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  1. 1

    The need for paradigms, statement made at the Japan Economic Research Centre, Tokyo, 3 April, 1978.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1978]. 11 p.

    At present there exists no clear paradigm for development. The earlier preoccupation with aggregate economic growth and industrialization is greatly diminished. In its place there is greater concern for matters of absolute poverty, growing inequality and rising unemployment, as well as growth of the Gross National Product. The United Nations World Population Conference, held in Bucharest, in 1974 served to direct attention to and interest in a broader, less simplistic, more sophisticated view of the mutual interrelationships between population and development factors. There is still much territory to be explored to bring this idea to full fruition and implementation. First and foremost, all countries need data on population structure and change in order to plan effectively. Other areas deserving attention are policy formulation to make use of the data effectively; communication; education and training programs; as well as continued development of family planning programs. UNFPA currently provides financial support to all these areas. The Japanese experience may serve as a useful model for developing countries in Asia which have recognized the need to promote transition in order to achieve socioeconomic development.
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  2. 2

    New dimensions in family planning development, statement made at the Silver Jubilee Celebrations of the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, Colombo, 26 March, 1978.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1978]. 7 p.

    Sri Lanka's success in reducing her population growth rate to one of the lowest in Asia has much to do with the successful integration of basic social services, including family planning, into the life of the community. This indicates an awareness, long before it was stated at the World Population Conference in 1974, of the necessity for integration of population and development activities. It was found that the drop in birth-rates was connected with good health care and other social services, including family planning, high literacy, a tradition of relatively high age at marriage, and the full integration of women into the economic and social life of the community. In the appraisal of programs, and in view of the limited resources at the Fund's disposal, the UNFPA has developed a method of establishing needs by means of a throrough study, not only of a country's population situation but of the economic and social context in which population activities will be carried out. The Family Planning Association in Sri Lanka should regard itself as a key development agency and should continue both to teach and to learn in its work in family planning for national development. To this work and to all Sri Lanka's development efforts, the UNFPA pledges its strongest support.
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  3. 3

    What population changes portend.

    Salas RM

    Atlas World Press Review. 1978 Dec; 25(12):15-8.

    This article is excerpted from the UNFPA's Annual Report. It discusses the history of population control, fertility transitions occuring all over the world, the effectiveness of family planning programs, increased literacy programs, improvement of the status of women, international migration, food supply and the Green Revolution, and health services delivery promoting lower infant mortality rates. Also stressed is the urgent need for the recognition of national programs to control the population growth that is expected for the next 2 decades. Several concerns, such as the aging of children and adults in both developed and developing countries, will require special social needs such as education and employment. The changing family structure needs further investigation and will affect the formulation of future policies. It is emphasized that it is more useful to assist governments in realizing their aspirations than to try to change them.
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  4. 4

    Innovative projects--Companigonj health project, Noakhali.

    Chowdhury SA

    [Unpublished] 1978. Paper presented at National Workshop on Innovative Projects in Family Planning and Rural Institutions in Bangladesh, Dacca, Bangladesh, Feb. 1-4, 1978. 21 p.

    The author describes the establishment of a rural health service in Companigonj thana in Bangladesh done jointly by the government and international relief agencies. Provision was made for integrated health services including family planning, child health services, maternal health services, nutrition programs, and both curative and preventive medicine. Field workers, mostly female, were trained to provide medical services not requiring a doctor's presence. The author finds a marked increase in attendance at the health service over a period of years. The government should intensify its participation in the health service component for the program to have a chance of taking hold. Tables to illustrate the experience of the program in money expended; numbers of patients; cost per patient; clinic attendance by age, sex; hospital deliveries; new family planning acceptors; contraceptive usage; mortality and birth rate and causes of death by age; and antenatal follow up.
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  5. 5

    A.I.D. integrated low cost health delivery projects. Vol. 1. Project summaries.

    Baumslag N; Cox K; Sabin E

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of International Health, 1978 Aug. 288 p. (Contract No. TAB/Nutrition/OIH RSSA 782-77-0138-KS)

    The most rapidly growing category of health assistance is the development of low cost health delivery systems which integrate health services, family planning, and nutrition interventions. It has been shown that the perception of improved child survival due to better health and nutrition is a precondition to the acceptance of family planning on the part of the rural poor in developing countries. In 1977, 27% of AID health funds went to integrated low cost health delivery systems and in 1979 the figure was 43% with Africa receiving the largest proportion (1/3) of the funds. This volume summarizes 39 AID projects based on information contained in AID Project Identification Documents and Project Papers. 2/3 of the projects summarized target the population of a region or subregion in the country rather than the population as a whole; the assumption here is that if the value of low cost rural health delivery can be demonstrated in a part of a country it will be extended to other regions.
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  6. 6

    Afghanistan: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1978 Jun. 53 p. (Report No 3)

    The present report presents the findings of the Mission which visited Afghanistan from October 3-16, 1977 for the purpose of assessing the country's needs for population assistance. Report focus is on the following: the national setting (geographical, cultural, and administrative features; salient demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and economic development and national planning); basic population data; population dynamics and policy formulation; implementing population policies (family health and family planning and education, communication, and information); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral). The final section presents the recommendations of the Mission in detail. For the past 25 years Afghanistan has been working to inject new life into its economy. Per capita income, as estimated for 1975, was $U.S. 150, a relatively low figure and heavily skewed in favor of a very small proportion of the population. The country is still predominantly rural (85%) and agricultural (75%). In the absence of reliable data, population figures must be accepted tentatively. According to the 7-year plan, the population in 1975 was 16.7 million and the rate of growth around 2.5% per annum. The crude birth rate is near 50/1000 and the crude death rate possibly 25/1000. The Mission endorses the priority given by the government to the population census and recommends continued support on the part of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to help the Central Statistical Office in the present effort and in building up capacity for future work. The Mission recommends that efforts be concentrated on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality levels and that assistance be continued to the family health services and to programs of population education. Emphasis should be on services to men and women in rural areas. The Mission also recommends a training program for traditional birth attendants.
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  7. 7

    A history of family planning in Sri Lanka.

    De Silva CC

    Colombo, Sri Lanka, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, 1978. 215 p.

    The progress and achievement of the family planning movement in Sri Lanka is reviewed with attention directed to reminiscences, the 1st International Scientific Congress in 1974, the Silver Jubilee Congress in 1978, Family Health Bureau, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and its role, the Indian Ocean Region, the community-based distribution program, community women's forum, family life education, various projects, the Youth Division, Estate Program, Industrial Sector Program, training activities, the Information and Education and Communication Division, and the history of the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka. Early on Sri Lanka realized that the provision of family planning services was not sufficient to bring about increased awareness and acceptance and that an educational program was essential. Shortly after it was established, the Family Planning Association focused on rural districts and estates.
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  8. 8

    World list of family planning agencies.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, February 1978. 12 p.

    Listings of names and addresses are given for family planning associations in 131 countries including, e.g., Antigua, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Ecuador, Ethiopia, France, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Puerto Rico, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Tahiti, Tanzania, Thailand, Tuvalu, Uganda, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. Associations are not listed for the Republic of China or the Soviet Union. Members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation are noted by code. The list is dated February, 1978.
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  9. 9

    The future role of the Social Science Working Party.

    Molnos A

    In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Sciences Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977). London, International Planned Parenthood Federation 1978 Dec. 86-8.

    At its meeting the Social Science Working Party discussed the direction and nature of its future work. The general consensus was that the subjects under discussion at the meeting -- the role of people's motivations in family planning and the utilization of social science knowledge -- were of fundamental importance to future International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) work. The discussion included family planning programs generally. It was observed that in many Latin American and other countries family planning programs have been based on the assumption that conditions in urban and rural areas are the same. The belief was expressed that the work thus far had concentrated too much on urban areas. There was a need to make family planning services available to the poor in both rural and urban areas, and new methodologies and delivery strategies were necessary if the rural poor were to be reached. Another issue was the question of links between the Working Party and the IPPF system at regional and family planning association level. The need for the establishment of some links was expressed. It was decided that the major theme for the next meeting would be family planning among the poor in rural and suburban areas.
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  10. 10

    Social sciences within IPPF: highlights and future outlook.

    Molnos A

    In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 63-74.

    The effort is made to highlight some of the salient activities in the social sciences in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) along with ideas that have been developed and operational constraints. In reviewing social sciences in IPPF over the last 4-year period, 2 observations are necessary: 1) the social science policies were sound and continue to be valid and have made some impact on IPPF overall policies; and 2) successive social science work programs to implement these policies were only partially successful. Discussion focuses on the following: 1) maximizing the use of local social science resources -- the example of the Barranquitas Workshop; 2) "family power-social change" -- an example of participatory action research; and 3) a look at the future (the place of social sciences within IPPF, types of social scientists and training required, and qualitative and participatory research methods). Regarding the future, a 1st step is to clarify the place of the social science function within the system. The 2nd step should be adjustments in the selection and training of personnel and volunteers. The 3rd step must be the selection, adoption, and development of adequate methods for gathering and using social science knowledge. The objective of any research within IPPF should be to improve the programs of Family Planning Associations for the benefit of the acceptors. Ideally, each program should have a research component to evaluate program progress and to assess the changes occurring in the environment in which the program operates. A higher proportion of social scientists is needed within all parts of the IPPF system -- particularly those whose training is closest to the practical problems of family planning programs.
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  11. 11

    Contraceptive practice in Thailand.

    Leoprapai B

    In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 43-5.

    Thailand's first 5-year family planning program for the 1972-1976 period has been acclaimed as 1 of the most successful. New program acceptors exceeded the target by 26.2%. The program's goal of reducing the annual population growth rate from over 3% in 1972 to about 2.5% has been more or less achieved. The National Family Planning Program now has as its objective the recruitment of 3 million new acceptors for the 1977-1981 period. In an effort to achieve the various goals, a series of new methods of service delivery and new contraceptive methods along with a more intensive campaign has been devised. At this stage it is important to learn why people practice family planning, why they use particular programs, why some remain in programs for a long time, and why others drop out. The experience of Thailand's family planning programs indicates that information and motivation from trusted individuals is 1 of the most decisive factors for use of a particular family planning program. Several studies have shown that users and friends can account for up to 50% of the reasons given for using particular family planning programs. The face-to-face form of contact seems to be the most effective means of inducing people to enter a family planning program. A strong desire to avoid pregnancy or another birth appears to be the most important reason for continuing in the program. Studies of women who have dropped out of programs tend to show that side effects of the particular contraceptive method used are the primary reason, with the 2nd most cited cause being the desire for another child.
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  12. 12

    Reproduction patterns and family structure: contraceptive practice and the family in Mexico.

    Ctero LL

    In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 37-42.

    An approach is outlined which should help to explain some of the implications of family planning in a country like Mexico. Since the new official family planning programs have been introduced, reproductive patterns in Mexico have been changing. In Mexico contraception appears to be advantageous and acceptable in the following cases of existing fmaily structure: 1) urbanized middle-class families of the nuclear type; 2) highly integrated and egalitarian families; 3) families in extreme situations which are highly integrated and egalitarian or are on the verge of disintegrating; 4) families at the advanced or final stage of their procreative cycle; and 5) families who are within a social security system which protects them from the contingencies of life. The following types of families will not spontaneously recognize contraception as being to their advantage: families belonging to the traditional or folk culture which are not yet urbanized; marginal working class families; families of the extended type; families with a strong imbalance between the sexes; families in the initial or middle stages of the procreative cycles; families lacking any institutional social security; and families which function as a unit of economic production. Until this time the direct and indirect effects of contraception on family and community life have not been adequately studied. It is important to study family planning in relation to the family unit. Programs need to be designed with full knowledge of the type of families to which potential clients belong and established accordingly. Programs should distinguish between families at various stages of their procreative cycles and offer them various contraceptive methods.
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  13. 13

    Kinship structures and family planning behavior.

    Khan J

    In: Molnos A, ed. Social sciences in family planning. (Proceedings of the Meeting of the IPPF Social Science Working Party, Colombo, Sri Lanka, June 10-13, 1977). London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1978 Dec. 15-21.

    It is argued that in Pakistan the more children (particularly sons) families have the better the chances that the parents can export them to urban markets and to the middle East for lucrative work, and the better the chances that the extra labor force can handle the family's business of the family so that they can conduct their daily business. In societies like Pakistan the answer to the question as to why people practice or fail to practice family planning needs to be analyzed in the context of kinship structure. The motives, ideologies and exchange relationships are assumed to be derivatives of such systems. Focus is on social and economic factors affecting family planning decisions (education, family income, socioeconomic status, family type, age at marriage, ideal number of children, fate orientation of wife, and egalitarianism), social structural factors affecting family planning decisions, and social and economic exchange factors. In addition to these social and economic considerations the issues of the nature and scope of contraceptive technology itself needs to be considered. The family planning program in Pakistan is a little over 10 years old, and the birthrate of the country has not declined. This fact should not be depressing, for it is the administrative enthusiasm of the planners in the early phase that is partly responsible for the current disappointment. The 10 years has been used to do the ground work. Program planning should consider the type of kinship structure to which potential clients belong, and the programs should be designed to encourage the adoption of a complex package of changes rather than to combat the resistance against contraception.
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  14. 14

    Liberia: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    N.Y., UNFPA, Aug. 1978. 53 p. (Report Number 5)

    This report presents the findings of a UNFPA Mission which visited Liberia, August 28-September 9, 1977, to discover what assistance Liberia requires to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population policies. After describing the salient geographic, cultural, demographic, economic and governmental features of the country and the status of data collection, population dynamics, population policy formulation and implementation and sources of external assistance, the Mission states its recommendations. Statistical tables summarize the background information and there are appendixes on education and the recommendations of the Seminar on the Results of the 1970 Census. The recommendations of the Mission emphasize training. 1) Training of middle-level personnel in the tasks of population data collection and evaluation. 2) Improvement of managerial capacity to raise the effectiveness of statistical recording. 3) Assistance to the Demographic Unit of the University as the main potential source of training. 4) Improvement of vital statistics. 5) Initiation of demographic research and informational activities. 6) MCH/FP program improvement through self-reliance in ministerial policy making, improvement of county-level supervision and training and community-level service delivery. 7) Establishment of a unit in the Ministry of Health for planning MCH/FP services and interim assistance to existing private organizations in the field. 8) Training of personnel for IEC activities. 9) Establishment of a central information and communication unit.
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  15. 15

    [Viet Nam: Report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Viet Nam: Rapport de Mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1978 May. 76 p. (Rapport No. 2)

    This report presents the findings of a UNFPA Mission which visited Viet Nam, June 18-27, 1977, to discover what assistance Viet Nam requires to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population policies. After describing the salient geographic, cultural, demographic, economic and governmental features of the country, concentrating on the aftermath of 30 years of war which ended in April 1975, and the status of data collection, processing and evaluation, population dynamics, population policy implementation and sources of external assistance, the Mission states its recommendations. Statistical tables summarize the background information and the provisional plan of action and its requirements. The Mission recommends: 1) Assistance in the form of communications equipment and training of personnel for carrying out a planned census. 2) Establishment of a National Center for Demographic Studies. 3) Material aid, especially housing supplies, to enable the government to carry out its planned resettlement of millions of people in New Economic Zones. 4) Professional and supporting services for the family planning program, which is particularly weak in the South. 5) Special attention to the needs of women to eliminate prevalent gynecological and venereal diseases and to supply them with suitable contraceptives.
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  16. 16

    Conditions of fertility decline in developing countries, 1965-75.


    Studies in Family Planning. 1978 May; 9(5):89-147.

    A macroanalysis of the correlates of fertility decline in developing countries for the period 1965-75. The analysis focuses on how much of the fertility decline is associated with socioeconomic variables such as health, education, economic status, and urbanization, or with "modernization" as a whole, and how much with population policies and programs designed to reduce rates of growth. The data are examined in a variety of ways: 1) simple correlations among the variables; 2) multiple regression analysis using both 1970 values of socioeconomic variables and, for the alternative lag theory, 1960 values; 3) change in the socioeconomic variables over time; 4) a special form of regression analysis called path analysis; 5) a relatively new type of analysis called exploratory data analysis; 6) relation of socioeconomic level and program efforts to both absolute and percentage declines in fertility; 7) crosstabulations of program effort with an index of socioeconomic variables. Such data and analyses show that the level of "modernization" as reflected by 7 socioeconomic factors has a substantial relationship to fertility decline, but also that family planning programs have a significant, independent effect over and above the effect of socioeconomic factors. The key finding probably is that 2 (social setting and program effort) go together most effectively. Countries that rank well on socioeconomic variables and also make substantial program effort have had on average much more fertility decline than have countries with one or the other, and far more than those with neither. Finally, the relationship between predicted and observed crude birth rate decline for the 94 developing countries over this period is illustrated for different combinations of actors, and an attempt is made to estimate the quantitative impact of the major conditions upon the intermediate variables traditionally assumed to account for crude birth rate change.(AUTHOR ABSTRACT)
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  17. 17

    Fertility effects of family planning programs: a methodological review.


    Social Biology. 25(2):145-163, Summer 1978.

    This paper reviews and compares the methodologies of some 70 investigations of the effect of family planning programs on fertility levels. Differences among the studies include variations in questions asked, research methods used, program type investigated, and made of program action assumed. Programs can affect fertility by providing means of fertility control, education, legitimation, incentives/disincentives or any combination of these but the actual effect of these modes is unclear. Comparison is usually made between the effects on fertility of a program as a whole and a hypothetical estimate of what fertility rates would have been without the program. This hypothetical estimate is in fact not subject to empirical measurement, and a variety of methods have been developed largely to attack this methodological problem. The article compares the characteristics of several methods and provides a matrix comparing their strength, limitations and applications. The methods discussed include: 1) decomposition of change which identifies several factors affecting changes in crude birth rate; 2) correspondence between program activity and fertility trends over time to across areas or groups, which often takes close statistical association as evidence of causality; 3) matching studies, which try to remove the influence of nonprogram factors by controlling the characteristics of the subject; 4) experimental and control areas, comparing presumably similar groups with and without family planning programs; 5) multiple regression across areal units which provides some information on areal trends but requires extensive data for many statistical areas; 6) calculation of national effects of births averted among acceptors; and 7) simulation, which compares data to mathematical projection models, such as the TABRAP/CONVERSE and POPSIM models. No one method is best but certain methods are best to answer certain questions. All of the methods have difficulty establishing actual causality between the program studied and fertility trends and ruling out alternative explanations. Recent studies encouraged by the U.N. Population Division are seeking cross-method and cross-program evaluation.
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  18. 18

    Multi-year population strategy--Arab Republic of Egypt.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Egypt, USAID. 1978 March; 82.

    A review of Egypt's population/family planning policy and assessment of the current population problem is included in a multi-year population strategy for USAID in Egypt, which also comprises: 1) consideration of the major contraints to expanded practice of family size limitation; 2) assessment of the Egyptian government's commitment to fertility control; 3) suggestions for strengthening the Egyptian program and comment on possible donor roles; and 4) a recommended U.S. strategy and comment on the implications of the recommendations. The text of the review includes: 1) demographic goals and factors; 2) assessment of current population efforts; 2) proposed approaches and action for fertility reduction in Egypt; and 4) implication for U.S. population assistance. Based on analysis of Egyptian population program efforts, the following approaches are considered essential to a successful program of fertility reduction: 1) effective management and delivery of family planning services; 4) an Egyptian population educated, motivated and participating in reducing family size; 5) close donor coordination; and 6) emphasis on the role of women.
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  19. 19



    Studies in Family Planning. September 1978; 9(9):235-237.

    The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) of Indonesia began a program of expansion of services in mid-1977. On Java and Bali there are 25,000 contraceptive resupply posts. In the 10 outer-island provinces where program services began in 1973-74 village family planning volunteers work in 4000 communities. The BKKBN has been conducting intensive training programs for community leaders to manage local fertility programs since 1977. The major responsibility for maintaining family planning acceptors will be transferred from government agencies to local organizations. The total family planning budget for fiscal year 1975-76 was U.S. $25.5 million, 50% of which came from the Indonesian government and 50% from donor agencies, including USAID. USAID provided 34 million monthly cycles of oral contraceptives in 1976. Indonesia will be able to supply most of its own contraceptives by 1983-84. The number of family planning service points for all of Indonesia have increased to 1.8/1000 married women in 1976 to 3.8/1000 in 1978. These should increase to 5.4/1000 by 1982.
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  20. 20

    Local responses to global problems: a key to meeting basic human needs.


    Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, February 1978. (Worldwatch Paper No. 17) 64 p

    According to a World Bank estimate, large scale international efforts to improve social and economic conditions in developing countries would cost 47.1 billion dollars between 1980-2000. Since rich countries have not been disposed in the past to contribute heavily toward solving these problems, it is unlikely that they will commit themselves to this type of financial help in the future. Collective, self-help efforts on the local level may offer a feasible alternative for aleviating global problems of inadequate housing, food shortages, insufficient medical care, and energy shortages. Small scale efforts which enlist community involvement in the initiation, planning, and carrying out of projects are frequently more effective in creating uplift than are larger efforts controlled by individuals outside the community. Attempts to provide better housing for the poor through building large public housing complexes are costly and tend to create non-livable conditions for many of the poor; self-help efforts such as homesteading and rehabilitation, on the other hand, have been more successful. In developing areas massive national programs to relocate squatters have failed. Efforts to help squatters improve the dwellings they presently inhabit may be a more fruitful approach. The recent emphasis on garden plots for urban dwellers and small labor intensive family farms along with marketing cooperatives in the rural areas may reduce malnutrition and protect the poor from inflationary food prices. At the present time 1/5 of the world's population is still without medical care and many others have inadequate health care. The mobilization of individuals for self care, especially in regard to disease prevention, and the decentralization of health services through the establishment of neighborhood health centers, family planning clinics, and systems utilizing barefoot doctors can help overcome present health deficiencies. The energy problem can be partially solved by individual efforts to conserve resources. Many individuals and communities are developing local solar, wind, and water sources and are thus reducing reliance on the highly centralized energy industries.
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  21. 21

    Report on evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of development models.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UN, 1978. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 37; ST/ESCAP/64) 50 p

    The basic objectives of the study are: 1) to encourage and motivate country planners to improve their development plans by integrating population factors into development planning and policies; 2) to provide planners with appropriate procedures to consider the short-term and long-term implications of population growth for fixing priorities and setting targets in various development sectors; 3) to provide guidelines for considering the implications of various socioeconomic programs and policies for fertility, mortality, and migration; and 4) to serve as a guideline for training and educational purposes. The major models which have been developed by research teams to portray the interaction between demographic, economic, and social variables are analyzed and evaluated with regard to their potential usefulness in development planning. The study deals with the following prototypes and their country-specific applications: 1) TEMPO 1 and TEMPO 2; 2) the Long Range Planning Model series of models; 3) the FAC/UNFPA MODEL; 4) the model developed by the Population Dynamics Group of the University of Illinois; and 5) the BACHUE model. Concerning choice of model structure and application to planning, 3 methodological questions are considered: the choice of a central core for the model; the trade-off between simplicity and complexity; and the choice of a supply or demand orientation. It is concluded that the construction of a model is as important as its application to the policy making and planning processes of countries. In general this would be facilitated if the model were designed and developed in the country in which it was to be used. Such models would be more closely attuned to country-specific problems and the creation of the model would create a cadre of people within the country capable of operating and adapting the model.
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  22. 22

    Annual report Program Year 7 (July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978)

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, FPIA, (1978), 158 p

    The International Division of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), was established in 1971 to aid developing countries with their family planning needs. This annual report of FPIA presents information on the 1st 7 years of operation of the organization. During this period, more than $26 million worth of assistance was provided to more than 2000 agencies in over 100 countries. Funding to all areas except South and West Asia increased during the period. The dollar value of family planning commodities supplied increased in all the same areas during the same period. 41% of the commodity assistance was in condoms and 31% in pills. An overview for each region presents a summary of the work in that area, plans for the future, project and commodity assistance to date, funds broken down by country, and a list of current projects. The types of data and management information required for the FPIA programs are discussed.
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  23. 23

    UNFPA earmarks two-thirds of its funds to aid 40 countries with critical population problems.

    International Family Planning Perspectives and Digest. 1978 Winter; 4(4):133-135.

    Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), warns that the declines in birthrates in 3-4 dozen countries should not be greeted too optimistically. He points out that the patterns of declines have been uneven and that it would be unwise to conclude that the population problems of individual countries or the world are at an end. The UNFPA has established criteria for the future allocation of resources through the selection of 40 countries of the developing world whose population problems are particularly pressing. Since the UNFPA was established in 1967, annual contributions by governments have increased from a little over $20 million to nearly $92 million in 1977, when 52 countries pledged funds in support of population activities in the developing world. Among regions, the proportions of funding allocated to specific areas of activity were not uniform. In Asia and Latin America, for example, about 65% of regional budgets supported family planning programs; it was 26% in sub-Saharan Africa. Asia and the Pacific region received 1/3 of all UNFPA project funding in 1977 while Sub-Saharan Africa was the recipient of less than 1/6 of the total. In Asia and the Pacific region, the major emphasis of 1977 projects was on the delivery of family planning services.
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  24. 24

    FPIA: a unique and successful approach.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, FPIA, (1978). 9 p. (Mimeo)

    Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) was established in July 1971 to provide a creative, disciplined and practical response to the family planning needs of constituent agencies and organizations in developing countries. Currently, FPIA is 1 of the principal conduits for assistance to innovative, voluntary family planning programs in Africa, Asia and Latin America. FPIA provides contraceptives, related supplies and equipment, financial support, and technical assistance in support of family planning activities in developing nations. Thus far FPIA has funded almost 100 projects in 26 countries, and family planning commodities valued at over $5 million have been shipped to over 500 organizations in 83 countries. The programs include training, education and service; urban and rural projects using hospitals and clinics; and community-based distribution approaches. FPIA's program is field oriented, and its efforts to initiate and expand the provision of fmaily planning are dependent on and carried out through regional field representatives. Due to its special relationship with church organizations, FPIA has a unique capability to provide services to individuals, organizations, and countries that otherwise would not be reached. FPIA has a special capacity to work through women's organizations in the developing countries, capitalizing on the advantages of the woman-to-woman approach, the use of volunteers, and their ability to reach communities and households not served by clinics. FPIA, through the church and other private organizations, can reach young people before they begin their "fertility careers." FPIA has taken an active role in the support of voluntary sterilization and is providing resources to train larger numbers of family planning personnel to staff expanding service programs.
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  25. 25

    Population and mutual self-reliance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1978. (Population Profiles 12) 48 p

    Successful development planning in the 1980's depends on 1) the degree to which population size and growth is brought into line with resource development and 2) the degree to which a more equitable distribution of resources, power, and decision-making among all nations is achieved. Both of these objectives can be furthered by increasing the self-reliance of developing nations and by stimulating technical cooperation between developing countries (TDCD). The necessity of adopting a TCDC approach in solving hard economic problems such as in trade negotiations, is clearly recognized; however, there is a less well recognized, but equally critical need to incorporate the TCDC approach in the area of population planning. Developing countries, instead of utilizing population strategies derived from planning programs developed in industrialized nations, need to develop strategies more relevant to the needs and problems extant in their own countries. Since developing countries, especially those in the same geographical region, frequently confront similar problems, the development of appropriate strategies can be achieved more readily through joint regional training and research programs and by the exchange of information and the sharing of past experience between developing countries. This approach does not preclude the need for assistance from the developing nations; however, this assistance should be directed toward the development of indigenous national and regional facilities for research, training, data collection, and information exchange. Most programs supported by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in the recent past have incorporated the goal of self-reliance for developing countries and to some extent have promoted cooperative efforts between developing nations. There is a need to expand the TCDc approach in all program areas, and in future funding, priority status and increased direct funding will be provided not only for those projects which promote self-reliance but for those which stimulate TCDC.
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