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  1. 1

    [Republic of Zaire: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique du Zaire: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. ix, 63, [1] p. (Rapport No. 72)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a needs assessment mission to Zaire in 1983. The mission recommends that the 1st priority be given to analyzing and exploiting the results of the 1984 census, Zaire's 1st census. It is recommended that the Institut National de la Statistique participate in data collection and analysis for the census. The lack of trained demographers is noted, and teaching statistics and demography should be made a priority. 3 areas of research in population matters are priorities: 1) the detailed analysis of the results of the census, 2) modern contraceptive usage, and 3) malnutrition in mothers and children. The creation of a national commission on human resources and population is recommended. Zaire has a rather large medical-health infrastructure that is badly adapted to the actual needs of the population. The problem is not only the lack of resources but also the absence of clear health policies. Population education does not currently exist in Zaire, but formal population education could be placed at all levels of the educational system. As regards population information and communication, radio coverage is very important in a country that is largely rural. Women are still undervalued in Zaire society. They participate actively in the country's economy, but they remain on the margins of the modern sector. The new department on female conditions and social affairs has 2 priorities: 1) improving the quality of life of rural women with income-generating projects and 2) creating adult female education centers in urban areas.
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  2. 2

    [People's Republic of the Congo: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique Populaire du Congo: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. x, 53, [1] p. (Rapport No. 75)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a mission to the Congo (Brazzaville) to assess their needs for assistance in population matters in 1984. Government policy still does not cover linkages between population and economic development. The Mission particularly recommends the assistance be given to the 1984 census. It is necessary to have demographic data on which to base health programs. The Mission also strongly recommends technical assistance for maternal and child health and family planning programs. The Mission recommends providing support for civil registration, an infant and child mortality survey in rural areas, and a national survey of population, migration, and employment to take place 5 years after the census. The effective integration of population in development planning requires not only data collection but demographic, social, and economic research. The recent creation of the Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research will give a new boost to research activities. In the domain of health in general, and maternal and child health in particular, the situation is characterized by insufficiency and by a lack of health statistics. There are grave health problems. Morbidity and mortality are high, especially among infants. Faced with these problems, the government has instituted a huge effort to promote the well-being of families. The Mission recommends a national population education policy. The condition of women remains difficult, and little information is available. The Mission recommends further research on the status of women and the education of women.
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  3. 3

    Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)

    In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
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  4. 4

    Adolescents: planning contraceptive and counselling services.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Central Council

    [Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.

    This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
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  5. 5

    Policy statement on male involvement in family planning.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Central Executive Committee

    [Unpublished] 1985 Mar. [2] p.

    In this International Planned Parenthood Federation policy statement on male involvement in family planning, the rights of men as well as women to family planning education and services and responsibility for contraceptive decision making and practice is asserted. There is a need for family planning programs to overcome their bias toward services for women and encourage greater male participation. Male involvement in family planning is essential to encourage men to assume responsibility for their sexual behavior and to protect the health and well-being of their partner, potential and existing offspring, and the family as a whole. Men should share responsibility for the couple's practice of contraception, removing from the woman the burden of being the sole contraceptor throughout her fertile life. This perspective requires that family planning associations initiate or strengthen information and education programs to promote male responsibilities in family planning. In addition, there is a need to expand research for the development of a wider array of effective fertility control methods. On the other hand, condoms can continue to play an important role in preventing both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Programs should further emphasize the importance of the male's support to the adoption and continued use of female methods. Program strategies for increasing male involvement should be developed as part of overall family planning programs and, where possible, integrated into existing activities.
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  6. 6

    [Integrated family planning for small farmers: a handbook] Planeamento familiar integrado para pequenos agricultores: um manual.

    Mercado CM

    Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1985. iv, 57, [15] p.

    The objective of this training program manual was the elevation of the knowledge levels of Group Organizers and Action Research Fellows (GP/ARFs) of countries that participated in the Small Farmers Development Project (SFDP) launched by the Regional, Office for Asia and the Pacific of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The SFDP had the mission of increasing technical knowledge to small farmer to curtail the dichotomy of rapid population growth in Asian countries which started in the 1970s and the faltering agricultural output. A survey of agrarian reform (ASARRD) was also launched, and, after the implementation of SFDP in 1976 by Bangladesh, Nepal, and the Philippines, a family planning (FP) program (PopEd) was initiated in 1978 under SFDP in these countries. Income generating projects aimed at improving the quality of life of small farmers, Family Planning Education had the objective of disseminating FP information; however, after initial success, practical application bogged down. Thus, PopEd introduced a new strategy of training GO/ARFs, as group organizers and mobilizers, to enhance their knowledge about the relationship of poverty, development, and population growth, about its applicability to small farmers, and about the role of communication. The planning, management, and evaluation of the training program is detailed, with an overview of FAO programs for small farmers.
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  7. 7


    Tinsulanonda P

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 153.

    Expressing his wish for a successful International Conference on population. Thailand's Prime Minister, Prem Tinsulanonda stresses the interrelation between population and socioeconomic growth. Developing countries are currently experiencing a unique contradictory problem: an unprecedented population explosion matched by a commitment to improve the quality of life and to reduce the mortality rate. Any successful development program must take into account demographic factors and must maintain a long-term perspective. With this view in mind, the Royal Government has put into effect the Fifth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1982-1986) which seeks to reduce the population growth rate to about 1.5% by 1986 by expanding family planning services. Taking into account people's quality of life, the plain includes measures to improve health services, nutrition standards and intellectual capabilities. These concerns about the quality of life just not be overlooked by the world community when addressing the problem of population growth.
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  8. 8

    Egypt: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. x, 76 p. (Report No. 78)

    In 1985, the UN Fund for Population Activities sent a 2nd Needs Assessment Mission to Egypt. The 1985 population is 46.8 million. For more than a quarter of a century the government and the people of Egypt have gradually expanded activities in the areas of population policy and attempts to reduce fertility. During the past 3 decades, the crude death rate/1000 has decreased from 17.8 to 10.4, a decline of 42%. The crude birth rate/1000 has declined from 45.2 to 37.3, by 17%. Confronted by the serious overcrowding of cities, especially the capital city of Cairo, President Mubarak has determined that the nation must greatly expand its activities in the population area. The Ministry of Health offers tremendous potential for increasing contraceptive prevalence, but this potential is seriously underutilized. The National Population Council (NPC) should both be given support to strengthen its proposed technical department by salary supplements to attract the most qualified national experts and to provide training and equipment in demographic analysis, policy formulation, population information, population and development, maternal and child health and family planning, and women and development. Carrying out programs to deal with the population problem will require strong public support. For this reason, the Mission recommends that the NPC establish a national information program designed to educate the public and influential groups about population and migration. The Mission also recommends that the NPC strengthen its capability to analyze population policy issues. The Mission recommends that 2 related areas be strengthened: 1) demographic evaluation and analysis capability and 2) dissemination and utilization of census and survey results through publications, seminars, and surveys.
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  9. 9

    Democratic Yemen: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. ix, 79 p. (Report No. 76)

    The population of Democratic Yemen, approximately 2.1 million, is primarily Arab, with small Indian, Pakistani, and Somali minorities. Development planning is an integral part of Democratic Yemen's political structure. However, the country has an extreme shortage of data to provide the basis for formulating development plans. High levels of morbidity and mortality have been identified by the Government as priority problems. Improvements in health services, particularly in rural areas, and expansion of maternal and child health services are being emphasized. The Needs Assessment Mission has made recommendations on external assistance for 1) improving the collection and analysis of demographic data, demographic research, and population policy, 2) improving the quantity and quality of maternal and child health and family planning, 3) providing a program of population information, education, and communication, and 4) integrating women into development activities.
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  10. 10

    Jordan: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. viii, 56 p. (Report No. 83)

    The 3rd Needs Assessment Mission from the UN Fund for Population Activities visited JOrdan in 1985. While Jordan has a high per capita gross national product of Us $1640, its demographic characteristics are those of a less developed country. It has a high crude birth rate of 44.9 (1980-1985), a high annual growth rate of 3.66 (1980-1985), and a young population, 49.4% of whom are under the age of 15. The government has not adopted an official population policy. The government is particularly concerned about the large numbers of skilled and professional workers leaving Jordan to work abroad, and the large inflow of semi-skilled and manual workers. The MIssion recommends that the National Population Commission, which could provide the framework for an integrated approach to population and development, should undertake the formulation of comprehensive population policies, ensuring that population issues are integrated into national development planning. The MIssion recommends that a Human Resources Section be established within the Ministry of Planning by expanding the present manpower section. The MIssion recommends upgrading demographic data collection through cooperation between the Department of Statistics and the Civil Status Department by making full use of equipment and facilities, comparing data sets, using census and population register data fully, and using census data as a standard for evaluating other data sets. The Mission recommends that the government's expansion of health services within a primary health care framework should be supported and assistance provided in the establishment of a primary health care training and demonstration center. The Mission recommends that greater efforts should be made to include population education in the school curriculum. There is a need for data and information on women.
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  11. 11

    Indonesia: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. viii, 87 p. (Report No. 74)

    In 1984, the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) sent a 2nd Needs Assessment Mission to Indonesia. Indonesia has a well articulated population policy which has been effectively translated into operational programs. Its major objectives are to 1) reduce birth rates, 2) decrease death rates, especially among infants and children, 3) extend life expectancy, and 4) achieve a better balance of the population, both geographically and in relation to resources and labor force opportunities. The Family Planning Programme and the Transmigration Programme are the government's major initiatives in the population sector. Despite the long history of vital registration in Indonesia, vital statistics are far from adequate. While Indonesia has made remarkable strides in building up a supply of personnel with advanced training in demography and in amassing a considerable body of demographic and socioeconomic research, continued attention to these areas is still warranted. The mortality rate in Indonesia continues to decline: 1985 life expectancy is estimated at 51.2 years for men and 53.9 years for women. Health services of all kinds continue to expand, especially in transmigration, border, and remote areas. Some health centers, however, are underutilized. Evaluation activities seem not to have kept pace with the increase in health care, although an evaluation method is being used more widely. Infant mortality continues to decline and by 1985 reached 87/1000 births. To reduce the number of deaths even further, the government is emphasizing the triad of malnutrition, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. The family planning program reached 110% of target. External assistance continued to grow, but Indonesian input surpasses it.. Since the Needs Assessment report of 1979, the State MInistry on the Role of Women has been established and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women has been ratified, providing a very encouraging outlook for women. Since the 1st Needs Assessment Mission in 1979, the government has made remarkable progress in integrating population variables into all aspects of development policy, planning, and activities. Detailed recommendations from the mission on population policy, basic data collection and population research and training, management of the population and family planning program, maternal and child health and family planning, IEC, and programs for women, youth, the aged, and community participation are include.
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  12. 12

    Population/family health overview: Madagascar.

    Ferguson-Bisson D; Lecomte J

    Washington, D.C., International Science and Technology Institute, Population Technical Assistance Project, 1985 Aug 8. v, 7, [4] p. (Report No. 85-48-018; Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)

    The objectives of the consultation in Madagascar were to review existing policies and programs in population and family health, to assess government and nongovernment plans and capabilities to program implementation, to review other donor activities, to identify constraints impeding population and family planning activities, and to prepare recommendations for the US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Madagascar. Although the government has no officially proclaimed population policy, there is increasing direct support of family planning. The private family planning association, Fianakaviana Sambatra (FISA) was officially recognized in 1967 and is permitted to import and distribute contraceptives. Sale of contraceptives in private pharmacies also is permitted. The major organization providing family planning services is FISA. The Ministry of Health (MOH) system does not include contraceptive services as part of its health care services, but at the request of MOH physicians, FISA provides services in 40 MOH facilities. Private pharmacies account for most of the contraceptive distribution, with oral contraceptives (OCs) being sold by prescriptions written by private physicians or, on occasion, by public health physicians. Contraceptive services also are provided in the medical centers of at least 3 organizations: JIRAMA, the water and electricity parastatal; SOLIMA, the petroleum parastatal; and OSTIE, a group of private enterprises that has its own health care system. A Catholic organization, FTK (Natural Family Planning Association) provides education and training in natural family planning. Demographic research has not been accorded a high priority in Madagascar. Consequently, the country's capabilities in the area are relatively limited. At this time, demographic research is carried out within several institutional structures. The major donor in the area of population/family planning is UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Activities of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in the area of health are relevant to the planned USAID assistance. For several years, USAID has provided population assistance to Madagascar through its centrally funded projects. Recommendations are presented in order of descending importance according to priorities determined by the consultation team: population policy; training/sensitization of the medical community; support to existing private voluntary organizations; demographic statistics and research; information, education, and communication; and collection and reinforcement of health statistics. In regard to population policy, assistance should be directed to 2 general objectives: providing guidance to the government in deciding which stance it ultimately wishes to adopt officially with regard to population; and encouraging the systematic incorporation of demographic factors into sectoral development planning.
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  13. 13

    Annual report: 1985.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, FPIA, 1985. 206 p.

    Summarizing the work of the Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) for the past 14 months, with emphasis on 1985, this document contains both regional and country reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America. FPIA's strategy in Africa during 1985 was to focus on small, high-risk projects which call for extensive technical assistance. Project Assistance accounted for 48.8% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 47.5% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region. Special Grants accounted for slightly over 2.1% of the total assistance to Africa. In the Asia and Pacific Region, components of the FPIA strategy include: consolidate support and provide technical assistance to those agencies whose family planning services can be institutionalized and serve to complement and influence the goals, objectives, and program procedures of their governments' national family planning programs; problem solve with grantee agencies approaches to innovative delivery of temporary method services; provide training opportunities and technical assistance to project management and staff as well as to influential nonproject persons; and establish how FPIA commodities can complement supplies available to nongovernmental organizations through their government warehouses and bilateral supported community retail sales program. Project Assistance accounted for 47.1% of the total value of FPIA assistance in the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 50.8% and Special Grants slightly over 1% of total assistance to the region. In Latin America, FPIA's program goals respond to agency goals of promoting family planning services in areas of unmet need, upgrading existing family planning service models, and encouraging service continuation following the phase-out of FPIA support. Project Assistance accounted for 46.8%, Commodity Assistance 52.2%, and Special Grants less than 1% of total FPIA assistance to the region. The combined value of all types of assistance provided worldwide during 1985 totaled over $18 million: $7.2 million in direct support to 128 funded projects in 39 countries; and $10.1 million in commodities shipped to 218 institutions in 66 countries. Oral contraceptive and condom shipments alone were sufficient to supply 2.4 million contraceptors for 1 year.
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  14. 14

    International Planned Parenthood Federation adds Norplant implants to its commodities list of approved contraceptives. News release.

    Population Council

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1985 Oct 5. 3 p.

    On December 5, 1985, the Population Council announced that the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has approved the inclusion of Norplant implants on its commodities list of contraceptives available to its affiliates. This action means that the Norplant method will be available to the 120 IPPF-affiliated national family planning associations once the contraceptive has been approved for distribution by regulatory authorities in each country. IPPF has indicated that it will supply the implants to agencies that: 1) have a sufficient number of health workers who have been formally trained in Norplant insertion, removal, and counseling techniques; 2) have suitable clinic facilities and adequate back-up and referral systems; and 3) can arrange training so that additional health workers will qualify to use this method. The Norplant method was approved by the IPPF Advisory Panel on September 8, 1985, following an 18-month period of review of all available scientific data. The Norplant system has been used in clinical trials in 25 countries involving over 25,000 acceptors. The Population Council has cited the inclusion of Norplant implants in the IPPF program as an important step in the worldwide availability of this contraceptive method. The Population Council has established regional training centers in Indonesia, Egypt, Chile, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic where health care personnel can be trained in techniques of insertion and removal of the impants as well as in counseling potential acceptors.
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  15. 15

    Health-related population issues: report of a study group, Brazzaville, 7-9 October 1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa, 1985. vi, 78 p.

    This is a report from a meeting held to consider questions relating to the implementation of family planning as part of integrated services with maternal and child health programs. The geographic focus is on Africa. Consideration is given to nutritional and ecological problems, women's roles in family planning programs, education and communication in family planning, and WHO's program of research in human reproduction. (ANNOTATION)
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  16. 16

    Politics and population. U.S. assistance for international population programs in the Reagan Administration.

    Goodman M

    [Unpublished] [1985]. [12] p.

    US support for family planning programs in developing nations has become more and more controversial as the existing consensus on the rationale for these programs has been lost. This article discusses the major issues of the current debate on international family planning assistance and some of the reasons why bipartisan support for the program has eroded in recent years. During the 1960s, 2 factors contributed to the advent of the international family planning movement: the development of modern contraceptive technology in the form of the oral contraceptive (OC) and the IUD, technologies which, it was believed, could be made readily available and used easily, even in the poorest developing countries; and the growing realization that as mortality rates were declining rapidly due to improved health care in developing countries, the rate of population growth was increasing at a pace never before achieved. After some initial reluctance, efforts to stabilize population growth rates came to be accepted as in the US national interest, and by the 1970s both Republican and Democratic administrations and bipartisan congressional coalitions supported regular increases in funding for population programs as part of the foreign aid program. The US, together with several European countries, was instrumental in the development and early support for the UN Fund for Population Activities and the nongovernmental International Planned Parenthood Federation. In general, US support for international population programs was not a controversial issue in foreign aid debates until last year. Since President Reagan took office in January 1981, both the advocates and opponents of population programs have become more active and organized. Foreign aid in general and international family planning programs in particular are a favorite target for conservative groups, which include several antiabortion groups. Consequently, early in the Reagan administration efforts were made to slash the foreign aid budget. These efforts went so far as to propose eliminating all funding for international family planning programs. These efforts failed, and the US maintained its position as preeminent donor for family planning until 1984. In its final version, the US policy paper for the 1984 Mexico City Conference made 2 important revisions regarding US international population policy: the explanation of population growth as a "neutral phenomenon," caused by counterproductive, statist economic policies in poor countries, for which the suggested remedy is free market economic reform; and the assertion that the US does not consider abortion an acceptable element of family planning programs and will not contribute to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. How this controversy over US International population policy is resolved depends largely on how Congress defines the issue.
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  17. 17

    Current status of family planning in Nigeria.

    Fajobi A

    Planfed News. 1985 Dec; 4-6, 8, 14.

    Unlike past regimes, Nigeria's current government promotes policies to reduce fertility and to expand family planning services. Current economic problems are worsened by rapid population growth. This realization has caused the federal military government to proceed with bilateral population and family planning programs, which were initiated in 1982 with the help of the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The 4th National Development Plan provides help to voluntary agencies such as the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN). The government wants 1) voluntary organizations to train non-physician personnel to deliver family planning services and 2) to include family planning in its own Primary Health Care Scheme. The federal government now provides resources to states for the construction, equipment, furnishing, and staffing of various primary health care facilities at both state and local levels. Many states, however, are not enthusiastic about providing family planning. Other states manage to provide contraceptives only with international assistance. However, all state governments have either initiated or expanded services. Government family planning services are usually restricted to clinic-based contraceptive service delivery by medical or paramedical staff. Often, services are only provided on request. Very recently, some new government services have been addressing public information and education needs. Semi-government services include those at Nigerian universities and post-secondary institutions of higher learning, which provide significant clinical services, information and education, and training of personnel and also receive international assistance. The Armed Forces' medical department also provides family planning services. Nongovernmental services include 1) church sponsored facilities; 2) private facilities; 3) the commercial network of chemists, pharmacies, and drug stores; 4) the major international agencies that support family planning in Nigeria, such as the UN Fund for Population Activities. UNICEF, the World Health Organization, USAID, the Canadian International Development Agency, and others; and 5) the PPFN.
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  18. 18

    Private sector family planning.

    Krystall E

    Populi. 1985; 12(3):34-9.

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) in consultation with the government of Kenya agreed in 1983 to prepare a demonstration family planning project, which would assist the private sector as well as other major nongovernment providers of health services to upgrade their health services, train and augment their nursing and other medical staff, provide family planning equipment and free contraceptives, and establish these health facilities as full-time family planning service delivery points. The Family Planning Private Sector Program (FPPS) will assist 30 private sector firms, "parastatal" organizations, and other private and nongovernment organizations that already provide health services to their workers, their dependents, and in many cases the surrounding communities to upgrade their services and add a full-time family planning facility. As some of the firms or organizations have multiple outlets, the program will create 50 or more new family planning delivery points throughout Kenya, thereby also relieving some of the pressure on government facilities. The FPPS sub-projects are to recruit at least 30,000 new acceptors. FPPS has added a guideline that at least 60% of these new acceptors be retained in the program for at least a period of 2 years. The FPPS program has received an enthusiastic reception from employers, the unions, and nongovernment organizations such as the Protestant Church Medical Association and the Seventh Day Adventists. The FPPS team can provide projects with a variety of services and funds for family planning related equipment, supplies, and activities. These include assistance with project design, training existing medical staff in family planning service delivery, the collection of baseline information, and the provision of funds for equipping family planning clinics. The government has encouraged FPPS to be innovative and to introduce family planning services into as wide a variety of health services as possible. As presently designed, the FPPS program is primarily a service delivery program but is beginning to play an increasingly dynamic role in information and education activities about family planning. From the start, the participating projects demanded assistance in spreading the family planning message to the workers, their families, and the community. It is evident that the program has stimulated management, clinic staff, and workers and has generated competition between projects to reach and exceed their targets of both new acceptors and high continuation rates.
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  19. 19

    Planned Parenthood education programs: a national overview.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]

    New York, New York, PPFA, 1985 Feb. 8 p.

    This booklet highlights a selection of some current Planned Parenthood education programs. 3 programs in the area of child sexual abuse include the Sexual Abuse Prevention Project (SAPP), the "Bubbylonian Encounter" -- a sexual abuse prevention program, and OK Bears, an education program for parents and other adults. SAPP is designed to get more people involved and informed about sexual abuse, to educate both parents and children in prevention techniques, and to prepare both parents and educators for possible disclosures that may result from the program's presentations. In less than 1 year, "Bubbylonian Encounter", a program for elementary school children, has received so much community support that it has expanded to school districts in other counties. "OK/Not OK Touches" educates parents and other adults about sexual abuse of children so they can separate the myths from the facts and communicate with children about this sensitive subject. In the area of teen theater, "An Ounce of Prevention" is a comprehensive videotape project on child sexual abuse. Also in this area are The Great Body Show -- a rural family planning program designed to reduce teen pregnancy through increased education; TACT (Teenage Communication Theater) -- an approach to education using drama to heighten awareness of problems of teens: Youth Expression Theater, which uses drama to heighten awareness of the real problems and pressures faced by teens in the social and sexual areas of their lives; THE SOURCE -- a 15-member volunteer teen outreach council which wrote their own play, "Speak Up-Speak Out;" and the Washington Area Improvisational Teen Theater, which has as its purpose to increase awareness and provide the information teenagers need in order to make responsible decisions regarding their sexuality. Parent/child education programs include APPLES, a set of 4 prevention and education-oriented programs for adolescent parents and their children; Parents and Children Together (P.A.C.T.), an early teenage pregnancy prevention program aimed at providing family life education to parents and children of all ages; and the Parent Education Program of New York City, which offers a variety of resources to help parents become better sexuality educators for their children. Two male involvement programs and Boys and Babies, a program which enhances and builds on the innate potential of all humans to care and nurture, and The Male Services Program, which is based on the premise that young men can make better, more responsible decisions about their sexual behavior with education and guidance.
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  20. 20

    International family planning: the reasons for the program.

    McPherson MP

    [Unpublished] 1985 Nov 25. 8 p.

    For some time there has been an active debate centering on the relationship between population growth and economic growth and the relationship, if any, between abortion and family planning programs. This debate has been characterized by strongly held and often polarized convictions, yet the debate usually fails to consider a most important set of reasons for family planning programs. Specifically, there has been little attention directed to the interests of families and individuals. This is unfortunate since the availability or lack of family planning services is of enormous consequences to some families and individuals. These family and individual interests fall into 3 categories: the desire of couples to determine the size and spacing of their family; mother and child survival; and reduction of abortion. The right of the family to choose the number and spacing of their children was strongly reaffirmed by international consensus at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. Governments should not dictate the number of children couples can have, but family planning services should be encouraged so that people really do have the option, if they desire, of fewer children. Families make decisions in their own interest based upon their social and economic and religious situation. Change, including urbanization and lower child mortality, has created a new situation for millions of families throughout the developing world. One can debate the impact of population growth on economic growth in a family, but there is no question that many families feel they can do more for each child if they have fewer children. The unfulfilled desire of 3rd world families to have fewer children is not just Western speculation. Surveys show a large number of women who would like to space or limit their family size but cannot because no services are available. The health and survival of mothers and children provides a 2nd important reason for family planning. 1 of the most serious consequences of women having many children in quick succession is that more children and mothers die. There are dramatic statistics that family planning saves lives. Sound economic policies and various development efforts are critical to economic growth, but family planning has been part of successful packages in some key countries in recent years. Based upon that, sound economic and population policies are mutually supportive components of a country's plans for economic growth. This was the position taken by the Agency for International Development and remains its position. Strong family planning programs should be supported in the interests of families and individuals.
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  21. 21

    A decade of partnership, 1974-1984.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. East and South East Asia and Oceania Region [ESEAOR]

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, East and South East Asia and Oceania Region, [1985] 46 p.

    The East and South East Asia and Oceania Region (ESEAO) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is a partnership formed a decade ago between 2 former regions. This partnership includes many other partnerships--those between volunteers and professional staff and those between family planning associations and the IPPF. The ESEAO region is a varied and widely dispersed one. In 1983, its 15 countries contained 465 million people. The ESEAO region must design seminars and training classes that cover very basic information for new and tiny associations with virtually no resources as well as seminars that cover more advanced training for more developed associations. IPPF is a nonprofit international organization of voluntary family planning organizations dedicated to the belief that knowledge of family planning is a basic human right and that the world's population and natural resources must be balanced for human well-being. Family planning associations are grassroots organizations that quite often make use of volunteers. Because they are in touch with people's needs, these associations have pioneered many new initiatives in service delivery. The major role of the associations in the ESEAO region is to provide information and education about the benefits of family planning. The associations also provide services and training. Each association holds that family planning is a fundamental human right. Country association reports are included for Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, West Samoa, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.
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  22. 22


    Population Crisis Committee [PCC]

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)

    In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
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  23. 23

    Planned Parenthood and Women's Development. Experiences from Africa: Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho and Mauritius.

    Nturibi DN

    Nairobi, Kenya, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Regional Office, 1985. [5], 54 p.

    This report, prepared as part of International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) program, analyzes selected program projects in Kenya, Mauritius, Lesotho, and Ghana. Projects were in the areas of income generation, community service provision, skill training, health education, and community issues. In all, over 40 projects have been assisted in Africa since the PPWD program was begun in 1977. Information on these projects, their activities, impact, and future needs is presented in tabular form. Members of the women's groups described are becoming outspoken advocates of family planning. Those who have limited their family size claimed to have more time to devote to self and family. Groups that have achieved high levels of acceptance of family planning methods attribute their success to the linkage of family planning and maternal-child health, family economics, nutrition, education, and future prospects. Community-based distribution of nonclinical contraceptives is viewed as a logical outgrowth of women's projects, and many group members are willing to be trained as volunteer motivators. In cases where PPWD funding periods have ended, Family Planning Associations have continued to support projects from their own resources. This is an encouraging trend, since the continuation and expansion of PPWD projects depends on groups being helped to become self-reliant, to seek government support for services, to develop strong leadership, and to link up with development plans for their areas. Revolving funds, rather than group grants, should be encouraged to extend the benefits of limited funding to more groups. Overall, the PPWD program has taken in Africa, and demands for expansion and further funding can be anticipated. It is important that the family planning objective remain central in these projects.
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  24. 24

    Family planning program funds: sources, levels, and trends.

    Nortman DL

    New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)

    This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
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  25. 25

    Parasites of all types must be controlled.

    Solon FS

    Joicfp Review. 1985 Oct; 10:44.

    The primary health care program in the Philippines today officially includes only the control of parasites which cause malaria and schistomiasis. Dr. Solon suggests that equal emphasis should be given to the control of all types of parasites. This paper presents excerpts from an interview with Dr. Solon. He expresses his opinion that in the past 20 years infant mortality has decreased markedly. In 1985, it was reduced to 58/1000 live births. He attributes this to a political will to support the health ministry in the implementation of its programs. The efforts to implement primary health care (PHC) has resulted in receiving the Kawaski Award given by Japan and the World Health Organization (WHO) to a country successfully implementing PHC. JOICFP has demonstrated the approaches used in the integration of family planning, nutrition and parasite control. Dr. Solon hopes that the integrated project would pave the way for the control of parasites other than schistostomiasis and malariasis. Less attention has been paid to the control of helminths such as ascaris, bookworm, trichuris t. and roundworm, which are common in the Philippines. Worms may cause deadly diseases such as pneumonia and bronchitis. JOICFP has shown that in several project areas in the country, use of the right personnel, equipment and anthelmintics can result in controlling these parasites.
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