alone can create widespread awareness and knowledge of a family planning innovation. KAP studies have all the methodological problems of any other type of survey research as well as some special problems that arise from the taboo nature of family planning. Yet, in the few cases where adequate evidence is available, KAP studies do not fare too badily on reliability, especially in an aggregate sense.