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  1. 1

    World Bank lending policies and procedures in the population sector.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1977 Nov. 18 p.

    The attached paper provides the most up-to-date and authoritative statement that is available on World Bank lending policies in the population sector. The paper parallels closely an official Bank statement that was recently distributed to staff as an internal document. Since the paper is concerned only with the Bank's lending operations, it does not deal with other aspects of the Bank's population activities, such as the coverage of population in Bank economic reports or Bank research in the field. The paper defines the "population sector" as the Bank sees it and then describes the Bank's lending objectives, the range of fertility-reducing interventions possible in the light of current understanding of fertility determinants, the types of delivery systems available for the provision of family planning services, typical project content in the sector, and the use of "population components'' in non-population projects. The paper also explains how a number of general Bank policies -- e.g., on procurement, project justification, user charges, local-cost financing, co-financing, and project monitoring and evaluation -- are applied in this sector. (author's)
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  2. 2

    World Bank lending for population: 1969-77.

    World Bank

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 1977 Nov. [66] p.

    The Bank entered the population field because its experience drove it to the conclusion that attempts to raise the standard of living in a great many developing countries were being seriously hindered, if not thwarted, by the growth of population. The Bank has no fixed idea how large the population of any particular country ought to be, but it is convinced that, in most developing countries, the faster population grows, the slower will be the improvement of living standards. In many countries "population drag" is not just a minor element in the picture; it is one of the main explanations of why living standards are improving so slowly. In the mid-1960's, about two-thirds of total annual investment in a sample of 2.2 developing countries was required to maintain per capita income constant, leaving only about one-third to increase it. The corresponding figures for a representative sample of 19 developed countries were one-quarter and three quarters. The cost of rapid population growth is therefore large, and it falls most heavily on the poorest. High rates of fertility increase the number of children the labor force must support. Some of these costs are borne by the individual household, while others, such as education, are borne primarily by society. Without a decline in fertility, increased expenditures are necessary merely to provide the same inadequate instruction to larger numbers of students. Rapid population growth is an important cause of inequality of incomes. The expansion of the labor force exerts downward pressures on wages and creates unemployment; in agriculture, the effect is often the fragmentation of landholdings and growing landlessness. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Information package on current status of population and family planning policies and programs in sub-Saharan Africa.

    U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). Office of Population.

    Washington, D.C., AID, 1977. 27 p.

    This information package is designed to help development officials keep up-to-date on the rapidly changing African attitudes toward population growth and family planning. It provides a brief summary of the situation as of mid-1977, both from a regional and country-specific standpoint. Although family planning programs have begun in various African countries, most Africans do not have effective access to modern family planning. Tables are given showing government policies on access to modern methods of fertility regulation and governments' perceptions of their population growth and fertility rates. Maps show private family planning associations, government support of family planning, both total and initiated since 1979, and fertility rates. A chart on the beginnings of family planning in Africa (when government support and government programs began and when private family planning associations were established) is provided. A country by country summary of population policies and programs shows 1) the attitudes toward population matters and family planning in sub-Saharan African countries; 2) programs in population and family planning; 3) the most important donor assistance efforts.
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  4. 4

    AID/UN collaboration in social sector activities in Asia (trip report of a visit to the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh and India--Summer, 1977).

    Laufer L

    [Unpublished] Nov. 1977. 33 p.

    A trip was undertaken subsequent to and in conjunction with the 1977 UNICEF Executive Board Meeting in Manila. It included visits to and consultations with AID missions in 4 countries. The focus is primarily on coordination between AID and UN programs in the social sectors. In general, relations between AID and UN development agencies are good, but lack of coordination exists. There are many urban problems in the Philippines. The government's main focus is "Project Compassion,"--an attempt to reach rural population with interrelated services involving food production, nutrition, population, and environment. Indonesia has a large number of externally supported projects in AID priority areas, and many domestic agencies responsible for them. There are nutrition programs and a village water supply program. In Thailand, WHO, UNICEF, and AID all have a similar outlook on health and population matters. There are 4 priorities: 1) population/family planning; 2) water and food-borne diseases; 3) respiratory diseases; and 4) vector-borne diseases, especially malaria. Primary health care has been introduced into the provinces. A community school in a slum was visited. The Economic Commisision for South Asia and the Pacific has established a rural development task force, and would like to establish additional task forces to bring together UN agencies. This does not appear to be very successful. At the UNESCO regional office for education, social science research was discussed, as was the effectiveness of the International Bureau for Education International Educational Reporting Service project. The goal of the AID program in Bangladesh is to help achieve food grain self sufficiency by 1985. AID and UN agency interests coincide in the food-for-work programs of the World Food Program, and to a smaller extent in UNICEF's child feeding program. Indian programs are also discussed.
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  5. 5

    Population education in schools of the Council of Churches in Indonesia [DGI]. Education project summary.


    [Unpublished] [1977]. 3 p. (UNFPA Project No INS/77/P03)

    The long-term objectives of this project to be carried out from April 1978-May 1980 are to make population education an integral part of the curriculum of schools operated by the Council of Churches of Indonesia (DGI). Educational objectives are: 1) understanding factors causing population change in relation to development and quality of life, 2) develop competencies to critically examine population issues, and 3) understanding and encouraging support for population policies of Indonesia. Subject areas to be targeted are: 1) religion (Christianity), 2) moral education, 3) social studies, 4) natural sciences, and 5) language. Primary grades 4-6 (1092 schools, 30 master teachers), junior high grades 7-9 (325 schools, 18 teachers), and senior high grades 10-12 (265 schools, 12 teachers) in 30 SPGs and 2 IKIPs of the DGI are targeted. The DGI is responsible to the Population Education Division of the Bureau of Education and Training of the BKKBN and within the DGI the Division of Health and Responsible Parenthood's Population Education Bureau is responsible for implementation. DGI operations are divided into 15 regions. Funding includes total UNFPA contribution of $172,190 and government contribution of Rp. 63,946,000 with Sirami (Netherlands), Church World Service, Osfam and World Neighbors, Asia Foundation and Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) contributing $390,000.
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  6. 6

    Impact of population assistance to an African country: Department of State, Agency for International Development. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States

    United States. Comptroller General

    U.S. General Accounting Office. Comptroller General, Washington, D.C., United States, 1977. (ID-77-3) v, 65 p.

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  7. 7

    Working with youth: some out-of-school approaches to population, family life, and sex education.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, IPPF, l977. 73 p.

    This document contains case studies of ll programs in sex, population, and family life education for youth, which were initiated by family planning associations in several developing countries. The current emphasis on developing educational programs oriented toward young people stems from the recognition that it is the young who will bear most of the negative consequences, which are associated with rapid population increases, such as uemployment and resource shortages. Youth programs in El Salvador, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand provide training for young people who in turn go out into the community as paid or volunteer family planning and population educators. Programs in other countries stress counseling for school dropouts, provide youth information centers, or conduct education programs for various groups of young workers or students. Based on the experiences gained from these programs, a number of suggestions are made for developing effective youth education programs. Suggested guidelines are: 1) youths, themselves, should be encouraged to participate in the planning, implementation, operation, and evaluation of these programs; 2) the programs should be developed in accordance with the needs expressed by the target population; 3) the cost effectiveness of the programs should be improved by utilizing volunteer workers and through the use of mass media; 4) staff members should be adequately paid and all the expenses incurred by volunteers should be paid for by the program in order to reduce the drop out rate; and 5) evaluation procedures must be built into all phases of program development and operation.
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  8. 8

    Kenya's project for the improvement of rural health services and the maternal child health and family planning programme.

    Kanani S

    In: Korte R, ed. Nutrition in developing countries. Eschborn, Germany, German Agency for Technical Cooperation, 1977. 29-37.

    This report focusses on a project for the improvement of rural health services and development of 6 rural health training centers in Kenya. The Ministry of Health has the responsibility of managing the health centers and dispensaries throughout the country. After a study by experts and funding by international agencies, a project to provide postbasic training to health center staff was undertaken. The major health conditions affecting the community were: family health problems; communicable disease; inadequate sanitation diseases; and, malnutrition and undernutrition. The most overwhelming problem was family health which necessitated a maternal and child/family planning project. The program is directed at women aged 15-49 with a "Super-Market" approach whereby all services (antenatal care, maternity care, postnatal care, child welfare, family planning and health education) will be available on a daily basis in an integrated system. 5 new training schools for nurses are being built. Education in both health and family planning will be emphasized in the project in the future. With a view to uplifting the general quality of life, the Kenya projects are seen as part of the total socioeconomic development of the country as a whole.
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  9. 9

    [Family planning in America] Planificacion familiar en America.

    Temas de Poblacion. 1977; 3(6):11.

    The IPPF published in 1976 its first Annual report on the activities of the sector Region del Hemisferio Occidental. The report describes the efforts employed in Latin America toward family planning, and the several programs organized. From it it is possible to appreciate the positive impact of the different services to promote a more adequate family structure. Inside the report a special position is occupied by the activities of the Paraguayan Centre for Studies on Population.
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  10. 10

    Social Welfare Mothers Club under rural social service.

    Rahman JA

    Dacca, Bangladesh, Social Welfare Dept., 1977? 52 p.

    The report describes how the Department of Social Welfare of the government of Bangladesh attacked the problem of a fast and unbalanced rate of population growth through a unique social approach. With assistance from The World Bank and the Family Planning and Population Control Division of the Government, the Social Welfare Mothers' Clubs were established in order to provide training, income-earning opportunities, nonformal education, nutritional information and most importantly, family planning and population control information. Through the organized village social workers, these being women, rural populations rapidly became more aware and willing to accept population control activities. The report concludes that within two and a half years and through less than half of the total number of the Social Welfare Mothers' Clubs projected, no less than 11,887 rural mothers have become continuous users of family planning measures.
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  11. 11

    View from Asia.

    Stella RM

    In: Bogue DJ, Oettinger K, Thompson M, Morse P. Adolescent fertility. (Proceedings of the First Inter-Hemispheric Conference on Adolescent Fertility, Airlie, Virginia, August 31-September 4, 1976). Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago, Community and Family Study Center, 1977. 50-4.

    In Asia more programs on responsible parenthood, education, information and contraceptive services should be available to teenagers in view of changing sexual behavior and social norms. Adolescents have an important role to play in their communities' development. The adolescent should be encouraged to participate in the formulation of the programs, community development, or community services. Parenting, family life, or sex education can be channelled into many different areas for young people, including vocational training schemes, youth clubs and groups, service corps, leadership training, workers' unions, and other educational settings. The IPPF experience is that participation works far better than campaign gimmicks or lectures planned by adults. More study is needed.
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  12. 12


    Press Foundation of Asia

    N.Y., U.N. Fund for Population Activities, 1977. 35 p. (Population Profiles No. 8)

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  13. 13

    Labour and population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 47 p. (Population Profiles 5)

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  14. 14

    The Foundation's strategy for work on population: information paper.

    Ford Foundation

    N.Y., Ford Foundation, June 1977. 33 p. plus appendixes. Restricted use

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  15. 15

    Country brief: Pakistan 1976.


    [Unpublished] 1977. 39 p

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  16. 16

    Assistance to fertility regulation projects within the United Nations system.

    SOM RK

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 1977; 10:36-62.

    A review was undertaken to summarize information on the amount of technical assistance provided within the U.N. system to fertility regulation projects through 1976. Projects funded by the U.N. Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) included family planning delivery systems, which received an average of 71% of all funding for fertility regulation; and program development for family planning, which received 7% of this funding. Total assistance granted by UNFPA to fertility regulation projects increased from $4.6 million before 1972 to $43.2 million in 1976. The amount given to fertility regulation relative to the amount given to other population projects averaged 49% for the period and 53% in 1976. Assistance to country fertility projects consistently increased from 60% before 1972 to 87% in 1976. However, assistance to regional projects declined from 18% before 1972 to 5% in 1976. The World Bank and its affiliate, the International Development Association (IDA) had loaned a total of $134.5 million to 12 different countries by the end of 1976. These loans financed construction, vehicles, furniture and equipment as well as training, demographic research and assessment, management and other technical assistance to fertility regulation programs. Anticipated improvements in the range and standardization of data should permit future reviews to provide more detailed analysis dealing with additional aspects of the assistance given to fertility regulation projects.
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  17. 17

    Promotion of responsible parenthood in the developing world.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: Tokyo International Symposium, April 1977: Action Now Toward More Responsible Parenthood Worldwide. Tokyo, Japan Science Society, 1977, pp. 479-490

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  18. 18

    UNICEF's position paper on action now towards more responsible parenthood.


    In: Tokyo International Symposium, April 1977: Action Now Toward More Responsible Parenthood Worldwide. Tokyo, Japan Science Society, 1977, pp. 443-478

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  19. 19

    Communicating population and family planning.


    Population Bulletin. 1977 Feb; 31(5):1-39.

    All but 8 percent of the developing world's population now lives in countries which support activities designed explicitly or implicitly to reduce high rates of fertility. This Bulletin describes the indispensable role of planned communication in the rapid expansion of these activities from the emphasis on making contraceptives accessible to those ready to receive them, typical of early family planning programs, to promotion of a full range of "beyond family planning" measures aimed at creating a climate in which small families are viewed as desirable by people everywhere. Current approaches to planned population and family planning communication, as illustrated by numerous country examples, range from the use of field workers, volunteers, midwives and the like, who deliver their messages on a person-to-person basis, to full-scale mass communication campaigns which may employ both traditional folk media and modern advertising and social marketing techniques. Also discussed are population education as a somewhat different approach, not necessarily aimed at reduced fertility, and the recent rapid shift in the U.S. climate for population and family planning communication. (author's)
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  20. 20

    Recommendations on voluntary sterilization: Resolution No. l5-voluntary sterilization procedures. Western Hemisphere Regional Medical Committee, May 29-30, 1977.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    [Unpublished] [1977]. 4 p.

    The Medical Committee recommendations to the IPPF regarding voluntary sterilization programs emphasize informed consent forms which are to be filled out in duplicate in every case. The patient should be informed that no children can be produced after the procedure; the nature of the surgery allows for possible complications and failure; other contraceptive methods are available; and consent can be withdrawn any time before procedure. Family planning associations should supply summary data on number of sterilization procedures, clients' profiles, and failures to IPPF Regional and Central Offices every six months. All serious complications and deaths should be reviewed by local medical committees and reported to the Regional Medical Committee for analysis.
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  21. 21

    Address by the Chairman of the IPPF Africa Regional Council.


    In: Sai, F.T., ed. Family welfare and development in Africa. (Proceedings of the IPPF Regional Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, August 29-September 3, 1976. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1977. p. 18-20

    The primary purpose of this International Planned Parenthood Federation Regional Conference is to critically review IPPF's policies in Africa as a means of sharpening the program focus. IPPF in Africa has a good record of assisting family planning associations. There is a Pan-African Council representing each member association, and the policies are formulated in Africa. Although focus has been on child spacing, attention has been given to the problems of infertility and subfertility in Africa. Practical steps also have been taken towards integrating family planning with development and establishing the Center for African Family Studies in Kenya.
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  22. 22

    Current status of family planning in Africa.


    In: Sai, F.T., ed. Family welfare and development in Africa. (Proceedings of the IPPF Regional Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, August 29-September 3, 1976) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1977. p. 61-65

    Family planning in Africa is divided into countries with national programs in family planning, countries where family planning operates on a non-governmental supporting basis and countries with no family planning programs. Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria and Tunisia have national family planning programs financed primarily through government funds with additional financial contributions from private organizations and the United Nations. Clinical, information and education (motivational) services are offered under this type of arrangement. 13 countries including Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have non-governmental supported family planning programs. Major funding is from International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and services are primarily clinical. Countries with no family planning services indicate a somewhat favorable attitude toward family planning programs. Level of acceptance and practice of family planning is greatly determined by government acceptance and promotion of family planning while laws against programs are an inhibiting factor.
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  23. 23

    New home for a dynamic programme.

    Asian and Pacific Population Programme News. 1977; 6(4):24-25.

    In Nepal the promotion of activities aimed at improving the skills and status of women was formerly the task of the national organization, Mahila Sangathan, but is now the responsibility of the newly created Subcommittee for Women's Affairs. The subcommittee operates under the guidance of the Co-ordinating Council for Social Services under the sponsorship of Her Majesty the Queen. The subcommittee cooperates through chapters located in each of the country's 75 districts. Many of these chapters are actively engaged in 1) promoting family planning via door to door campaigns and through training local women for family planning motivational work; 2) stimulating the production and marketing of crafts made by women; 3) providing legal assistance to women; and 4) conducting literacy programs for approximately 10,000 women. A new headquarters for the subcommittee is being built with UNESCO assistance. The committee hopes to establish a library in the new building since a lack of reading material is hindering progress in its literacy program.
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  24. 24

    Indonesia; World Bank assists Second Population Project.

    Asian and Pacific Population Programme News. 1977; 6(4):22-23.

    Indonesia's First Population Project, funded jointly by the International Development Association and UNFPA, was started in 1972 and provided for construction of service and training facilities, equipment, research and evaluation studies, education, and communication activities. The national family planning program has made progress in the last 20 years. Acceptor and family planning personnel statistics are given. The World Bank has recently awarded Indonesia a loan to fund its Second Population Project, to aid in reaching the goal of a 50% reduction in fertility by 2000.
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  25. 25

    Impact of population assistance to an Asian country: report to the Congress.

    United States. Comptroller General

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Accounting Office, July 12, 1977. (ID-77-10) 66 p.

    This report focuses on the population situation in Pakistan, interrelationships in that country between socioeconomic development and population growth, and the effectiveness of U.S. AID-funded population-related activities. The population-connected program since 1973 has emphasized continuous motivation through fieldworkers, innundation of contraceptives, and a national policy of incentives to promote smaller families. None of these 3 areas has succeeded as planned and hoped. Although family planning efforts focused on provision of information, motivation, and delivery of services, the efforts fell short of targets. Reasons for this failure are: 1) social, economic, and cultural factors; 2) civil strife; 3) administrative problems; and 4) lack of a pro-family planning government policy. AID experience in Pakistan illustrates the need for proper evaluation data and a program which sets family planning programs within the larger context of socioeconomic development. It is recommended that AID no longer fund programs in countries where the atmosphere is not pro-family planning.
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