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In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 167-182.Using a feminist lens to inspect current PVO (private voluntary organization) family planning programs, we first define the feminist perspective as it applies to such programs and then compare that feminist vision with the reality found in the field. This paper examines the political dynamics of working for a feminist agenda within the community of population PVOs. The following case study illustrates these dynamics and leads to a discussion of both the obstacles to the realization of a feminist vision and the political strategies and attitudes that help implement this vision. Together, we draw on seventeen years of work with a variety of PVOs involved in family planning and reproductive health. (excerpt)
[The role and responsibility of volunteers in context of APFs] Papel e responsabilidade dos voluntarios no contexto das APFs.
Sexualidade e Planeamento Familiar. 2001 Jan-Jun; (29-30):37-9.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is considered the primary organization in the world in the area of sexual and reproductive health, however, potential donors have viewed it as too rigid. The IPPF organized a task force to confront this charge and come up with recommendations for improvement. Their proposal was that IPPF should be comprised of a diverse collection of volunteers in terms of age, sex, socioeconomic origin, occupation, performance, race, creed as well as linguistic and geographical representation in such a way that this can represent the communities in which they function.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, 1989. 43 p.The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASL) is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). According to the FPASL the family planning (FP) acceptor rate in 1988 declined by 22% compared to 1987 and is primarily the result of civil war and an election year. Because of complex political and sociological factors, people have been more concerned with staying alive, than with FP. District level programs designed to improve the quality of life for mothers and children were often halted during the end of the year because of terrorist activities and counter security measures. The following contraceptive methods experienced declines in acceptors: sterilization 48%, IUD 12%, pill 12%, injectables 8%, foam tablets 22%. In 1988 there were 629 vasectomies, and 393 tubectomies. Of the new acceptors of temporary methods 57.8% chose depo provera, 21.3% IUD, 15.9% orals, and 5% Norplant. Sales of contraceptives have changed with condom sales down 3.6%, orals up 7.5%, and foam down 78.25%. The Community Managed Integrated Rural Family Health Programme (CMIRFH) has been recognized globally as a story of success. Since 1980 over 45,000 people have volunteered to help this program. In 1988 1676 programs were carried out by these enthusiastic young volunteers. Of the 25,000 estimated villages in Sri Lanka, the FPASL and CMIRFH program had reached 1689 villages through the end of 1988. The Youth and Population Committee is trying to reach the young people with the message that the population is growing out of hand. In July a seminar was conducted when the population of Asia reached 3 billion.
Real Lives. 2002 Jan; (7):40-1.This paper relates the experiences of a volunteer who has been with the Family Planning Association of Pakistan (FPAP) for five years. Invited by the FPAP to participate in a college drama competition at age 19, the young woman wrote a play on the theme “girl child” that was well received and won a best actress award. Eventually, the young woman became more involved in the organization, eventually representing them at national and international meetings.
FORUM. 1997 Jul; 13(1):20-1.This article describes the activities of the Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS) in provision of family planning services and education in El Salvador. ADS works directly with UNFPA to provide sexual and reproductive health services to the working class population. The programs operate with El Salvador government funding and technical and financial support from UNFPA and are operated by a nongovernmental organization. Program efforts include operating public education programs, training of volunteers in sexual and reproductive health from a gender perspective, training for couples and individuals in decision-making, and raising women's levels of self-esteem and decision-making capabilities. The program operates 25 Reproductive Health Units (UDESARs) within various companies. Trained staff offer family planning, counseling services, testing for cervical and uterine cancer, breast self-exams, and HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention and reduction of reproductive risk. UDESARs use volunteer disseminators who educate and motivate coworkers on a variety of sexual and reproductive health issues. ADS initiated program operations by first sensitizing and motivating company owners. Only 1 in 3 companies was willing to cooperate, provide office space for services, and allow worker motivators. UDESAR total staff includes 25 counselors and 82 disseminators for 12,500 workers. 80% of workers are women, and about 80% are aged <30 years. Industry will benefit from better planned pregnancies, fewer absences, and shorter maternity leave. Workers gain from family stability, increased proximity of services and improved health, greater gender equity, and reduced risk.
PEOPLE AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES. 1997 May; 4(7):13-4.Member family planning associations in the East, South East Asia, and Oceania Region (ESEAOR) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) have long recognized the importance of having a strong volunteer base for resource development and program sustainability. About 60 volunteers currently participate in the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea's (PPFK) hotline counseling service for adolescents launched in 1985 with financial assistance from the IPPF. Upon recruitment, the volunteer trainees receive 40 hours of basic training, followed by refresher training courses held 6 times per year. The volunteers, mostly women, are encouraged to fill in for each other when unexpected family problems arise. The difficult and delicate nature of sexuality counseling, however, has led some volunteers to abandon work in the counseling program. The Japan Family Planning Association's (JFPA) Reproductive Health Center Clinic is staffed by 1 full-time doctor, 4 part-time doctors, 1 full-time clerical staff, 30 part-time co-medicals who are mainly nurses and midwives, and 6 peer counselors who operate the hotline on infertility. The co-medicals are qualified family planning workers (FPWs) and adolescent health workers (AHWs) who receive a small honorarium for their services. FPWs must attend and pass the examination of the Licensing Course for FPW implemented by the JFPA and the Family Planning Federation of Japan. AHWs are trained by the JFPA under the auspices of the Health Ministry and the Japan Society of Adolescentology.
FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1996 May-Jun; 16(3):2.Two-day orientation programs conducted in Kathmandu, Dhankuta, Baglung, Dang, and Doti sought to familiarize Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN) volunteers with the association's new Strategic Plan. Papers were presented on the following topics: introduction to the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), introduction to FPAN, IPPF's member responsibilities and policies, responsibilities of the various volunteer committees, and roles of volunteers and staff in realization of the Strategic Plan. Recommendations and suggestions emanating from these orientations will be used as the basis for formulating a set of guidelines for FPAN volunteers.
FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1994 May-Jun; 14(3):1-2.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in conjunction with the Nepal Family Planning Association sponsored an orientation program for about 50 branch executives from Valley, Kavre, Chitwan, and Nawalparasi in May 1994. Other orientations were held in Pokhara, Dhangadhi, Surkhet, Dhanusha, and Morang on other occasions and in other locations for branch managers. The aim was to unveil the new 10 year strategic plan and to provide for the informing of volunteers and branch chiefs about the new plan's objectives. One objective was to facilitate the coordination between volunteers and family planning branch staff. The orientation program highlighted the importance of voluntarism in plan implementation and how to improve existing leadership and cooperation between levels and between staff and volunteers. The Central President of the Association provided well wishes for successful program implementation and reiterated that the role of volunteers had always been important and that the staff and volunteers complemented each other. The Senior Program Advisor of IPPF also gave his best wishes for the implementation of the strategic plan and commended the Nepal Association as the first to conduct an orientation program to familiarize its constituency about the IPPF objectives. Cooperation between volunteers and staffs was considered instrumental to program success. A description was provided of IPPF's organizational structure, funding, and operational system. The Central Treasurer of the Association spoke about the history of the Nepal program since its inception in 1959.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 69,  p. (Evaluation Report)In 1991, a mission in India, Bhutan and Nepal evaluated UNFPA/WHO South East Asian Regional Office (SEARO) maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects. The Regional Advisory Team in MCH/FP Project (RT) placed more emphasis on the MCH component than the FP component. It included all priority areas identified in 1984, but did not include management until 1988. In fact, it delayed recruiting a technical officer and recruited someone who was unqualified and who performed poorly. SEARO improved cooperation between RT and community health units and named the team leader as regional adviser for family health. The RT team did not promote itself very well, however, Member countries and UNFPA did request technical assistance from RT for MCH/FP projects, especially operations research. RT also set up fruitful intercountry workshops. The team did not put much effort in training, adolescent health, and transfer of technology, though. Further RT project management was still weak. Overall SEARO had been able to follow the policies of governments, but often its advisors did not follow UNFPA guidelines when helping countries plan the design and strategy of country projects. Delays in approval were common in all the projects reviewed by the mission. Furthermore previous evaluations also identified this weakness. In addition, a project in Bhutan addressed mothers' concerns but ignored other women's roles such as managers of households and wage earners. Besides, little was done to include women's participation in health sector decision making at the basic health unit and at the central health ministry. In Nepal, institution building did not include advancement for women or encourage proactive role roles of qualified women medical professionals. In Bhutan, but not Nepal, fellowships and study tours helped increase the number of trained personnel attending intercountry activities.
Sex education and family planning services for adolescents in Latin America: the example of El Camino in Guatemala.
[Unpublished] 1984. ix, 54,  p.This report examines the organizational development of Centro del Adolescente "El Camino," an adolescent multipurpose center which offers sex education and family planning services in Guatemala City. The project is funded by the Pathfinder Fund through a US Agency for International Development (USAID) population grant from 1979 through 1984. Information about the need for adolescent services in Guatemala is summarized, as is the organizational history of El Camino and the characteristics of youngg people who came there, as well as other program models and philosophies of sex education in Guatemala City. Centro del Adolescente "El Camino" represents the efforts of a private family planning organization to develop a balanced approach to serving adolescents: providing effective education and contraceptives but also recognizing that Guatemalan teenagers have other equally pressing needs, including counseling, health care, recreation and vocational training. The major administrative issue faced by El Camino was the concern of its external funding sources that an adolescent multipurpose center was too expensive a mechanism for contraceptive distribution purposes. A series of institutional relationships was negotiated. Professionals, university students, and younger secondary students were involved. Issues of fiscal accountability, or the cost-effectiveness of such multipurpose adolescent centers, require consideration of the goals of international funding agencies in relation to those of the society in question. Recommendations depend on whether the goal is that of a short-term contraception distribution program with specific measurable objectives, or that of a long-range investment in changing a society's attitudes about sex education for children and youth and the and the provision of appropriate contraceptive services to sexually active adolescents. Appendixes are attached. (author's modified)
Progress report on WHO Sponsored Service Research Project in Family Planning and Family Health: 80030--20 August 1982-28 February 1983.
[Unpublished] 1983 Mar 25. 35 p.Details of the progress made on the World Health Organization (WHO) Project 80030 from August 21, 1982 to February 28, 1983--the Baseline Studies and Evaluation of Health Benefits Attributable to Integrated Family Planning and Maternity/Infant Care Services--are presented. For the last 6 months, the project has been in the initial buildup stage of intervention with 12 personnel/months of midwives input in the intervention area. Crucial to the progress have been the efforts to strengthen the organizational capability of subhealth centers as an effective unit of primary care by: providing personnel resources such as midwives; supporting midwives' ahd health workers' activities; supervising and controlling the quality of work of health workers; and establishing the mechanism of community participation and conducting community education. Information is presented on personnel, quality control in family planning/maternal child health (FP/MCH) care, supportive activities, village health volunteer networks and their education, institution building, the project site as a teaching setting for community medicine, outcome, and finance. Currently, there are 3 nurses aides assigned in each subhealth center. Due to the shift of personnel and government pressure to achieve family planning targets by health workers, the inservice training of health workers has failed to proceed as fast as planned. Yet, 4 training sessions were conducted during this reporting period. The project has developed various record and statistics forms for family planning and maternal and child health services. Results indicate that there are some tendencies for overreporting or underrecording, depending on the kind of services, i.e., either quantitative or qualitative items. A need exists for systems for better accountability in order to obtain accurate recording. To support the activities of health workers, a motor cycle was selected as a means of transportation, 1 for each midwife and 1 for the public health nurse. The project currently has 60 village health volunteers who have been nominated by each township chief. Each village health worker is to report on pregnant women and to keep the village rosters current by reporting on births and deaths in the village. In addition to the village health worker training, active community health education at the village level is now in progress. A chronological development of the project is included.
London, IPPF, l977. 73 p.This document contains case studies of ll programs in sex, population, and family life education for youth, which were initiated by family planning associations in several developing countries. The current emphasis on developing educational programs oriented toward young people stems from the recognition that it is the young who will bear most of the negative consequences, which are associated with rapid population increases, such as uemployment and resource shortages. Youth programs in El Salvador, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand provide training for young people who in turn go out into the community as paid or volunteer family planning and population educators. Programs in other countries stress counseling for school dropouts, provide youth information centers, or conduct education programs for various groups of young workers or students. Based on the experiences gained from these programs, a number of suggestions are made for developing effective youth education programs. Suggested guidelines are: 1) youths, themselves, should be encouraged to participate in the planning, implementation, operation, and evaluation of these programs; 2) the programs should be developed in accordance with the needs expressed by the target population; 3) the cost effectiveness of the programs should be improved by utilizing volunteer workers and through the use of mass media; 4) staff members should be adequately paid and all the expenses incurred by volunteers should be paid for by the program in order to reduce the drop out rate; and 5) evaluation procedures must be built into all phases of program development and operation.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1979; 8(2):15.The integration of family planning with maternal and child health and nutrition has been implemented in India, but integration with developmental activities like community development involves the linking up of several different disciplines. Current trends of the integrated approach to family planning in the ESCAP countries are discussed by administrators from Bangkok, Manilla, Bangalore, Islamabad, and Trivandrum, India. IPPF experience in the nongovernmental sector found that to succeed, projects must be clearly described, realistic, and capable of evaluation. Development programs can be integrated with family planning programs as well as family planning/population education programs can be integrated with development projects. Possible areas of integration are income-generating skills/services; training programs; nutrition and health (home extension services); environmental sanitation and personal hygiene; water supply, tube wells; water management, conservation; and, utilization of agricultural by-products. The message of family planning can be effectively communciated through community organizations. In the Philippines, services which could be transferred to the field were transferred to volunteers in the barangays (neighborhoods) who worked on other projects, e.g. cooperatives, nutrition. All forum participants agreed that integration is a very good concept, but practising it is a complex reality.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
IPFF News (Suppl.) Jan.-Feb. 1979. 4 p.This pamphlet is a policy statement of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) for the 1980's. The statement covers 9 points which are seen as affecting the future activities of IPPF: 1) "Human Rights" states the ethical underpinnings of IPPF, which are based on the concept that family planning is a factor in the ability of individuals to achieve happiness and prosperity. 2) "Development" discusses plans for expansion and the commitment of 136 countries to the ideals of the World Population Conference of 1974. 3) "Family Planning Services" makes clear the need of establishing real, working programs. 4) "Infertility" discusses goals and procedures to deal with that complex problem. 5) "Lessions for Living" stresses the need to involve youth in education in planned parenthood. 6) "Volunteers" is a reminder that the backbone of IPPF is voluntary service. 7) "Extending Family Planning" reports on efforts to integrate IPPF affiliates with existing family planning associations. 8) "Autonomy and Accountability" is a restatement of the need to retain individuality among the IPPF members. 9) "Self-Reliance" addresses the goal of making family planning associations self-supporting in the future.
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
People. 1975; 2(4):5-11.A survey of selected countries to illustrate the variety of approaches used in supplying contraceptives through the community is presented; and the agencies involved are listed. The various types of community-based distribution schemes in 33 countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia are identified and briefly described. The personnel and methods utilized in individual countries include rural community leaders, fieldworkers, satisfied contraceptive users, paramedical and lay distributors, women's organizations, commercial marketing, education programs, market day strategies, and government saturation programs. The community-based program for distributing oral contraceptives with technical assistance from BEMFAM, an IPPF affiliate, in northeastern Brazil is described in detail, with emphasis onsocial marketing techniques and the mobilization of resources. In addition to IPPF, other agencies working in community-based distribution include Family Planning International Assistance, International Development Research Centre, Population Services International, The Population Council, UNFPA, USAID, and Westinghouse Health Systems Population Centre.
Report from the United States of America. (Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. World Population Emergency Campaign).
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Proceedings of the seventh conference of the IPPF, Singapore, February 10-16, 1963. Changing patterns in fertility. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1964. 734-9. (International Congress Series No. 72)The Planned Parenthood Federation of America Incorporated World Population Emergency Campaign's goal is to provide "leadership for the universal acceptance of family planning." The effort is concerned with reaching this objective in both the U.S. and among all members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The national organization is composed of 101 affiliates who are maintaining 201 birth control centers. Any education project or activity in the U.S. Planned Parenthood is focused on 1 or more of the following objectives: 1) providing more people with family planning information and motivation to use birth control; 2) raising the local and world level of public unders tanding about the value of and need for family planning; 3) helping educate professionals involved in family planning services and programs; 4) stimulating action by local and national governments to help provide birth control through tax supported channels; and 5) raising money to support the increasing number of Planned Parenthood efforts in the U.S. and to provide additional funds in support of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its member organizations. Within this framework, education and service has been geared to students, professional workers, industrial workers, agricultural migrants and low income urban families. Different mass media techniques are used to obtain the various educational objectives among the different groups of people. Efforts to stimulate action on the part of the U.S. government involves both increasing the public awareness of the need for such action and direct dealings with government officials and advisors on these matters. The use of mass media in soliciting increased financial support for Planned Parenthood remains mainly indirect with volunteers requesting financial support from individuals. As a voluntary organization receiving no government funds, a large number of volunteers are depended upon to supplement the work of the professional staff. Professional staff assistance is available from national headquarters to assist affiliates in all program areas, to aid other communities in organizing Planned Parenthood Committees, and to work with public health departments in order to promote the development of family planning services as part of their maternal and child health services.
In: Rodrigues W, ed. The Third American Conference on Integrated Programmes [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 17-20, 1982] Capri III. [Unpublished] 1982. 111-8.Group 1 analyzed the question: "How to organize the community and elicit people's participation?" The following items were identified as priorities: 1) previous diagnosis of the community; 2) leadership identification; 3) identification of opposition to the programs; 4) formation of a planned and systematic voluntary action; and 5) selection of human resources. In spite of considering sources at the community, municipal, state, federal, and foreign levels, the group recognizes and advises priority and emphasis to the community as the agent of its own development and therefore all efforts should be made in order to make the maximum use of all available resources. In order to increase the available sources, it is important to reach the highest potentials from all community resources, and elicit the interentity integration besides promoting campaigns for collecting resources. Group 2 developed the Community Development Methodology Pattern in response to the question: "How to organize community and elicit people's participation?" The survey, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of the community and program should be included. Funding can be obtained from international or national agencies, or derive from the community itself. However, the ultimate goal should be the self-financing of the program. In response to the question: "How to organize and elicit people's participation," Group 3 concluded that knowledge of the community, and frankness toward the community was of paramount importance. In order to motivate and educate the community, the strategies of dissemination and motivation must be set up, including the use of popular literature, and audiovisual materials. The development of human resources is a factor essential to any program. Training must cover the working team as well as the leaders and volunteers of the community. A part of the training process is the information and experience exchange meetings held by the participants of the different programs. Coordination with agencies concerned avoids duplication of efforts, program performance efficiency is improved, and each agency's role is clearly delineated.
London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1982. 44 p.Add to my documents.
Final report, Project THA/78/P12--training and follow-up support of peripheral and primary health care workers.
Bangkok, Thailand, Ministry of Health, Health Training Division, 1982. 12 p.The Royal Thai Government adopted the policy of integrated primary health care and family planning services. Special attention was to be devoted to peripheral and rural areas which were underserved; Primary Heatlh Care (PHC) and Family Planning (FP) Service outlets were to be expanded into villages and FP component was to be incorporated into the training curricula of grass root level paramedical and voluntary health workers. THe objectives of the project were: strengthening of Health Training Division Infrastructure and coordination of various agencies involved in training and primary health care; training of junior sanitarians and family planning and health service personnel in rural areas; continuous follow up support of all training and PHC activities throughout the system from the central to local levels; integration of population and family planning notions into training curricula and improvement of self instructional packages/manuals. By December 31, 1981, all of these major objectives were realized. Problems encountered in implementing these activities included delay in receiving WHO funds and procurement of nonexpendable equipment. There were also problems in implementing the last 2 fellowships because of a lack of coordination between WHO and UNFPA. Provincial health authorities in charge of training health personnel often forgot to inform the Health Training Division (HTD) of their plans which caused a delay in evaluation. In the future, the project's immediate objectives should be more specific and if possible quantified; the computer services of the National Statistical Office should be used because of their existing program; due to financial reporting procedures set up by UNFPA, the activities that need prompt payment such as training courses, should not be set up during the 1st 2 weeks and should end before the last 2 weeks of the quarter. The number of research and evaluation studies under the Health Training Division should not be more than 3 per year. Impact is considered on HTD and RCPH (Regional Colleges of Public Health) and shows that a relief in shortage of personnel results in staff development and better medical services. Career ladders for junior workers, continuing education programs, and production of instructional media will be future goals.