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n.p., U.N. Fund for Population Activities, and Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974? 29 pAdd to my documents.
(London, IPPF), December 1974. 3 p.The staff of the CBDD Khokhar, 2 Vacant), Administrative Assistant (Rita Fulton), 2 Secretaries (Valerie Berryman, 1 Vacant), Planning and Finance Consultant (Ralph Susman), and Products and Manufacturing Consultant (Norman Applezweig).
For the public good. A history of the Birth Control Clinic and the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Hamilton, Canada, W.L. Griffin, 1974. 35,  p.The history of the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada has been prepared to recognize the fact that the Society is the oldest of its kind in Canada. It is approaching its 50th Anniversary, and it still plays a prominent role in Hamilton as well as being one of the founding members of the Family Planning Federation of Canada. The Federation is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The Society was founded by Mary Elizabeth Hawkins with the help of Albert R. Kaufman. Mr. Kaufman alleviated the plight of wives of the unemployed who were having unwanted children. The constitution of the Society had 2 parts: (1) "to establish and maintain a birth control clinic in Hamilton where free instruction will be given to married women in cases where there are definite physical or mental disabilities in order that the public good may be served." (2) "To educate the public as to the true aims of the birth control movement and its beneficial effect upon the race." In 1932 Mrs. Hawkins and Miss Burgar went to the Wentworth County Court House in Hamilton to talk to the Crown Attorney Ballard about the legality of operating their clinic. At the time the Criminal Code had prohibitions against "every one having for sale or disposal any means of instructions or any medicine, drug or article intended or represented as a means of preventing contraception." The result of the meeting was a letter from George Ballard that openly supported their activities and wished them success. The early days were the hardest because of a lack of money, most of which came from the founding members. There was also a great deal of opposition from the local community. However, it was the work of Society that helped make contraception legal in Canada today.
Ippf Situation Report. 1974 Sep; 1-9.The current status of family planning in Sri Lanka was described, and relevant background information on population characteristics was supplied. Family planning services have been provided by the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka since 1954. In 1958 the government initiated a family planning pilot project. In 1965 the government assumed full responsibility for providing family planning services, but the governemnt did not formulate or publicly endorse a family planning policy until 1972. Sri Lanka's population was 13,033,000 in 1972, and the annual average population growth rate was 2.3% between 1963-72. The crude birth and death rates were respectively 29.6 and 7.6 in 1971, and the infant mortality rate was 48 in 1973. 41% of the population was under the age of 15 in 1973. In 1972, per capita income was US 100. 71% of the population is Sinhalese, and 70% of the population is Buddhist. The country is primarily agricultural and derives 1/3 of its income from gorwing and processing tea. Education is compulsory for all children aged 5-14 and currently 89.7% of the males and 75.4% of the females are literate. Free medical care is provided, and in 1968 there were 310 hospitals and 3242 physicians. There are no laws restricting contraception in Sri Lanka. The Ministry of Health is responsible for operating the country's national program, and the goal of the program is to reduce the birth rate to 25 by 1975. The government provides family planning services through 496 family health bureaus, and oral contraceptives (OC) and condoms are distributed by midwives and through a variety of other channels at low cost. Service statistics for 1967-73 were provided. In 1973 the number of new acceptors was 27,528 for IUDs, 34,214 for OCs, 13,941 for traditional methods, and 20,248 for sterilizations. In 1973, 11 population and family planning projects, funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities were launched in collaboration with a number of government and UN agencies, labor and employer groups, and the University of Sri Lanka. A contraceptive knowledge, attitude, and practice survey was conducted in 1973, and a National Seminar on Law and Population was held in 1974. In 1973 an effort was launched to decentralize and intensify training for family planning personnel, and several new training courses for nurses, midwives, medical officers, health educators, and public health personnel were developed. The national program receives additional assistance from the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the UN Development Programme, the Swedish International Development Authority, the Canadian International Development Agency, the World Assembly of Youth, and the Population Council. During 1973, the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka provided family planning services for 8174 new acceptors and 20,858 continuing acceptors at its 25 clinics, located primarily in Colombo. The Association conducts several industrial sector and rural programs which promote vasectomy and provide vasectomy services. Recently the Association conducted several mass mdeia educational campaigns, provided family training for 125 government physicians, and conducted several contraceptive studies, including a Depo-Provera study. In 1973, the Population Services International initiated a national social marketing project for distributing condoms.
Paris, Unesco, 1974 Jun. 28 p. (COM/WS/335 Rev.)The Unesco program is based upon 4 main assumptions: the integration of family planning communication with other aspects of development communication; the maximization and optimum use of resources, including expertise, institutions, agencies, projects, and programs in all communication sectors; a flexible and adaptable perspective of communication; and an approach to communication as a continuum, not in isolated project terms. Unesco's role in the field of family planning communication should not differ substantially from its role as an international agency in other communication fields. The principal roles open to Unesco are the encouragement of coordination and the optimization of resources, the testing and development of new communication approaches, the exchange and evaluation of information and research, and training and research activities. The philosophy and program have been tested empirically by field personnel, debated, and extended by a number of specialist meetings. Emphasis thus far has been upon establishing needs and priority areas and on developing common understanding and principles which might be proved further in material terms. The recommendations of the expert meetings form the basis for developing country programs and for the global, regional, and national level projects developed by Unesco. It is estimated that during the 1973-78 period assistance will be made available to family planning communication programs in 25 Member States and nearly 400 communicators from Member States trained. In the South East Asian region, Unesco's Regional Communication Advisor has been active since 1970. Since 1972 an interim Regional Communication Adviser (Family Planning) has been active in Africa, and similar experts have been posted to Latin America and the Arab States. Recommendations of expert meetings are included on the use of broadcasting and associate media for integrated family planning and developmental messages, on integrated use of folk media and mass media in family planning communication programs, and on communication and education in family planning. An urgent need exists to implement the strategies and recommendations proposed by the Consultation with regard to the recognized needs in the communication and education components of national programs concerned with family planning.
Women and World Population Year, decision-making for development, statement made at the Women's Forum on Population and Development, New York, 25 February 1974.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.This statement briefly traces the history of development and population programs from the 1960's till the present and discusses what these programs can do for women. The cumulative effect of apparently minor innovations which help to ease the work load in the home is far greater than it might appear. There are significant material benefits but more important are the effects of the way a woman perceives herself. She has, for the 1st time, opportunity to widen her horizons, Increased education, employment and equality tend to lower family size as well. It is therefore important to ensure the commitment and participation of women in family planning programs, so that women become active rather than passive tools of policies which ultimately affect their lives.
Accent. 1974 May; 2(4):26-8.The recent establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities indicates a universal alarm at the global population situation and a universal determination to deal with it. Set up in 1967 by the Secretary General of the United Nations, the Fund can draw on an inexhaustible reservoir of worldwide expertise of governmental, international and private organizations as well as individuals. In 1969 it was placed under the management of P.G. Hoffman, Administration of the United Nations Development Program. The work of many aid-giving organizations contributed substantially to the successful launching of the initial programs. The Fund directs its efforts toward maintaining national sovereignty without prescribing national policies and emphasizes that population programs should complement, not substitute for economic development efforts. By the end of 1973, the Fund was already supporting over 950 projects in 92 individual countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Near and Middle East. Among these were evaluation missions, plans to strengthen demographic training and research facilities, and the provision of expert services, supplies and equipment for family planning. Additionally, agreements were signed for large scale aid to Mauritius, Pakistan, and Iran for comprehensive family planning programs. The United Nations and its agencies are engaged in population activities. The population Division has offered substantial advice and guidance to countries seeking population policies; the World Health Organization has expanded its own work in the medical field to aid countries in incorporating family planning into their health services; the UNICEF collaborated with the Fund to increase help to children. The remarkable rise in support for the Fund is noted, but requests for assistance are also rising. A greater emphasis on social development is needed. More advanced countries' population problems require different approaches for the same goal: bringing the numbers and needs of people into a reasonable balance with the development of the earth's resources. It is estimated that an annual income of US$100 million will be needed to provide sufficient aid to developing countries.
The Family Planning Communication Project in the University of the Philippines: the training component.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 179-83.The University of the Philippines Institute of Mass Communication officially launched the Family Planning Communication Project on December 29, 1971. Funds were provided by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and Unesco is the executing agency. Counterpart support is to be provided by the government of the Philippines. The project is being implemented as an integral part of the activities of the Institute. The project objectives are the following: to develop communications media materials for use in the field, training and innovative research based on the socioeconomic and psycho-cultural conditions prevailing in the various areas of coverage of the national family planning program; to create innovative approaches in family planning communication based on sound experimentation in the laboratory and duplicated in the field; to provide trainers and influence groups in family planning with training on the philosophy and skills of interpersonal and mass communication; and to assist governmental and private agencies in their family planning communication problems. 4 committees have been established to carry out the activities of the project. Prototype leaflets and posters have been pretested for cover and content presentation. The 1st year of research operations was devoted almost totally to collating and synthesizing data related to family planning. In 1973 the project staff conducted 4 training seminars and 3 training workshops. The project components of curriculum and materials, teacher training, research and evaluation, organization and administration, and involvement with international agencies are reviewed. Future program directions are identified along with project needs. The project will continue to assist the national population program and the various organizations working in population communication and will extend its outreach to the Asian region. The needs of the project in terms of international assistance appear to have been met.
Delhi, D.K. Publishing House, . 130 p.The population program of India was examined from a descriptive analytical perspective. The organizational layout was examined and methods of operation were scrutinized from the standpoint of program policy. The 8 chapters of the monograph deal with the following: management and population; role of public administration; family planning system; an appendage of health; the law of sinecure and success; international assistance; population mangement; resume and results. The systems concept is a useful approach to the job of management, for it provides a framework for visualizing internal and external environmental factors as an integrated whole. The systems concept also permits recognition of the proper place and function of subsystems. Public administration in India suffers from several problems: 1) too many levels and positions to effect any rapid program decision and implementation; 2) too many boards and committees with vague or obscure duties and lack of responsibility on the part of any single individual or group; control orientation; and 4) generalist administration.
World Population Plan of Action from the United Nations World Population Conference, Bucharest, August 19-30, 1974.
Department of State Bulletin. 1974 Sep 74; 1-14.This document consists of the full text of the World Population Plan of Action developed at the United Nation's World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974. The Plan provides recommendations in regard to the development of population goals and policies and socioeconomic policies. The Plan recognizes that population growth and economic development are mutually related and that efforts to reduce population growth do not obviate the need to pursue development activities. The Plan 1) encourages nations to develop population policies; 2) recognizes the right of individual governments to determine their own population policies; 3) calls on countries to make a concentrated effort to reduce mortality and infant mortality; 4) upholds the right of all couples to determine the number of children they want to have; 5) calls upon governments to make family planning education and services available for all individuals; 6) calls for the integration of family planning services and other health services; 7) recommends reducing urban pressure by promoting regional and rural development policies; development programs; 8) urges governments to improve popu collection procedures in their respective countries in order to facilitate population and development planning; 9) advises governments to take into account the age and sex structure of the population in formulating development plans; and 10) asks governments to promote legal, educational, and employment equality for women. The Plan places a high priority on conducting population research and research aimed at developing more effective contraceptive methods. The successful implementation of the plan depends primarily on the actions taken by individual countries; however, international efforts should support and promote these national efforts.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH EDUCATION. 1974; 17(4):235-47.Extracts from the backgound paper for the Consultation Meeting of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization are presented. The meeting's purpose was to obtain specific recommendations that might be used by WHO, PAHO, and the member countries in developing educational personnel for programs dealing with family health and health aspects of reproduction. After reviewing the problems in Latin America and the Caribbean, the various kinds of constraints which have implications for health problems are examined, and key issues relating to family health are analyzed. Many health experts maintain that the family planning approach is the most effective and least expensive means of reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, yet in most countries it is perceived primarily as a means of containing or reducing population growth. In most family planning programs the number of new acceptors appears to be the criterion for measuring success; little if any emphasis is given to continuation of use, teaching the health reasons for regulating reproduction, or increasing acceptance among women with high health risks. In some programs, eligibility requirements are such that many women of high health risk cannot be served. Thus far, research and studies to promote the development of the educational component of family planning programs or to orient selection of educational methodology have had minimal support. In most countries the full potential of the resources invested to achieve improvements in maternal and child health is not being realized. This is partly because of the fact that there is no explicit national policy giving direction to the development of an integrated approach. Few countries have policies and plans for health manpower development and utilization that are based on a careful analysis of priority health needs.
IPPF Situation Report, April 1974. 7 p.As of 1970 the total population of Lesotho was 1,058,500. The population growth rate was 2.2% and the birthrate was 37/1000 according to the 1965-1970 data. The Lesotho Family Planning Association was officially registered in 1968 but since then it has been closed 6 times by the Ministry of Health. In August 1971 the Association reopened, for the government's attitude concerning family planning had eased considerably. In fact, the government suggested that the Association ask doctors in charge of hospitals to allow them to use their premises for operating clinic sessions as well as for motivational purposes. Currently, the Association has expanded its activities to all 9 districts in the country providing services in 8 clinics and at Scott Hospital. During the 1st years of its efforts, the information and education activities of the Association were severely restricted by the government, but now there is hope for a more extensive education and information program. Presently, the Association is distributing family planning booklets and pamphlets in the clinics. In 1973 the Association held educational sessions and a training course for 32 nurses and fieldworkers. In 1973 the International Planned Parenthood Federation Traveling Fieldwork Team Experiment visited Lesotho in order to determine whether fieldworker training and motivation work could be improved and extended without resorting to the workshop approach and to build up the international fieldworker teaching experience among African personnel. The program included door to door visits, demonstrations, and visits to clinics, a factory, and a lay church mission.
Unpublished, 1974. 59 pRecommended program strategy for the Ford Foundation in West Africa would concentrate upon delivery of integrated maternal-child health services including nutrition, immunizations, preventive and curative care for mothers and children. As a means of child spacing, family planning would be approved by the population, but population control programs per se at present run counter to West African ideals, and political resistance would probably result. In the context of high West African child mortality rates (e.g. from birth to 15 years a rate of 400-750 deaths per 1000 live births) a small family norm may be undesirable. Maternal-child health services are difficult to implement and little progress has been made in providing any component of maternal/child health or family planning on a nationwide level. Constraints on planning include the lack of preparation of medical and nursing practitioners for health planning, the problem of carrying out and interpreting research and small trials, the lack of a functioning interdisciplinary communications network for practitioners, lack of funds, and lack of appropriately trained manpower. Contraints on the production of action-oriented research are similar to contraints on planning of maternal-child health services. An optimal strategy for the Ford Foundation should cover many facets. Research and training should be developed in phases, and training should be reoriented to provide training within Africa for a critical mass of practitioners who concentrate on applied skills and can work in an interdisciplinary setting. Research should focus on developing a data base, creating tools for health planning, and improving the skills of researchers. Institution building, while necessary, should be undertaken cautiously, with the goal of developing a coordinating mechanism. The activities of the Population Council, USAID, UNFPA, WHO, IDRC, and the Dutch and Belgian governments in the area should be considered in the Ford Foundation's plans. An intensive effort in a limited geographic area is preferable to spreading resources too thinly over the whole region.
People without choice: report of the 21st Anniversary Conference of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
London, IPPF, 1974. 68 p.Add to my documents.
Paper prepared for Medical Women's International Association Asian Regional Conference on Family Planning, Manila, Philippines, Jan. 1974. 19 pAdd to my documents.
Fieldstaff Reports, East Coast South America Series 18(2):1-12, Oct. 1974.Add to my documents.
In: Survey of World Needs in Family Planning. London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Office of Evaluation and Statistics, 1974, pp. 73-79Add to my documents.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, (1974). 54 pAn account of the operational activities of UNFPA is provided. 1973 was a year of organizational adjustments, added responsibility, and steady growth in the Fund's capacity to deliver population assistance to developing nations. 1973 was also a year when governments began to look more closely at population situations and their influence on national economic and social progress and to realize that the solution for some population problems would require both joint international action and national effort. The increasing concern of governments with population was reflected in resolutions in the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council of the U.N. which directed UNFPA to take a leadership role in the U.N. system in regard to population assistance. Strong support came from the governments themselves in the form of contributions which raised the cumulative resources of UNFPA from about $80 million at the end of 1972 to over $120 million at the end of 1973. Family planning and maternal and child health programs absorbed the highest percentage of financing. There was a notable increase in requests for assistance of this kind from Latin America. Demographic undertakings moved into operational stages particularly in African countries south of the Sahara. Other important categories receiving support included communication and education, population dynamics, and population policy. In 1973, UNFPA signed 2 new agreements with Malaysia and Sri Lanka for comprehensive national programs bringing up to 10 the number of countries engaging in these large-scale undertakings. UNFPA recognizes a special responsibility in 1974 to promote activities that would increase general awareness and better understanding of population concerns and to make the preparations for a major intergovernmental World Population Conference to be held in August 1974.(AUTHOR'S, MODIFIED)
[Panorama of Costa Rica, 1973. Demographic and social aspects] Panorama de Costa Rica, 1973. Aspectos demograficos y sociales.
Centro de Estudios Sociales y de Poblacion (CESPO), Departamento de Investigacion, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1974. 37 pA broad synthesis of some socioeconomic and demographic aspects of the population of Costa Rica at the end of 1973 is presented. It covers population size, number of households, marital status of women of reproductive age, age at marriage, population growth, age structure and distribution, ethnic and religious elements, educational level, economic activity, future tendencies, population growth and economic development, historical aspects of the population problem, and the national family planning program. Costa Rica had an annual growth rate of 3.8% in the period 1950-1960; by 1972 the rate was 2.5%. The drop did not seem to be due to the family planning program, though the program's existence may have accelerated the process. Because of the high growth rates, the population is young and dependency rates are high. However, the drop in the birthrate will significantly alter the population structure by the year 2000 such that only 34.1% will be under 15 and 4.4% will be over 65. That fact together with the economic prospects of the country should result in a significantly higher standard of living for the populous in the next decade. The role of the family planning program will become increasingly important as modernization succeeds in lowering mortality rates and increasing longevity.
New Delhi, India, Family Planning Foundation, July 1974. 147 pIn order to suggest the development of a family planning component in the U.N. International Childrens Emergency Fund's (UNICEF's) ongoing and future programs, an across the board survey of UNICEF-assisted programs in India, both those of the past and those proposed for the 5th Plan period, was undertaken. In the report the findings of the study are outlined. In the introduction the objectives of the study are dealt with along with the government of India's policy and priorities and UNICEF's mandate in the area of family planning activites. The 1st and 2nd chapters focus on the government of India's policy and programs in family planning and UNICEF's mandate to assit such activites. Recommendations are discussed in the 3rd chapter, and the 4th chapter presents the conclusions of the study. 19 suggestions are made in the immediate action category, 7 suggestions and 2 projects are proposed in the development of new components category, and 7 projects are proposed in the proposals for new projects category. The suggestions related to the following types of activities: training; research, evaluation, and monitoring; population and family life education; project support communication; and extension services. Investigations during the course of this study suggest that the family planning programs in India are at a standstill. Innovations and new approaches are needed to reorient the program. 1 such new approach is the integration, as incorporated in the 5th Plan, of family planning and health and welfare services. At this stage it is important to devise practical mechanisms for effective integration of development efforts to ensure efficient delivery of services and a climate conducive to enhancing demand for these services and to acceptance of family planning techinques. It does appear the UNICEF could have a major role in assisting the development and evaluation of innovations that might be expanded into major programs in the 6th Plan period.
In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.
IPPF Situation Report, February 1974. 10 p.The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) was founded in 196 1 to act as a pressure group to persuade the government to set up a family planning program. In 1962 the Korean government became 1 of the 1st in the world with such an official program. PPFK has a permanent staff of 62 at headquarters and 135 at branch offices to implement the information/education program. It was formerly responsible for the training for the government effort and it continues to initiate research and pilot projects. It also indirectly supports the clincs at Seoul National University and Yonsei University Medical colleges, runs 14 demonstration clincs, and has a mobile team unit in Taegi City and surrounding rural areas. Since 1968 it has organized "Mothers' Classes" which have been integrated into the rural community development program. Special projects include a "Stop at 2" campaign which the government officially adopted. The "Two Child Family" club was started in Seoul in 1971 and is expanding. UNFPA is funding an information, education, and communication campaign that will explore various uses of mass media. Pilot telephone consultation was begun in 1973. Vasectomy information is being given to the Homeland Reserve Force, an education project has been started for civil servants, and student newspapers are being used to reach the student population. PPFK has national responsib ility for clinical trials of new contraceptives. Tests on Minovlar ED continue and the results of Neovlar trials are being analyzed. Details of the government organizations are given. Research being carried on at various universities and in other agencies is also capsuled.
IPPF Situation Report, February 1974. 6 p.Laos has been so torn by war and continuing waves of refugees that i t has been difficult to provide basic medical services to the population . In 1969 Laos had 53 medical doctors, 40 of whom were foreign instructors at the School of Medicine, 676 practical nurses, and 400 trained midwives. Before 1971 the government was opposed to family planning. A study commission in that year, however, examined population growth problems and recommended support for family planning. The voluntary association had been formed in 1966 and had sent representatives to international workshops. After the change in government attitude, the association has actively acted to distribute family planning supplies to villages, train midwives as motivators, and give additional training to public health center heads, home economists, medical assistants, and refugee village heads. The governmental emphasis is on better spacing of births rather than limitation. It took over operation of 7 association clinics in 1973 and now helps provide contraceptive services. The association still has 5 fixed and 6 mobile clinics. A refugee pilot program which opened in 1971 now has a permanent building and a full-time rural midwife. The association also stresses influencing opinion leaders through lecture forums, pamphlets, radio commercials, and film shows. Information and Education teams were formed to conduct 2-3 day seminar-lectures in other provinces to diverse groups like village headmen, town influentials, teachers, and other leaders. Many foreign groups have provided assistance, supplies, training, and other aid. WHO is helping with the integration of family planning into the nursing and midwifery curricula in the schools of Laos.
[Family planning: Organization, experiences, suggestions] Familienplanung: Organisation, Erfahrungen, Vorsclage.
In: Staemmler, H.-J., ed. Geburtenplannung. Statistik, Erfahrungen und Konsequenzen. (Birth control. Statistics, experiences and results.) Stut tgart, Georg Thieme Verlag, 1974. p. 81-85The activities of Pro Familia, the West German Society for Sexual Co unseling and Family Planning, are described. The Society participates in the activities of many international organizations of medical and social interest as a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. In Germany, Pro Familia offers courses for physicians, counselors and day people, and a variety of educational progrmas for all ages. Physicians working with Pro Familia receive a 5-day training course, and are encouraged to complete deficient aspects of their education in sexuality, family planning, and reproduction. The Society maintains 45 centers and several mobile units to carry programs to underprivileged neighborhoods. The age of clients has declined steadily from a minimum of 16 5 years ago to 13-14 years now; 12-year-olds are sometimes seen. Help is sought not only in questions of fertility and contraception, but also in marital, sexual, and emotional problems of all types.