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Project agreement between the Government of India and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.
[Unpublished] 1979. 76 p. (UNFPA Project No IND-79-P10)The primary goal of India's population education project is to gear the entire educational system in the country to the realization of the potential role of education in the developmental efforts of the country and of the interrelationship between the population situation and different aspects of the quality of life at the micro and macro levels. Project activities include the following: curriculum and instructional material development; training programs; evaluation and research; and the implementation of the population projects at the state level. Justification for the project is included in this project agreement between the government of India and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The activities planned at the national level have direct relevance to achievement of immediate and long range project objectives. The Ministry of Education and Social Welfare of the government of India would be the implementing agency for the national program in population education. A separate Unit of Population Education would be established in the Ministry of Education, and a national steering committee would be created at the national level. The detailed organizational structure would be developed by each state separately in accordance with their needs and requirements for implementation of the population education program. The existing educational infrastructure would be utilized at the district and local levels for the purpose of training and feedback from the field to the state and national levels. The project duration would be 36 months and the starting date would be April 1980. The UNFPA contribution would be US $5,321,620. India's contribution would be Rs. 8,050,000.
Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1979 May. 34 p.This document assesses the situation of women in agriculture and rural development in Indonesia, with particular attention to the extent to which rural women are 1) included as a target group in national development plans, policies, and programs; 2) provided access to resources, services, and opportunities that assist them in meeting basic family needs; and 3) involved in policy planning and decision making. The analysis places women within the context of the rural family on the assumption that the rural household is a basic socioeconomic unit of production and consumption. 61.7% of Indonesia's households are farm households. The majority of economically active rural women are unpaid family workers, whereas most rural men are employees. The major occupations of rural women are farming, trade, production, and services. Their daily work load is consistently higher than that of men in every age group. Indonesia's 2nd 5-Year Development Plan (REPELITA II--1974-79) included among its objectives improving the status of women and the educational and employment opportunities available to them. Marriage laws were to be reviewed, and the national family planning program was viewed as a vehicle for reaching a large sector of the female population. REPELITA III (1979-84) includes a focus on providing opportunities for economically weak groups and for young people and women. The government has introduced incentives for family planning, e.g., tax deductions/family has been reduced from 12 to 7, and minimum ages for marriage have been stipulated. Population education has been institutionalized in all formal and nonformal educational activities. The number of family planning clinics has increased from 1465 in 1970-71 to 3343 in 1975-76. School enrollemnt rates are consistently low for rural women. Their involvement in institutions at the village level is very limited and does not reflect their full potential as participants in public life.
[Unpublished] 1979. Presented at the Seminar for Regional, District and Party Officials of Kilimanjaro Region, Moshi, 26 through 28 February 1979. 22 p.The objectives of the Seminar for Regional, District and Party Officials of Kilimanjaro Region held in Moshi during February 1979, were the following: to create an awareness and understanding of the relationship between demographic factors and the amount of food available for consumption in Kilimanjaro Region; to identify problems affecting the quality of life of the people at village level, particularly the vulnerable group of women and children under age 5; and to find solutions to the above problems existing at village levels, mainly by self help methods. At the Seminar the Project--population/family life education, communication, and applied research--was explained. The 7 main program areas were described: basic data analysis and utilization; population dynamics; family health programs; information, education, and communication in support of population programs; special programs; and multisectoral activities. The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) population education programs work through all appropriate channels reaching rural families with particular emphasis on rural children. The project objectives are to contribute toward the improvement of the quality of life by creating a better understanding of the role which demographic factors have in the relationship between family needs and available family resources; to carry out applied research in the area of population and family life education and to study related problems at the village level; and to integrate population and family life education into existing government/agency programs. This seminar report includes summaries of papers focusing on the following: demographic and socioeconomic development in Tanzania; population and the agroeconomic situation in the Kilimanjaro Region; the development program for women in the Kilimanjaro Region; communication methods in population education; family planning programs in Tanzania and in the Kilimanjaro Region; regional development planning in the Kilimanjaro Region; and the integrated approach in rural development at the village level.
Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.
[Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
[Unpublished] July, 1979. 49 p.This study assesses the effectiveness of family planning education in the Republic of Korea over the past 2 decades. Target populations in various metropolitan areas were studied regarding attitudes toward family planning knowledge, contraceptive behavior, media and personal contacts on family planning, number and gender preferences, and spacing preferences. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were taken into account. Statistics were compiled by area and analyses are presented. Use of more mass media is suggested to get information on family planning across to more people. It is important to extend the range and quality of family planning services, most especially to provide the best information about contraceptive methods.
The proceeding of the Evaluation Workshop for the five UNFPA-assisted projects, 8-9 June 1979, Seoul, Korea.
Seoul, Korea, PPFK . 25 p.This monograph is a summary of a 2-day workshop of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea. The projects discussed at the workshop included 5 pilot programs sponsored through the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The 5 target projects concerned the promotion of family planning. The procedures for this promotion included using day care centers for family planning education, as well as planning publication of a newsletter for young working people. Other projects include the development of educational materials, slide shows and public advertising. Also developed were programs to provide counseling, education and distribution of birth control for both the urban poor and the isolated agricultural population. The conclusions of the workshop emphasized the initial success of the program in all its phases for the year of its existence. Research, however, pointed out the need to increase educational outreach programs.
New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, March 1979. 155 p.Report of a United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) independent evaluation of UNFPA-funded family planning activities carried out by the National Family Planning Programme of Mauritius. The activities being evaluated were set out in the agreement between the UNFPA and the Government of Mauritius on 2 December 1970. The evaluation is based on the following aspects of the program: implementation, delivery of family planning services, training of personnel, information and education activities, and self monitoring and evaluation. The evaluation was undertaken as part of a request by the Government of Mauritius for a renewal of assistance. The consultants found that the Mauritius Family Planning Programme has been "essentially successful," with 60% of couples at risk participating in the program. However, it is not expected that the goal of 1.12 gross reproduction rate will be met by 1987. A number of recommendations are made, but no major redesign of the program is recommended.
[Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association, 1979.] 110 p. (Contract AID/pha/C-1100)This reports the Third Evaluation of the Thailand National Family Program and was prepared by the entire joint Thai-American evaluation team. The summary of findings states that the NFPP has successfully achieved its target to date. The population growth rate will reach the goal of 2.1% per annum set by the Fourth Economic and Social Development Plan. It was further recommended that if the record of achievement is to be maintained through the Fifth 5-year plan (1982-6), increasing levels of support are needed both from the government and international donors. Further recommendations state that the National Family Planning Program (NFPP) should continue to focus its efforts on all regions of the country, including Bangkok. The NFPP should prioritize those georgraphic areas and segments of the population where family planning acceptance is low and/or availability of information and services are not fully developed. Targets should be set in terms of a combination of new and continuing acceptors in the next 5-year plan. Greater emphasis should be given to management and supervision at the village and health center levels. The international donor community should give full recognition to the necessity of maintaining a level of direct support for the NFPP to assist the Royal Thai Government (RTG) in achieving the goals of the Fifth National Economic and Social development Plan (1982-6). The RTG and donor agencies should continue to support public and private sector activities in voluntary sterilization.
In: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe and International Children's Center. Family health and family welfare. Paris, ICC and Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1979. 9-13.The papers presented in this document have been selected among the large amount of teaching material used for the annual courses of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and the International Children's Center on family health and family planning. Document focus is on the factors affecting family health, the elements of phsyiology which provide an understanding of how human fertility is controlled, problems of sterility and infertility, breastfeeding, and sexually transmitted diseases, sexology and health education, integration and evaluation of family planning, and the training of staff responsible for these activities. 2 maps of the world are included which illustrate the position of the world's population in 1973 and a projection for the year 2075. These 2 maps are compared to 2 other graphic representations of the world. The 1st represents the globe in terms of the actual surface of the various countries. The 2nd is based on the countries' gross national product.
In: Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EF, Sai FT, Senanayake P, eds. Lactation, fertility and the working woman. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 7-9.The principal objective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) -- an international federation of 95 voluntary national family planning associations with operations in 110 countries -- is to enable people to practice responsible parenthood as a matter of human right, family welfare, and the well-being of the community. A second IPPF objective is to increase understanding on the part of people and governments of the demographic problems existing in their communities and the world. In the area of lactation the IPPF has had several activities in the past few years. 1 activity was a Biological Sciences Workshop on Lactation and Contraception in November 1976. A 2nd activity is a study on breastfeeding being conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The Central Medical Committee of the IPPF passed a resolution early in 1976 which states that lactation is a good thing in itself, that breastfeeding is the best way of feeding an infant in the early months, if not the early years of its life, and that breastfeeding is a good contraceptive in its own right. A definite advantage of breastfeeding is that there is more avoidance of pregnancy and more protection of women from unwanted pregnancy by breastfeeding than by all combined scientific technology in family planning based programs. Some of the problems of breastfeeding and outside work relate to sheer expense, both in a positive and negative sense. There is also the question of inconvenience of breastfeeding. 1 approach to the disadvantages has been prolonged maternity leave with pay. Another approach is causing the child to invert its feeding rhythm.
A working paper on status, present and future utilisation of the TBA in 15 countries in the Middle East and Asia and a Regional Summary of the Far East and Africa.
[Unpublished] 1979. 27 p.Data on status and present and future utilization of the traditional birth attendants in countries of East and South Asia and Africa were collected through a questionnaire sent to countries of the Middle East and North Africa Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. There are 2 categories of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the Middle East and Asia: these are the "untrained midwife" who practices midwifery for a living and the birth attendant who is usually an elderly relative or neighbor and who does not earn her living from midwifery. The urban TBA fits into the 1st category; the rural TBAs are a mixture of both categories. The information provided by the questionnaire indicated that TBAs exist in all but 1 country of the region. The TBAs are employed mostly by the pregnant woman directly, and both rural and urban women use them. In most of the countries training facilities are available. The majority of the countries train only those TBAs who are already practicing midwives. Training duration ranges from 1 week to 1 year. Illiteracy appears to be the primary problem related to training. In regard to training, there needs to be careful selection, proper training, and good supervision and follow-up. Existing curricula are in need of revision.
Report of the Regional Panel on Law and Planned Parenthood Meeting, Merlin Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, 7th April, 1979.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. East and South East Asia and Oceania Region Consultation of the Bellagio Report, 5th April 1979: summary report. [Unpublished] 1979 Jul. 4-6.This document summarizes the recommendations made by the members of IPPF's East, South East Asia and Oceania Regional Panel on Law at a meeting in Kuala Lumpur on April 7, 1979. The panel recommended the implementation of a project aimed at updating the panel's information on the laws and regulations relevant to family planning in all of the countries of the region. This information will help the panel identify legal barriers to family planning acceptance and develop suggestions for dealing with these barriers. The panel asked that funds and personnel be ma for the project and called upon the Law and Planned Parenthood Consultant of IPPF to assist in developing the project. The panel also 1) requested the Regional Office to conduct follow-up investigations to determine if individual FPAs (Family Planning Associations) are actively pursuing the implementation of workshop recommendations in their respective countries; 2) reaffirmed the panel's willingness to help FPAs contend with legal barriers to family planning; 3) endorsed the Bellagio Report; 4) suggested governments consider issuing certificates to family planning auxilary personnel upon completion of training programs so as to legitimize their role in family planning programs; 5) suggested FPAs seek the help of administrative legal officers in their respective countries in interpreting unclear laws; 6) encouraged FPAs to identify those laws in their countries which inhibit the distribution of contraceptives to unmarried adolescents; 7) favored the continuation of the law panel, due to expire in 1980; and 8) called upon the Regional Office to strengthen its support of the law panel.
A report on UNFPA/EWPI Technical Working Group Meeting on Integration of Family Planning with Rural Development, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 15-18 February 1978.
New York, UNFPA, 1979. 37 p. (Policy Development Studies No. 1)Unifunctional family planning programs have proven limited in dealing with the multifaceted nature of fertility regulation. Effective fertility regulation must be accompanied by improvement of socioeconomic conditions for the rural population. The organizational arrangements for the integration of family planning into other services is the main topic of this report. Many questions of integration of services cannot be answered in generalities; specific guidelines need to be applied to specific situations. Under certain circumstances family planning integration with rural development can improve the program and advance development. The partners in integration should be chosen with consideration for the conditions in each location. It is preferable to link specialized services at the point of service delivery. Plans which create large umbrella agencies should be viewed with caution. Integration in the form of community-based family planning programs can often help increase popular participation and acceptance to make family planning more successful. In the initial stages of integration, voluntary agencies or neutral government agencies can be helpful in coordinating specialized government agencies when jurisdictional concerns preclude effective intragency exchanges. Integration programs may be efficient and cost-effective in the long run, but they may require a sizeable initial investment.
ADVANCES IN PLANNED PARENTHOOD. 1979; 14(4):152-9.A quality control program, using the bi-cycle process of medical auditing as a model, was implemented in 1976 at 5 family planning clinics operated by the Alameda-San Francisco affilate of Planned Parenthood. Both the process of auditing and the quality of patient care improved during the 2 1/2 years of program operation. Steps in the bi-cycle process were 1) defining standards for patient care; 2) collecting data on actual practice; 3) comparing actual practices with the standards; 4) instituting changes to correct deficiences in regard to meeting the standards. and 5) reassessing the program after implementation of the changes. The affilate developed uniform procedures for charting patient care, and these procedures were instituted at all 5 clinics. Charts were checked by staff personnel prior to each patient visit, and any problems needing attention were flagged for the attending clinician. After each visit or laboratory procedure, the charts were routinely checked for completeness and returned to the responsible party if incomplete. Immediate improvement in charting was observed and charting procedures were continually improved. The information from the charts was problem coded and entered into a computerized system. Monthly printouts of incidence figures were made available. These printouts helped identify problem areas. For example, when the printout demonstrated a sudden decline in the gonorrhea rates, an investigation revealed that gonorrhea cases were going undetected due to improper laboratory procedures. When a problem was identified, the causes of the problem were investigated and procedures to correct the deficiency were instituted. Subsequent monthly printouts were used to evaluate the degree of improvement brought about by these changes. Staff personnel, especially the physicians, were actively involved in helping to establish new standards and in seeking solution to identified problems. This involvement helped reduce feelings of hostility toward the quality control program on the part of staff personnel. Included were charats which depicted changes in the degree of adherence to defined standards for patient care over time.
[Washington, D.C.], American Public Health Association, 1979 Mar 7. 42 p. (Contract AID/pha/C-1100)The needs and opportunities in population and family planning in the Caribbean region are assessed. Focus is on the general setting (regional profile, economic situation, education, health, basic constraints and regionalism), observations and recommendations (population policy, international donor support, community-based distribution, voluntary sterilization, commercial retail sales, status of women, management, regional cooperation), selected regional institutions (government and non-government organizations), and international donor agencies. In general the governments in the Caribbean are supportive of family planning programs, and, except for Belize and Guyana, most of the countries have a national family planning program. Although there is tacit or direct support for family planning and an increasing application of demographic variables in the planning and development of socioeconomic programs, there is no clear indication that the governments understand or recognize the implications of rapid population growth. Except for the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and International Planned Parenthood Federation and World Bank population projects in Jamaica and Trinidad, the international donor community has provided only modest, sporadic and ad hoc support for population and family planning in the Caribbean. In the Caribbean the needs and opportunities for community-based distribution are markedly different from those existing in other countries.
London, IPPF, 1979 Oct. 47 p.The development of family planning programs in Colombia is outlined in this IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation)-sponsored report. Introductory demographic data are provided including information on the geography, economy, population dynamics, and available health services; this section is followed by a discussion of the government policy, which first became evident in 1968 with the inception of the national Maternal Child Health (MCH) program; the development of this program was in the face of active Catholic opposition and active leftwing proponents. Through 1979 the MCH program is still functioning with 100,000 new acceptors/year; in addition, the government only minimally inhibits the actions of nongovernment programs, such as PROFAMILIA, and allows for liberal regulations on such matters as prescription of contraceptives. The report then details the developments of individual family planning programs, some of which failed to survive the politically turbulent 1970s, e.g., ASCOFAME (Asociacion Colombiana de Facultades de Medicina), and others of which remain viable, e.g., PROFAMILIA; both of these programs are basically medical and have resulted in the following statistics of contraceptive protection from .1 in 1965 (per 1000 woman/years)-484.2 in 1975. Details of funding are provided, and expenditures and costs are presented tabularly. In addition to clinic programs, rural programs such as CBD (an adjunct of PROFAMILIA) were pioneered in Colombia, the structure of which has been emulated by all other field programs. Aspects of marketing (social marketing and mail order, e.g.,) are described and the personnel structure of PROFAMILIA is outlined. External funding of PROFAMILIA represents about 65% of its funding, and locally derived income provides the additional 35%.
Coming to grips with reality: an interview with Dr. Malcolm Pott, Executive Director of the International Fertility Research Program.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1979; 8(4):16-7.There is an urgent need to understand and deal with the real-life situation existing in remote rural areas where persistent poverty prevails. The International Fertility Research Program (IFRP) concentrates particularly on contraceptive research at the clinical level. Efforts are directed at innovative approaches to the adaptation of contraceptive knowledge throughout the developing world. IFRP prefers to direct its resources toward collaboration with country experts in modifying or adapting the available contraceptives in the effort to improve efficiency and effectiveness in usage. Research into simple improvements in existing contraceptives is the best bet in providing a timely solution to present limitations. Much progress has been made in Asia, but better management of family planning services, less concentration on the clinical approach, and better health care for urban and rural poor is still desperately needed. Oral contraceptives and condoms need to be put into the shops, and there must be a pull back of medical or clinic-based methods. Funding for family planning programs is adequate but not the methods of utilization. The IFRP does not conduct contraceptive research per se; it offers funding and technical assistance primarily to researchers in the developing world to explore innovations.
IPPF, London, 1979. 68 p.This publication of the IPPF is designed to provide a quick reference and thumbnail sketch of available family planning, population, and related services in 123 countries worldwide. Programs are presented as mainly private sector, voluntary, public sector, IPPF, or any combination of the above distinctions. In addition, demographic data from U.N. sources are given for each country, and symbols are used to designate degree of government involvement and types of programs for quick reference. Each country received about 100-300 words in description. Of the 123 countries listed with family planning associations, 77 governments have established official programs, and some contraceptive services are provided by another 52. All 5 continents are represented.
Directory of development resources: on-call technical support services, information clearinghouses, field research facilities, newsletters, data banks, training.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Development Information and Utilization, 1979 Jun. 345 p.This directory was compiled and published by the Office of Development Information and Utilization (DIU) at the headquarters of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The purpose of the directory is to increase awareness, particularly among less developed countries, of currently available development resources. The resources covered are U.S.-based data banks; U.S.-based information clearinghouses; newsletters and journals published by U.S. organizations; on-call technical support services available through USAID arrangements with U.S. institutions; and national, regional, and international development institutions and organizations located outside the U.S., primarily in less developed countries, which offer one or more of the following: information clearinghouses, newsletters and journals, research, and training. With a few exceptions, the resources listed were funded by USAID. The directory begins with publications and services of the Office of Development Information and Utilization including technicians on call for development; research literature for development; research literature summary; and USAID research and development abstracts. Maps of Africa, Middle East, South Asia, Far East, Central America and the Caribbean, South America, United States, and the World are also included. Forms for readers' comments complete the directory.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 58 p.This International Planned Parenthood report states the agency's policy position on management of infertility, and then briefly goes on to cover the following topics, in handbook form: 1) epidemiology of infertility; 2) etiology of infertility; 3) proper infertility counseling; 4) prevention (trauma avoidance and early treatment of diseases); 5) diagnostic techniques for the couple, man, and woman; 6) treatment of infertility in women and men; 7) use of artificial insemination, both with donor's semen and partner's semen; and 8) the place of adoption within the community of infertile couples. Prevalence of infertility is placed at an international average of 10%, though places such as Cameroon have rates as high as 40%. The factors influencing infertility are divided into 3 groups: 1) socio-cultural, 2) sexually transmitted diseases, and 3) other diseases and disorders. Causes of female infertility include: ovulation dysfunction; tubal obstruction or dysfunction; uterine actors such as fibroids, polyps, or developmental abnormalities; cervical abnormalities; vaginal factors, such as severe vaginitis or imperforate hymen; endocrine and metabolic factors, particularly thyroid disturbances, diabetes, adrenal disorder, severe nutritional disorders (anemia), or other systemic conditions; and repeated pregnancy wastage. Male causes include poor semen quality; ductal obstruction; ejaculatory disturbances (i.e., failure to deliver sperm to vagina); emotional stress (may lead to hypogonadism); and genetic factors (Klinefelter syndrome). Causes specific to the couple include lack of understanding of reproductive physiology, immunoloigcal incompatibility, nutritional deficiencies, and psychogenic factors.
London, IPPF, 1979 Oct. 77 p.During the 2nd half of the 1950s the necessity for family planning became an issue in Korea. The 1st and little-observed start was made in 1957 when family planning was introduced into the training program of the official Home Demonstration Program. Field workers were encouraged to convey their knowledge to village women. The contribution of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) to the development of Korea's national family planning program appears to have been unique in the history of the world family planning movement. No other private and voluntary family planning association is recorded as having, over a 20-year period, worked so intimately within the national programs. In discussing family planning policies and programs in Korea, focus is on the following: national history and population growth, population growth rates 1925-1979, fertility trends to 1975, primary conclusions of the National Fertility Survey, government policy and programs for the 1960-1975 period, the first 10 years of program, salient developments in the first 10 years, the 1970s, the new approach, the 4th plan (1977-1981), and the PPFK and its role. The 4th plan recognized that 1/2 of the protected couples were already obtaining contraception from the private sector and this was encouraged as the primary trend in the cities and among those in better economic situations. The major government effort was concentrated in the rural and impoverished urban and peri-urban areas with the goal of integrating family planning services and education with other development and health programs.
In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 338-46.The UNFPA has provided contraceptive supplies to a large number of countries within the context of its support to family planning service programs. These programs have often integrated maternal and child health activities into their work as well. Much of the money that the UNFPA has spent is not directly used to purchase contraceptives. About 10% of UNFPA funds have gone to family planning, with about 20% of this money being used to purchase condoms and spermacides. Although in absolute terms UNFPA is probably among the main providers of international funds for contraceptives, the composition of its support for population programs is varied. The supply of contraceptives is not the most important component of its general program, nor does it constitute the major part of its support to family planning programs.
In: International Labor Office. Family planning in industry in the Asian region. Pt. 3. Field experiences. 1st edition. Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1979 Jun. 55-67.Rapid population growth on the large Indian tea plantations, where people are afforded an economic security they seldom leave, first became a problem in the 1940's when infant morbidity and disease began to decline because of the conquest of malaria. The campus-style environment and system of medical and welfare services, as stipulated by the Plantation Labour Act, makes the rendering of family planning services quite easy. The Indian Tea Association's family planning program began in 1957; by 1963 the birth rate had dropped to 38.6/1000 from 43.4/1000 in 1960. Services are free; methods are by choice; cash incentives are granted those who accept sterilization. The United Planters' Association of Southern India began its family planning/health programs in 1971 on 3 estates. The program, known as the No Birth Bonus Scheme, was initiated after a series of 3 surveys and enacted a deferred incentive for motivating employees. The program was extended until 250,000 workers were covered under the Comprehensive Labour Welfare Scheme. The organizational structure includes liaison with State medical and health services and the District Health and Family Welfare officials of the Central Government. CLWS also has support from the Family Planning Association of India, which provides backup clinical services.
In: International Labor Office. Family planning in industry in the Asian region. Pt. 3. Field experiences. Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1979 Jun. 1-9.The per capita income in Bangladesh is $72 per year; the infant mortality rate is 140/1000. The rate of literacy is 24%. Family planning and population policy is one of the government's first priorities. The Population Planning Unit in the Directorate of Labour implements and coordinates all population activities in the labor sector. 3 pilot projects are being conducted with the technical and financial aid of ILO/UNFPA and IDA/IBRD: 1) Family Planning Motivation and Services in Industry and Plantation; 2) Population Education and Training for Labour Welfare Officers, Trade Union Officials, and Personnel; and, 3) Pilot Project for Population Planning in the Organized Sector. The government allows 3 days leave with full pay for those workers orspouses who undergo sterilization. Some industrial managements give additional benefits: housing, bonuses, medical care, education, and employjent opportunities to spouses. The long range objectives of the projects are to support the national program; facilitate the use of existing medical services; and to promote the concept of providing family planning services as part of other labor welfare services. The immediate objectives are to create an awareness of the population problem and family planning methods among industrial and plantation workers and encourage small family norms; and, to use existing services for family planning.
Piact Papers. (6):1-31.Commercial retail sales (CRS) of contraceptives were first begun in developing countries in the early '60's. A conference on the programs was convened in the Philippines in November, 1979. 65 participants from 23 countries attended. The primary objective of a commercial retail sales program is to achieve a social benefit; the secondary objective is to recover a portion of the costs of the program in order to minimize government or donor cost. The 5 components of a CRS program are: preprogram market research, marketing, operations, administration, and evaluation research. Preprogram marketing should examine products, consumer needs, retailer, distribution channels, legalities, prices, and other competing programs. Supply, warehousing, inventory control, distribution, sales management, and personnel training must be available for a successful program. The administrative components of a CRS program are accounting, personnel, statistic, and financing. Overall, commercial retail sales programs are more relevant now than they were 7 or 8 years ago. It is imperative for a program claiming funds for socioeconomic development to demonstrate that the resources needed to support it are in proportion to the relative impact it has on reducing population growth rates.