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  1. 1

    Program scan matrix on child marriage: A web-based search of interventions addressing child marriage.

    International Center for Research on Women [ICRW]

    [Washington, D.C.], International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], [2007]. 25 p.

    The international community and U.S. government are increasingly concerned about the prevalence of child marriage and its toll on girls in developing countries. One in seven girls in the developing world marries before 15. Nearly half of the 331 million girls in developing countries are expected to marry by their 20th birthday. At this rate, 100 million more girls-or 25,000 more girls every day-will become child brides in the next decade. Current literature on child marriage has primarily examined the prevalence, consequences and reported reasons for early marriage. Much less has been analyzed about the risk and protective factors that may be associated with child marriage. Also, little is known about the range of existing programs addressing child marriage, and what does and does not work in preventing early marriage. The work presented here investigates two key questions: What factors are associated with risk of or protection against child marriage, and ultimately could be the focus of prevention efforts? What are the current programmatic approaches to prevent child marriage in developing countries, and are these programs effective? (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The Tokyo Declaration on population and development.

    Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development (1994: Tokyo)

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1994 Mar; 20(1):239-45.

    In January 1994, a meeting convened in Tokyo by the government of Japan of 15 experts in the field of population, development, and international cooperation resulted in adoption of a document entitled "Towards a Global Partnership in Population and Development: The Tokyo Declaration." This declaration prefigured the key issues and action recommendations of the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The Declaration (presented in this document in its entirety) opens with an introduction which describes the current (and changing) political climate in regard to population issues in which the ICPD will take place. Part 1 of the declaration includes a consideration of the relationship between population and sustainable development, women's role in decision-making and the status of females, reproductive health and family planning (FP), population distribution and migration, and south-south cooperation. The declaration contains specific recommendations for action in each area, with the recommendations addressed to governments, the UN, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), donors, and the international community. Part 2 stresses a move from commitment to action and strongly recommends that by the year 2015 all governments 1) ensure the completion of the equivalent of primary school by all girls and boys and, as soon as that goal is met, facilitate completion of secondary educational levels; 2) in cases where mortality rates are highest, achieve an infant mortality rate below 50/1000 live births with a corresponding maternal mortality rate of 75/100,000 births; 3) in cases with intermediate levels of mortality, achieve an infant mortality rate below 35/1000, an under age 5 years mortality rate below 45/1000, and a maternal mortality rate below 60/100,000; and 4) provide universal access to a variety of safe and reliable FP methods and appropriate reproductive health services (with safe and effective FP methods available in all country's national FP programs by the year 2000). The international community is further urged to support the goals of the ICPD, and the international donor community is asked to support the participation of NGOs in the ICPD. Part 2 ends with an appeal to the international community to mobilize resources to meet these goals. Finally, the declaration calls upon the international community to stabilize world population and address the interrelated issues, and the participants of the Tokyo meeting pledged their individual support to this effort.
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  3. 3

    '93 annual report.

    Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia

    Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia, [1994]. 48 p.

    The Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia (FFPAM), a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), is in its 35th year. The FFPAM has by now established itself as a responsible and effective organization in the field of family planning and women's health. Now that family planning has become more widely accepted by the people as well as by government policy makers, the organization has begun to undertake programs which go beyond family planning, such as family life education and youth sexuality issues, women's status, and menopausal management services. The IPPF, however, criticizes the FFPAM of not being responsive enough to the rapid changes in Malaysia. An overall review was therefore conducted of the country situation, unmet needs, program approaches, and goals in a Strategic Planning Process commenced in 1990. A successful workshop was held in 1992 and the organization has been implementing the strategy ever since. In the 1993 annual report, messages are presented from the President and the Chairman, along with a report of the Secretary General, a listing of principal office-bearers, and a view of the FFPAM strategic plan. Sections report on the service delivery program; the information, education, communication program; the family life education program, the women's development program, and on human resource development. A financial brief, financial statements, officials of FFPAM, FFPAM secretariat staff, and chief staff persons of FPAs are also presented.
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  4. 4

    International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, Egypt, 5-13th September 1994. National position paper.

    Zambia. National Commission for Development Planning

    Lusaka, Zambia, National Commission for Development Planning, 1993 Dec. viii, 39 p.

    Zambia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a review of the country's unfavorable economic and demographic situation. Population growth has been increasing (by 2.6% for 1963-69 and 3.2% for 1980-90) because of a high birth rate and a death rate which is declining despite an increase in infant and child mortality. The population is extremely mobile and youthful (49.6% under age 15 years in 1990). Formulation of a population policy began in 1984, and an implementation program was announced in 1989. International guidance has played a major role in the development of the policy and implementation plans but an inadequacy of resources has hindered implementation. New concerns (the status of women; HIV/AIDS; the environment; homeless children and families; increasing poverty; and the increase in infant, child, and maternal mortality) have been added to the formerly recognized urgent problems caused by the high cost of living, youth, urbanization, and rural underdevelopment. To date, population activities have been donor-driven; therefore, more government and individual support will be sought and efforts will be made to ensure that donor support focuses on the local institutionalization of programs. The country report presents the demographic context in terms of population size and growth, fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization, spatial distribution, population structure, and the implications of this demographic situation. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the role of population in development planning, the evolution and current status of the population policy, and a profile of the national population program (research methodology; integrated planning; information, education, and communication; health, fertility, and mortality regulatory initiatives; HIV/AIDS; migration; the environment; adolescents; women; and demography training). A description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation covers political and national support, the national implementation strategy, program coordination, service delivery and quality of care, HIV/AIDS, personnel recruitment and training, evaluation, and financial resources. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, and resource mobilization.
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  5. 5

    National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.

    Malaysia. National Population and Family Development Board. Technical Working Group for ICPD

    [Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. [4], 64 p.

    Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
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  6. 6

    National report on population. Prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development, September 1994.

    Tunisia. Ministry of Planning and Regional Development

    [Tunis], Tunisia, Ministry of Planning and Regional Development, 1994 Aug. 57 p.

    Tunisia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a brief discussion of the country's history and development achievements (the population growth rate has been reduced from 3.2% in the beginning of the 1960s to less than 2%, and Tunisia has achieved significant improvement over the past 2 decades in human development indices). Tunisia's population policy has gone through 3 stages: the establishment of an important legal framework during the 1950s and 60s, the creation of a National Family and Population Board and establishment of basic health care facilities during the 1970s, and an emphasis on environmentally-responsible development with an attempt to strengthen the integration of population policies into development strategies beginning in the 1980s. The report continues with an overview of the demographic context (historical trends and future prospects). The chapter on population policies and programs covers the evolution and status of the policies; sectoral strategies; development and research; a profile of the family health, family planning (FP), IEC (information, education, and communication), and data collection and analysis programs. This chapter also provides details on policies and programs which link women and families to population and development and on those which concern mortality, population distribution, and migration. The third major section of the report presents operational features of the implementation of population and FP programs, in particular, political support, program formulation and execution, supervision and evaluation, financing, and the importance and relevance of the world plan of action for population. Tunisia's national action plan for the future is discussed next in terms of new problems and priorities and a mobilization of resources. This section also includes a table which sets out the components, goals, strategies, and programs of action of the population policy. In conclusion, it is stated that Tunisia's population policy fits well with the world program of action because it promotes human resources and sustainable development and respects international recommendations about human rights in general and the rights of women in particular.
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  7. 7

    The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.

    Nepal. National Planning Commission

    Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.

    Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
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  8. 8

    Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.

    Sierra Leone. National Population Commission

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. [4], 15, [4] p.

    The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
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  9. 9

    Activities of All Pakistan Women's Association 1949.

    All Pakistan Women's Association [APWA]

    Karachi, Pakistan, APWA, [1992]. [38] p.

    The All Pakistan Women's Association (APWA), established in 1949 and granted consultative status with the UN in 1952, seeks to further the moral, social, economic, and legal status of Pakistani women and children. On the international level, APWA has played a leading role in promoting collaboration and a sharing of experiences on women's and children's issues among nongovernmental organizations. In addition, the APWA campaigns for international security conflict resolution and disarmament and was the 1987 recipient of the UN Peace Messenger Certificate. Within Pakistan, the provision of health care services to women and children in rural areas, urban slums, and squatter settlements is a priority. 56 family welfare centers have been established by APWA to provide family planning education and services, prenatal care, maternal-child health referrals, immunization, oral rehydration, breast feeding promotion, basic curative care, and group meetings. No other family planning services are available in the areas where these centers are located. The centers are staffed by a female health visitor, who provides a range of contraceptive methods and follows up acceptors, and motivators, who provide family planning education in the community. The motivator also recruits a volunteer in each community who opens her home as a place for weekly group meetings and contraceptive distribution. APWA's strategy, however, is to introduce family planning through community development projects aimed at income generation, child care, nutritional education, and primary and adult education. Since 1987, comprehensive rural development projects have been carried out in 20 villages in all 4 provinces. Another emphasis has been the improvement of women's status through legal action. The APWA was instrumental in having an equal rights for women clause inserted in the 1972 Interim Constitution and succeeded in preventing passage of an ordinance that would have made compensation for the murder of a woman half that for the murder of a man.
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  10. 10

    International Symposium: For the Survival of Mankind: Population, Environment and Development.

    Mainichi Shimbun; Japan. National Institute for Research Advancement; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, [1989]. xxxiii, 134 p.

    In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
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  11. 11

    [Republic of Zaire: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique du Zaire: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. ix, 63, [1] p. (Rapport No. 72)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a needs assessment mission to Zaire in 1983. The mission recommends that the 1st priority be given to analyzing and exploiting the results of the 1984 census, Zaire's 1st census. It is recommended that the Institut National de la Statistique participate in data collection and analysis for the census. The lack of trained demographers is noted, and teaching statistics and demography should be made a priority. 3 areas of research in population matters are priorities: 1) the detailed analysis of the results of the census, 2) modern contraceptive usage, and 3) malnutrition in mothers and children. The creation of a national commission on human resources and population is recommended. Zaire has a rather large medical-health infrastructure that is badly adapted to the actual needs of the population. The problem is not only the lack of resources but also the absence of clear health policies. Population education does not currently exist in Zaire, but formal population education could be placed at all levels of the educational system. As regards population information and communication, radio coverage is very important in a country that is largely rural. Women are still undervalued in Zaire society. They participate actively in the country's economy, but they remain on the margins of the modern sector. The new department on female conditions and social affairs has 2 priorities: 1) improving the quality of life of rural women with income-generating projects and 2) creating adult female education centers in urban areas.
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  12. 12

    [People's Republic of the Congo: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique Populaire du Congo: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. x, 53, [1] p. (Rapport No. 75)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a mission to the Congo (Brazzaville) to assess their needs for assistance in population matters in 1984. Government policy still does not cover linkages between population and economic development. The Mission particularly recommends the assistance be given to the 1984 census. It is necessary to have demographic data on which to base health programs. The Mission also strongly recommends technical assistance for maternal and child health and family planning programs. The Mission recommends providing support for civil registration, an infant and child mortality survey in rural areas, and a national survey of population, migration, and employment to take place 5 years after the census. The effective integration of population in development planning requires not only data collection but demographic, social, and economic research. The recent creation of the Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research will give a new boost to research activities. In the domain of health in general, and maternal and child health in particular, the situation is characterized by insufficiency and by a lack of health statistics. There are grave health problems. Morbidity and mortality are high, especially among infants. Faced with these problems, the government has instituted a huge effort to promote the well-being of families. The Mission recommends a national population education policy. The condition of women remains difficult, and little information is available. The Mission recommends further research on the status of women and the education of women.
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  13. 13

    [Senegal: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Senegal: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, [1988]. vi, 117 p. (Rapport No. 96)

    To deal with Senegal's severe economic situation, the government has put in place the 6th development plan (1981-1985). Increasing population growth and internal migration have rendered data from the 1976 census unuseful. Uncontrolled urbanization also constitutes a major problem for Senegal. Faced with this situation, the government has created a national population commission and laws on contraception, families, family planning, and health. Activities relevant to population have been regrouped under a single ministry, the Ministry of Social Development. The government's approach to population includes integrating population with development, integrating family planning with the well-being of families and maternal and child health, fighting sterility problems, and integrating women into the development process.
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  14. 14

    [Morocco: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Maroc: rapport de la seconde mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1986. xii, 90 p. (Rapport No. 88)

    This report details the conclusions of a study mission on population matters which visited Morocco from October 24 - November 14, 1985. In June 1985, Morocco had 22 million inhabitants. Numerous studies, including the census of 1982, the Morocco Fertility Survey of 1979-1980, and the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984, reveal demographic changes in Morocco. For example, life expectancy at birth has increased from 52.9 years in 1970-1975 to 59.1 years in 1980. Contraceptive knowledge and use have increased, and marriage age is later than formerly. In spite of these fundamental changes, the population continues to grow. The mission is conscious of real effort by ministries to collaborate in population matters. These efforts take place in the absence of an explicit population policy at a higher level. It is necessary to increase the support given to the Ministry of Public Health to improve strategies for maternal and child health services and to increase family planning services, the demand for which never ceases to grow. Internal and international migration are problems that merit attention. The brain drain is posing problems for economic development. It is necessary to make new efforts to obtain information on women's status and means of improving it. Data collection must be given a high priority for development planning. Data analysis and research activities must be reinforced in Morocco. Multisectoral activities in which population plays a part must be supported. Priority should be given to projects oriented toward assisting disadvantaged groups, such as women, youth, and the rural population, especially mothers and infants.
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  15. 15

    [Mali: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Mali: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, 1988. x, 67 p. (Rapport No. 95)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a 2nd needs assessment to Mali in September 1985. Mali is a vast Sahelian country, characterized by vast deserts. Only 16.8% of the population is urbanized. Mali is essentially agricultural. The 3rd 5-year development plan covered the years 1981-1985. Population factors do not occupy the place they deserve in development planning in Mali. Recommendations for population and development planning include forming an organization to promote population policy and territorial resource management. Recommendations on data collection include creating a national coordinating committee for demographic statistics, analyzing census data from 1976 and planning for the census of 1987, and reorganizing the vital statistics system. The mission recommends the creation of a national organization to coordinate research activities in the country. Recommendations on health and family planning services include examining bottlenecks in the national health system, redistributing health personnel, and improving planning and administration. The mission recommends extending the educational system in Mali. Materials on population must be included in educational materials. Facts on the condition of women and their participation in economic life are insufficient. The mission recommends the creation of a section for women in the Ministry of State to gather social, economic, and demographic information on women.
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  16. 16

    [Cape Verde: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Cap-Vert: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, 1988. ix, 66 p. (Rapport No. 93)

    The Un Fund for Population Activities sent a mission to Cape Verde in 1986 to evaluate their need for population assistance. Small and densely populated, Cape Verde is a poor country which counts on large amounts of international assistance for economic and social development. Demographic data has been collected in Cape Verde for a long time, but it is necessary to improve data collection so that the results can be better used by the government to plan demographic policy. The census of 1990 will be the 2nd one since independence. The big problems of Cape Verde constitute fertility and migration. Institutional support for the Direction Generale de la Statistique will help them take charge of a national system of data collection. In development planning, the mission recommended 2 projects; 1) the support of the organization Unity for analyzing existing data, and 2) a scheme of national territorial resource management. The mission recommends financing a research program to promote national development. The health situation in Cape Verde is better than that of many African countries. However, there are still many public health problems, such as infectious diseases, malnutrition, high fertility, a lack of health education programs, and insufficient health personnel and training for them. Therefore, the mission recommends decentralization of health services, health education, taking advantage of popular organizations, prenatal care, training for traditional midwives, preventive health measures for children, oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea, and family and sex education. Information, education, and communication activities are extremely limited. To extend the integration of women in the process of development, the mission recommends collecting statistics on women, especially in work and employment, and developing productive activities for women.
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  17. 17

    Choice and a better life in the dusty heart of India.

    Datta B


    Since its inception in 1995, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of India's Small family By Choice project has developed three broad strategies to increase reproductive choice for 4.35 million people living in three of the poorest districts of the country: providing quality clinical services, improving access to health care, and stimulating community participation. The FPA provides scholarships so that girls can attend school where they will acquire a deeper understanding of the need for small families along with employable skills. Another FPA project offers impoverished young women in urban areas the chance to acquire income-generating skills. Trainees also attend health camps where they are provided with gynecological check-ups, pre/postnatal care, and counseling. Other FPA-sponsored programs include community-based adult literacy classes; child care centers in the project's main health clinic; establishment of community-based delivery rooms and training of midwives; community-based distribution of contraception; and management of a full clinic in Bhopal. The project reaches out to marginalized prostitutes by subsidizing a hostel close to a school for their children. Such flexible, needs-based innovations are having an enormous impact. The programs provide a range of choices of high quality contraceptives and have even been successful in promoting the condom. The clinic has served 554 patients from July to early September 1997 and provides counseling to help women improve their decision-making skills.
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  18. 18

    Challenges in India and Bhutan.

    Zaman W

    JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Dec; (282):4.

    While India is making overall progress in maternal and child health and reproductive health (MCH/RH), all states are not moving ahead. In fact, it is the states with the larger populations which are lagging behind. Primary education, women's status, and literacy remain problematic. UNFPA has worked in India for a long time, helping to realize the decline in total fertility rate from 6 to 3.5 over the past 20-30 years. India's population, however, is still growing at the annual rate of 1.8%. UNFPA's program in India for the period 1997-2001 will stress women's health as a matter of overall reproductive health, a new approach in India which has long relied upon sterilization. Attention must be given to meeting the needs of the poor in India as the country continues to grow in size and wealth. While Bhutan's estimated population is just over 1 million, the annual population growth rate of 3.1% threatens development over the long term. With a mountainous terrain and a low resource base, Bhutan cannot sustain a high population growth rate. Significant improvements have been made and women's status is good, the infant mortality rate has been reduced, and the health infrastructure is not bad. UNFPA's 5-year program beginning in 1998 will mainly address RH, especially adolescent RH.
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  19. 19

    [Resolution No.] 1991/93. International Conference on Population and Development [26 July 1991].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council


    This document contains a 1991 UN resolution on the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). After reviewing previous UN action on this issue, the resolution 1) names the conference; 2) makes recommendations about preparatory activities; 3) identifies six broad objectives for the ICPD; 4) identifies population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development as the overall theme of the conference and identifies six issues which require attention (population growth and structure; population policies and programs; the interrelationships between population policies, development, the environment, and related matters; changes in the distribution of population; linkages between the status of women and population dynamics; and family planning programs, health, and family well-being); 5) stresses the need to take the circumstances of developing countries into consideration; 6) authorizes the UN to convene expert meetings on each issue; 7) requests that appropriate UN agencies guide the preparatory activities and that UN resources be devoted to this task; 8) asks regional commissions to meet to review population policies and programs; 9) sets up a mechanisms to receive progress reports; 10) sets dates for the second and third sessions of the Preparatory Committee; and 11) makes funding recommendations.
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  20. 20

    Annual report 1996.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1997]. 74 p.

    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) program activities during 1996 were strengthened by the implementation of a new resource allocation approach based on progress in achieving the goals established at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). In 1996, the 27 Group A countries (those most in need of assistance to reach ICPD goals) received 73.7% of total allocations. In terms of program areas, reproductive health activities received 71% of total allocations, population and development strategies accounted for another 18%, and advocacy was allotted 11%. The country programming process was accompanied by management reviews to streamline operations and strengthen program delivery, to improve the coordination of activities under the Fund's decentralized programming approach, and to compile a comprehensive set of guidelines and policies covering areas such as programs, administration, procurement, personnel, staff development, and financial issues. Total contributions in 1996 reached a new high of US $302.5 million, pledged by 95 governments, while total income generated through multi-bilateral arrangements was $18.3 million. Program priorities included reproductive health (including family planning and sexual health), adolescent reproductive health, female genital mutilation, HIV/AIDS, population and development strategies, advocacy, and women's empowerment and gender issues.
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  21. 21

    Quality care in international family planning: a feminist contribution.

    Rogow D

    [Unpublished] 1987 Jan. [31] p.

    After decades of conflict, the potential for dialogue between the international population establishment and the US women's health movement exists. Collaboration with the population establishment would provide feminists an opportunity to have a real impact on the quality of care and reproductive choices for women in developing countries. The major obstacle to such cooperation in the past has been the emphasis of population programs on lowering fertility rates rather than on meeting women's needs or protecting their health. This paper outlines steps that must be taken to make international family planning programs more responsive to women's needs. These include: 1) involvement of local women's groups in program planning, implementation, and evaluation; 2) increased emphasis on comprehensive programs that seek to empower women in culturally viable ways; 3) increased funding for maternal-child health/reproductive health services, including infertility care; 4) higher standards of care in the areas of contraceptive screening, the range of methods available, over-the-counter and community-based distribution, and counseling clients about their right to change methods; 5) stipulations that funding continuation depends on an evaluation of the quality of care provided; 6) revision of health provider training programs to include quality of care issues as a fundamental principle; 7) dialogue on quality of care issues among a wider circle of international family planning agencies; 8) redefinition of the concept of contraception continuation to include user satisfaction; and 9) replacement of lowered fertility rates and high contraceptive prevalence with user satisfaction and control over reproductive capacity as indicators of the success of family planning efforts.
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  22. 22

    Achieving reproductive health for all. Annual report 1996.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Arab World Region

    Tunis, Tunisia, IPPF, Arab World Region, 1996. [2], 16, [2] p.

    This annual report of the Arab Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) opens with a message from the Chair of the Regional Council, who notes that the IPPF is adopting new strategies to meet the challenges in its "Vision 2000" plan. The Arab Region has aided this effort by engaging in strategic planning, amending its constitution to empower women, and boosting youth participation. Next the regional director summarizes the following areas of interest in this report: 1) training family planning associations to engage in strategic planning and project development; 2) strengthening the Euro-Arab partnership; 3) generating interest in youth-related concerns; 4) empowering women; 5) evaluating progress in implementing the recommendations of the International Conference on Population and Development; and 6) establishing firm links with other organizations. The report also deals with efforts to incorporate the concept of male responsibility, collaboration, and understanding as the notion of responsible parenthood is promoted. Specific programs described include a ground-breaking youth peer-group program in Algeria; a method of information diffusion that incorporates the oral poetic tradition; and use of operations research to upgrade service provision in Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt. Efforts to insure that the development of evaluation indicators occurs during project planning and implementation are also discussed. The report closes by presenting the financial report for 1995.
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  23. 23

    [For a sexual health free from violence] Por una salud sexual libre de violencia.


    The United Nations has conducted world conferences on development and people. The conference in Cairo on development and population produced a Plan of Action, and the one in Beijing on women produced a Platform of Action, that obligate all in the public and private sectors to execute new programs in the area of sexual and reproductive health. These documents were adopted by consensus and explain such basic concepts as equality; policies sensitive to gender; violence against women and its implications; the relationship between development, population, the environment, and women; and the new sexual and reproductive rights. These platforms and action plans help Profamilia to complete its programs for men, women, and youth. In this spirit Profamilia has realized a series of efforts to internalize a respect for liberty and equality for women and to understand reproductive responsibilities for both sexes. The new secretary general of the International Federation of Planned Parenthood declared in Beijing that as long as there are women who lack the freedom to exercise their reproductive options and continue to suffer and die from unwanted pregnancy the global nongovernmental organizations must work assiduously to reinforce their solidarity with these women to make a difference. The Colombian population awaits public policies that achieve sexual and reproductive health free of coercion, discrimination, and violence.
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  24. 24

    The Lesotho Safe Motherhood Initiative: an experience of collaboration.

    Rojas P; Mwalali P; Camaror I

    In: The health of women and safe motherhood. Presentations at the First Regional Congress of the Medical Women's International Association, Near East and Africa Region, 29 November - 3 December 1993, Safari Park Hotel in Nairobi, Kenya, [compiled by] Medical Women's International Association, Kenya Medical Women's Association, Family Care International. Nairobi, Kenya, Kenya Medical Women's Association, 1993. 103.

    Women's health is becoming a matter of increasing concern in African countries, since women are essential to improving the quality of life of families and society as a whole. The Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI), a global program supported by various international and UN agencies, provides a framework for addressing medical, educational, legal, socioanthropological and developmental factors related to women's health and welfare at all stages of life, in a phased, progressive approach. This paper describes a joint approach adopted by the Ministry of Health of Lesotho and three UN agencies--UNFPA, UNICEF, and WHO--based on the Safe Motherhood framework, which aims to gradually cover the wide range of factors determining women's health. A year of preparatory technical and administrative work led to a comprehensive agenda for action in the midterm, including necessary arrangements for coordinating input from several partners. This phase culminated in a national evaluation of the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) program using rapid evaluation methodologies (REM), which allowed for the identification of priorities within the MCH/FP program and planning of remedial measures. A joint UN/Ministry of Health project was then formulated and presented at the official launching of the Lesotho SMI. Activities undertaken to date include: ensuring political commitment; conducting studies on maternal mortality and legal aspects of women's situation in society; producing IEC materials; conducting operational research; setting up an Advisory Commission and a Technical Committee; and the analysis of the valuable data obtained from the REM, which will be used to strengthen managerial aspects of the MCH/FP program. (full text)
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  25. 25

    Democratic Republic of the Sudan. Report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 Jul. x, 67 p. (Report No. 84)

    This report covers the second (1986) UN Population Fund Needs Assessment Mission to Sudan which sought information on the status of and prospects for population activities. The introductory material includes highlights of statistical data in the areas of demography, health, education, and the economy as well as a map of the country. Chapter 1 of the report contains a summary and recommendations for assistance in the following areas which are discussed more fully in the chapters noted: population policies and population and development planning (Chapter 4); basic data collection and analysis (Chapter 5); social, economic, and demographic research (Chapter 6); maternal and child health and family planning (FP) (Chapter 7); population information, education, and communication (Chapter 8); and women and development (Chapter 9). Chapter 2 of the report describes the national setting in terms of its geographical, cultural, governmental, economic, and social characteristics. Chapter 3 looks at population trends and their implications. In conclusion, chapter 10 discusses the possibilities for external multilateral and bilateral assistance for population programs as well as assistance from nongovernmental organizations.
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