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Entre Nous. 2009; (68):24-25.Romania is a very special case when it comes to reproductive health in the modern world. After 30 years of a prohibitive society that denied couples and women the right to family planning, as a result of the political changes in December 1989 women in Romania have regained the fundamental right to freely decide the number of desired children, as well as the timing and spacing of births. Decree Law No. 1/ 1989, which promoted total abortion liberalization was the first resolution passed after the political changes in 1989 and it can be considered the symbolic foundation of family planning (FP) in Romania.
The role of the traditional midwife in the family planning program. Report of National Workshop to Review Researches into Dukun Activities related to MCH Care and Family Planning.
[Jakarta], Indonesia, Department of Health, 1972. 83 p.A number of studies conducted already have revealed that there are possibilities of using dukuns as potential helpers in the family planning programme. Bearing in mind that the number of dukuns at the present time is large, it is easy to imagine that they are capable of contributing a great deal towards progress in our family planning programme provided that the dukuns are assigned a role which is appropriate. In this respect, I am only referring to dukuns whose prime function is helping mothers during pregnancy and immediately afterwards, and who have close contact therefore, with the target of the family planning programme, i.e. the eligible couples. It would indeed be very helpful, if we could find out from the available data and from the results of applied research what exactly is the scope and usefulness of dukuns in the family planning programme. It seems to me that in this project we have to consider a twofold problem. The first aspect of the problem is that the dukuns are mostly of an advanced age and they are illiterate. The second aspect is that in spite of relationships with MCH centers extending over a period of years most of the dukuns still prefer their own way of doing things and they remain unaffected by modern ways of thinking. (excerpt)
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, Egypt, 5-13th September 1994. National position paper.
Lusaka, Zambia, National Commission for Development Planning, 1993 Dec. viii, 39 p.Zambia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a review of the country's unfavorable economic and demographic situation. Population growth has been increasing (by 2.6% for 1963-69 and 3.2% for 1980-90) because of a high birth rate and a death rate which is declining despite an increase in infant and child mortality. The population is extremely mobile and youthful (49.6% under age 15 years in 1990). Formulation of a population policy began in 1984, and an implementation program was announced in 1989. International guidance has played a major role in the development of the policy and implementation plans but an inadequacy of resources has hindered implementation. New concerns (the status of women; HIV/AIDS; the environment; homeless children and families; increasing poverty; and the increase in infant, child, and maternal mortality) have been added to the formerly recognized urgent problems caused by the high cost of living, youth, urbanization, and rural underdevelopment. To date, population activities have been donor-driven; therefore, more government and individual support will be sought and efforts will be made to ensure that donor support focuses on the local institutionalization of programs. The country report presents the demographic context in terms of population size and growth, fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization, spatial distribution, population structure, and the implications of this demographic situation. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the role of population in development planning, the evolution and current status of the population policy, and a profile of the national population program (research methodology; integrated planning; information, education, and communication; health, fertility, and mortality regulatory initiatives; HIV/AIDS; migration; the environment; adolescents; women; and demography training). A description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation covers political and national support, the national implementation strategy, program coordination, service delivery and quality of care, HIV/AIDS, personnel recruitment and training, evaluation, and financial resources. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, and resource mobilization.
Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.
[Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
Hierarchy of impacts and effects of training and training-related technical assistance interventions.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Program for International Training in Health [INTRAH], 1991 Oct.  p. (Technical Information Memo Series (TIMS) Vol. 1 No. E1)This Technical Information Memo Series focuses on the hierarchy of impacts and effects of training and training-related technical assistance interventions. It includes a graphic illustration that depicts the focal points and boundaries of training impact on service delivery improvements and the achievement of national family planning goals. It is noted that the impact of training can be observed in a variety of ways and at a number of levels, from measurably improved performance on the job to a documented increase in the coverage of services. The structure of the hierarchy suggests that training effects and impact interact and combine with other interventions, particularly those that permit the trainee to apply new skills and knowledge. The developmental approach to training uses training as a means to an end, the end being improved service availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality. Its success relies on an accompanying effort being made by service directors and managers to improve and expand the service infrastructure and to improve working conditions. It is hoped that the "Hierarchy of Training Impacts and Effects" will contribute to heightened awareness of what training requires in order to achieve the highest level of impact, and to the recognition that training alone cannot solve service problems and deficiencies in work conditions.
Jakarta, Indonesia, BKKBN, 1999. , 22 p.This invitation and guide to the International Training Programme (ITP) for Family Planning/Reproductive Health in Indonesia provides a description of the salient features of the Programme, its modalities, and information on the process of joining the ITP. The invitation from the State Minister for Population pointed out that the Programme seeks closer alliances with the participating organizations in the fields of population and family planning. An enumeration of the successes of Indonesia's Programme includes 1) a decrease of total fertility rates; 2) an increase in contraceptive prevalence rate; and 3) a limited and annual population growth rate. Useful lessons learned through the Programme include the importance of the following: 1) political commitment; 2) clear-cut policy-making; 3) the support of key leaders; 4) organizational dynamism; 5) community participation; and 6) the promotion of new values. It is noted that the ITP used the method of observation-study tour as its core modality. Other modalities used consist of internship, technical assistance, high level visits, international meetings, seminars or workshops, cross-sectional surveys and other joint research activities, and information exchange. Information on accommodation, facilities, and cost is furnished in this invitation.
JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Oct; (280):6.In cooperation with local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the JOICFP Integrated Project in Solola State, where it is implemented by the Family Welfare Association of Guatemala (APROFAM), has been refocused on reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) within the predominately Mayan communities of Panajachel, San Pedro la Laguna, and San Lucas Toliman. Emphasis has been placed on sensitivity to cultural and gender issues. Mayan professionals, including a Mayan doctor who provides 2 days of service to clinics on a rotational basis, are employed. A clinic has been added in San Pedro la Laguna and another in Panajachel; the latter serves as the project's headquarters. Training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and of community-based distribution agents (CBDs) has been increased in order to broaden project coverage. 31 CBDs have been recruited from project communities to counsel and to educate clients in the local language, to provide referrals, and to sell low-cost contraceptives. A Japanese public health nurse serves as a Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteer at the APROFAM clinic in Solola. Six TBAs have received follow-up training in natural and modern FP. The project's Mayan doctor works closely with these health personnel. 28 CBDs have been trained to provide Depo-Provera; acceptance of this method has increased by 42%. Contraceptive acceptance between January and June of this year is greater than the total for all of 1996. Two UN Population Fund (UNFPA) representatives, Dr. Sergio de Leon (program officer) and Dr. Ruben Gonzalez (national coordinator of the project to reduce maternal mortality), visited during a monitoring/technical support mission in July and August.
JOICFP NEWS. 1997 Jun; (276):3.In an interview with the Japanese Family Planning Association (FPA), Alexander Sanger, president of Margaret Sanger Center International (MSCI), Planned Parenthood of New York City (PPNYC), sketched the history of the clinic and research center founded by his grandmother, Margaret Sanger. The first person to come to the clinic from another country for training was Shidzue Kato of Japan. In addition to providing FP services and training, the clinic became known as a research center for new methods of contraception. After its 1973 merger with PPNYC, the clinic continued to function as an international training center with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the UN Population Fund. MSCI works with governments and nongovernmental organizations worldwide and focuses on 1) improving quality of care in FP clinics, 2) integrating FP into primary health-care centers, 3) promoting family life education, 4) improving male involvement in FP, 5) HIV/AIDS education, and 6) training FPAs in FP and women's rights advocacy. Sanger noted that FP advocates in the US were unsuccessful in lobbying to prevent a decrease in US funding of international FP programs (down to $385 million in 1996 from $548 million in 1994). Sanger called upon Japan and European countries to help make US politicians understand that providing FP funding is a responsibility of the most powerful nation in the world. Rather than cutting support, the US should be increasing funds for international FP efforts in conjunction with the US commitment to the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action.
UNFPA and NCPEP sign new project to strengthen the population and family planning programme -- project VIE/96/PO1, "Projection and Family Planning Benefits and Savings: a Multi-Sectoral Analysis".
POPULATION - FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1996 Jan-Jun; (2):4.On April 19, 1996, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), agreed to help fund (US $177,560) a population and family planning project in Viet Nam (VIE/96/PO1) to be implemented by the Centre for Population Studies and Information, of the National Committee for Population and Family Planning Programme (NCPFP), with technical assistance from the Futures Group International, Washington, D.C. The project will focus on capacity building through technical support; in-country and overseas training; workshops for key staff of the NCPFP, the General Statistical Office, the Ministry of Planning and Investment, and the National Economics University; and provision of necessary computer equipment and appropriate software packages. The expected outputs include: 1) to develop the technical capacity of a group of national experts who will be able to use models and data inputs to analyze and evaluate the family planning program; and 2) to help policymakers, planners, and programmers at the central and provincial levels to better acknowledge and appreciate the benefits of the government inputs and efforts in the population and family planning program, especially the savings expected from fertility reduction in other social sectors (health, education). The Vietnamese government will contribute VND 282,600,000 to the project.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1995. xi, 135 p.This manual was prepared for use by program managers, administrators, and service providers who are responsible for planning, implementing, and evaluating community-based contraceptive distribution programs in developing countries. This approach reflects the World Health Organization's commitment to making essential health services available to communities in an acceptable, affordable way and with their full participation. Target communities for such distribution programs include those with low levels of contraceptive use, a lack of awareness of family planning, shortages of trained medical personnel, and the presence of cultural or geographic factors impeding clinic attendance. The success of community-based distribution programs depends on three factors: support from the sponsoring organization, the community, and distributors; service accessibility; and high-quality services. This guide includes recommendations on the training of community-based distribution personnel, service delivery, monitoring, and evaluation. Appendices provide sample materials (e.g., projected demand for contraceptives, workplan, and budget) that can be adapted to local needs.
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS. 1995 May; (5):80-8.46 of the 144 autonomous, non-profit, and nongovernmental member associations of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) are in the Western Hemisphere Region (WHR). Although the region's family planning associations vary in length of existence, size, and functions, a large proportion of them have more than 25 years of history and action. There has been a steady evolution of institutional functioning over the years. With regard to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), the IPPF/WHR has been working with its member affiliates in Latin America and the Caribbean to integrate the prevention of HIV and STDs into existing programs. The authors in this paper describe that process of integration. Staff training was considered to be an essential component in the process of institutional change toward a more client-oriented approach. Training workshops were participatory and tailored to the needs of the individual family planning associations. Outcomes included improved counseling skills, addressing issues of sexuality, increased condom promotion and use, and referrals for STD treatment. These efforts represent movement toward a departure from a top-down medical approach toward the provision of more comprehensive reproductive health services.
[Integrated family planning for small farmers: a handbook] Planeamento familiar integrado para pequenos agricultores: um manual.
Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1985. iv, 57,  p.The objective of this training program manual was the elevation of the knowledge levels of Group Organizers and Action Research Fellows (GP/ARFs) of countries that participated in the Small Farmers Development Project (SFDP) launched by the Regional, Office for Asia and the Pacific of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The SFDP had the mission of increasing technical knowledge to small farmer to curtail the dichotomy of rapid population growth in Asian countries which started in the 1970s and the faltering agricultural output. A survey of agrarian reform (ASARRD) was also launched, and, after the implementation of SFDP in 1976 by Bangladesh, Nepal, and the Philippines, a family planning (FP) program (PopEd) was initiated in 1978 under SFDP in these countries. Income generating projects aimed at improving the quality of life of small farmers, Family Planning Education had the objective of disseminating FP information; however, after initial success, practical application bogged down. Thus, PopEd introduced a new strategy of training GO/ARFs, as group organizers and mobilizers, to enhance their knowledge about the relationship of poverty, development, and population growth, about its applicability to small farmers, and about the role of communication. The planning, management, and evaluation of the training program is detailed, with an overview of FAO programs for small farmers.
A reassessment of the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning services. Proceedings of a seminar presented under the Population Council's Robert H. Ebert Program on Critical Issues in Reproductive Health and Population, February 12-13, 1990, the Population Council, New York, New York.
New York, New York, Population Council, 1990. x, 185 p.Conference proceedings on reassessing the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning (FP) services cover the following topics: assessment of the history of the concept of reproductive risk, the epidemiology of screening, the implementation of the risk approach in maternity care in Western countries and in poorer countries and in FP, the possible effects on the health care system, costs, and risk benefit calculations. Other risk approaches and ethical considerations are discussed. The conclusions pertain to costs and allocation of resources, information and outreach, objectives, predictive ability, and risk assessment in FP. Recommendations are made. Appendixes include a discussion of issues involved in developing a reproductive risk assessment instrument and scoring system, and the WHO risk approach in maternal and child health and FP. The results show that the application of risk assessment warrants caution and usefulness in service delivery is questionable. The weaknesses and negative effects need further investigation. Risk-based systems tend toward skewed resource allocation. Equal access to care, freedom of choice, and personal autonomy are jeopardized. Risk assessment can accurately predict for a group, but not for individuals. Risk assessment cannot be refined as it is an instrument directed toward probabilities. The risk approach must be evaluated within a functioning health care system. Screening has been important in developed countries, but integration into developing country health care systems may be appropriate only when basic health care is in place and in urban and periurban communities. Recommendations are 1) to prevent problems and detect rather than predict actual complications when no effective maternity care is available; to provide effective care to all women, not just those at high risk; and to provide transportation to adequate facilities for women with complications. 2) All persons attending births should be trained to handle emergencies. 3) Risk assessment has no value unless basic reproductive health services are in place. Cost benefit analysis precludes implementation. Alternative strategies are available to increase contact of women with the health care system, to improve public education strategies, to improve the quality of traditional birth attendants, and to improve the quality of existing services. Women's ideas about what is "risk" and the cost and benefits of a risk-based system to women needs to be solicited. All bad outcomes are not preventable. Copies of this document can be obtained from The Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, NY, NY 10017. Tel: (212) 339-0625, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Baltimore, Maryland, PCS, 1992. , 61,  p.This report outlines the workplan of the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) for the period of October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with USAID JHU/PCs seeks to provide technical expertise and assistance to family planning information, education and communication (IEC) programs in developing countries. The report describes the planned activities for 4 regions: Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Near East. The report also reviews the activities according to the following categories: media/materials collection, technical services, and research evaluation. Finally, the report provides financial and administrative information. JHU/PCS will spend $11.7 million on regional and country projects. 35% of funds will support activities in Africa, 16% in Latin America, 35% in Asia, and 14% in the Near East. During the period, JHU/PCS will conduct country-need assessments in 11 countries, 63 country or regional projects, 2 international "Advances in Health Communication" workshops, and over 50 country training workshops and conferences. JHU/PCS's overall goal is to reduce fertility levels by promoting family planning and individual choice. Some of its strategies for accomplishing that goal include: 1) supporting USAID's "Big Country" Strategy; 2) improving the image of family planning and modern contraceptives; 3) marketing different types of family planning service providers; 4) reaching out to undeserved groups; 5) raising the quality standards of IEC materials; 6) upgrading the interpersonal communications skills of personnel; 7) using mass media to disseminate family planning information; 8) empowering women; 9) increasing cost-effectiveness, and 9) measuring IEC impact on behavior changes.
UNFPA intercountry project progress report (PPR): UNFPA project no. RAS/85/PO8. Project title: DTCP assistance to UNFPA programmes. For the period from 1 July 1987 to 31 December 1987.
[Unpublished] . 15, v,  p.Activities and accomplishments of an UNFPA-funded regional project in the Asia and Pacific region are described in detail. For the period July-December, 1987, the project assisted regional activities, supporting and backstopping services to 20 UNFPA country projects in the region. Specifically, the project helped develop and review projects, conduct workshops and training courses, arrange fellowships and study tours, and procure equipment and supplies for country projects. Publications presenting project experiences were reprinted and distributed, and a computerized master workplan for project monitoring was completed. 7 missions to Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Nepal, India, and Vietnam were also undertaken by the Project Regional Manager. The full-time advisor available to serve country projects is a development support communication expert to population and family planning projects, who also coordinates technical inputs from UNDP/OPE/Development Training and Communication Planning (DTCP) teams to the country projects. This advisor has been provided with an assistant. Rigid, time-bound workplans considered impractical, each country program has a systematic workplan for its operations. The project is progressing extremely well, and has improved the coordination of technical assistance from the DTCP team, as well as the working relationships between country offices, UNFPA headquarters, and the DTCP.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
The population IEC operation in Eastern and Southern Africa. Operational research report one: inventory overview.
Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 57 p. (Operational Research Report 1)In the context of rapid population growth in Africa, population information, education, and communication (IEC) programs and projects have been implemented in the region. An initial report was prepared describing population IEC operational research in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Fieldwork on the research project was conducted by a small team of researchers who surveyed/inventoried population IEC program and project development. The study was conducted in resource terms, attempting to identify operational problems or deficiencies posing obstacles to improved field activity effectiveness and efficiency. 7 questionnaires were developed and presented to program and project directors, managers, and coordinators to find detailed answers to specific concerns and questions. Researchers wanted to know the extent to which population IEC programs and projects were part of any larger national effort of development support communication, the variety and frequency of different IEC activities within the operation, where programs were failing to meet objectives, and the quantity and quality of available program resources, especially for training and materials development. Personal views, perceptions, and opinions of the interviewees were also sought. Additional questions addressed the relevance and significance of population IEC research to fertility management and communication strategy development. Compiling directories of people and institutions involved in population IEC research, training, and materials production and dissemination was a final purpose of the questionnaires. Common program features are highlighted.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1986 Jan. 83 p.The educational activities of the International Labor Organization's (ILO) Population and Labor Policies Program was launched in the early 1970s. It's spectrum includes: promotion of information and education activities devoted to population and family planning questions at various levels, particularly by means of workers' education, labor welfare, and cooperative and rural institutions' programs; policy- oriented research on the demographic aspects of measures of social policy in certain fields, such as employment and social security; and efforts to stimulate participation by social security and enterprise- level medical services in the promotion of family planning. At the outset, the ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of educational activities in selected countries. Slowly, the concept of an ILO population-oriented program developed, and regional labor and population teams were established. At the next stage, regional advisers extended their activities to the national level. Project descriptions are included for the countries of India, Jordan, Kiribati, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Nepal, Congo, Zambia, and the Philippines.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. , 67 p. (88/31007/E/1000)The primary concerns of the UNFPA Global Conference, held in New York during April 1988, were to review and assess the population field with the objective of applying lessons learned from the past to future program and decentralization designed to make UNFPA's programs more responsive to the needs of the countries. The 1st day of the Conference focused on the work of UNFPA, as presented by UNFPA officers. The review and assessment exercise that took place on the 2nd and 3rd days included sessions on maternal and child health/family planning; information, education, and communication; population data, policy, and research; and women, population, and development. The final 3 days of the Conference were devoted to decentralization as well as administrative and personnel issues to UNFPA headquarters and field staff. Recommendations are included in these conference proceedings in addition to the Conference program; the opening statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, UNFPA Executive Director; and Dr. Sadik's "Review and Assessment of the Population Field."
1987 report by the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund. State of world population 1988. UNFPA in 1987.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1988. 189 p.Of major significance to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in 1987 was the fact that the world's population passed the 5 billion mark in that year. Although population growth rates are now slowing, the momentum of population growth ensures that at least another 3 billion people will be added to the world between 1985-2025. This increasing population pressure dictates a need for development policies that sustain and expand the earth's resource base rather than deplete it. Successful adaptation will require political commitment and significant investments of national resources, both human and financial. It is especially important to extend the reach of family planning programs so that women can delay the 1st birth and extend the intervals between subsequent births. Nearly all developing countries now have family planning programs, but the degree of political and economic support, and their effective reach, vary widely. In 1987, UNFPA assistance in this area totalled US$73.3 million, or 55% of total program allocations. During this year, UNFPA supported nearly 500 country and intercountry family planning projects, with particular attention to improving maternal-child health/family planning services in sub-Saharan Africa. As more governments in Africa became involved in Family planning programs, there was a concomitant need for all types of training programs. Other special program interests during 1987 included women and development, youth, aging, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This Annual Report includes detailed accounts of UNFPA program activities in 1987 in sub-Saharan Africa, Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Also included are reports on policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluation, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of supplies and equipment, multibilateral financing for population activities, and income and expenditures.
[Unpublished] 1987. 7 p.During the July 21-24 trip to Burundi, discussions were held about possible Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) assistance in creating a training center at the University Hospital which could serve as a site for training medical personnel from Burundi and other French-speaking African nations. Practical training is urgently needed at this time to allow health personnel to feel comfortable about dispensing a wide range of contraceptive methods/information. A great need exists for the training of nurses in IUD insertion and for copper-T commodities. Family planning method acceptance is growing steadily: the number is said to double every 6 months. As yet, voluntary surgical contraception plays a minor role and is available only at a limited number of centers. As previously reported, several donors, including the UN Fund for Population Assistance, World Bank, and the African Development Bank, are involved in activities/proposals related to maternal/child health and family planning. The major objective of AVSC assistance to the Ministry of Public Health is to increase access to VSC by integrating quality services into ongoing maternal/child health/family planning activities in 4 regional referral hospitals. The project is expected to last for 4 years with a total budget of slightly over $200,000. During this visit, the basics were worked out for a program in which AVSC would provide assistance for training 10 physicians/year in minilap (both postpartum and interval) using local anesthesia. Trainees would be residents and interns and, if possible, physicians from government facilities. It is hoped that a training program document can be developed for presentation at the December 1987 meeting of AVSC's International Committee. The site visit was useful to the effort of moving the pending project with the Ministry of Public Health along and for discussing possible cooperation with the University Hospital. Program success is likely for several reasons: the Ministry of Public Health generally is favorable and supportive; chances for "institutionalization" are good; the basic hospital infrastructure is sound; and the rising demand for VSC is recognized by health officials and service providers.
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA funded project on labour and family welfare education in organized sector in Zambia (September-October 1986).
Arlington, Virgina, Development Associates, 1986. iii, 71 p.This report evaluates the UNFPA-funded Labor and Family Welfare project in the Organized Sector of Zambia, Africa. The project targeted 3 key elements of the Organized Sector--motivation of leaders, training of educators, and in-plant workers' education. The project laid the groundwork for a major expansion of education and services at the workers' level. It has also led to a National Population Policy formulation. 18 recommendations are suggested with priority given to factory-level education and family planning service delivery. Additional funding for companies to motivate and educate workers regarding acceptance of family planning services is suggested, as well as increased training for economics, teachers, psychology teachers, and social workers to enable them to incorporate population education into their curriculums. Training activities were a major focus of the project. Increased training and educational materials about family planning, in the form of posters and handouts, should be produced and disseminated at the factory level, as well as to medical personnel. UNFPA, in accord with the Ministry of Health of Zambia, should ensure an adequate supply of contraceptives to the factories. Existing record keeping, reporting and scheduling practices should be improved, as well as the International Labor Organization (ILO) disbursement system. Short-term ILO consultants should be recruited to improve the project and its management, and 2 additional staff members, provided by the government, could help to implement the program at the plant level. 2 new vehicles should be purchased for full-time field staff to ensure availability to carry out project activities. In addition, the present accounting and recordkeeping of the ILO Lusaka office should be restructured to achieve more accurate monitoring of the use of project funds.
Washington, D.C., International Science and Technology Institute, Population Technical Assistance Project, 1985 Aug 8. v, 7,  p. (Report No. 85-48-018; Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)The objectives of the consultation in Madagascar were to review existing policies and programs in population and family health, to assess government and nongovernment plans and capabilities to program implementation, to review other donor activities, to identify constraints impeding population and family planning activities, and to prepare recommendations for the US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Madagascar. Although the government has no officially proclaimed population policy, there is increasing direct support of family planning. The private family planning association, Fianakaviana Sambatra (FISA) was officially recognized in 1967 and is permitted to import and distribute contraceptives. Sale of contraceptives in private pharmacies also is permitted. The major organization providing family planning services is FISA. The Ministry of Health (MOH) system does not include contraceptive services as part of its health care services, but at the request of MOH physicians, FISA provides services in 40 MOH facilities. Private pharmacies account for most of the contraceptive distribution, with oral contraceptives (OCs) being sold by prescriptions written by private physicians or, on occasion, by public health physicians. Contraceptive services also are provided in the medical centers of at least 3 organizations: JIRAMA, the water and electricity parastatal; SOLIMA, the petroleum parastatal; and OSTIE, a group of private enterprises that has its own health care system. A Catholic organization, FTK (Natural Family Planning Association) provides education and training in natural family planning. Demographic research has not been accorded a high priority in Madagascar. Consequently, the country's capabilities in the area are relatively limited. At this time, demographic research is carried out within several institutional structures. The major donor in the area of population/family planning is UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Activities of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in the area of health are relevant to the planned USAID assistance. For several years, USAID has provided population assistance to Madagascar through its centrally funded projects. Recommendations are presented in order of descending importance according to priorities determined by the consultation team: population policy; training/sensitization of the medical community; support to existing private voluntary organizations; demographic statistics and research; information, education, and communication; and collection and reinforcement of health statistics. In regard to population policy, assistance should be directed to 2 general objectives: providing guidance to the government in deciding which stance it ultimately wishes to adopt officially with regard to population; and encouraging the systematic incorporation of demographic factors into sectoral development planning.
New York, New York, Family Planning International Assistance, 1987. 143 p.Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), the international division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), responds to the family planning assistance needs of developing countries through the provision of funds (from USAID), commodities, and technical assistance. In 1989, FPIA will have 140 active projects, funding projects in a minimum of 37 developing countries. As of December 31, 1989, FPIA will have developed 30 family planning/maternal and child health projects, 20 adolescent and/or women's projects, 15 training projects, 10 IEC projects, and 5 other projects. It will increase its number of family planning service clients by 5% per year for 1987-1989. In 1987, 10 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Thailand, and Sri Lanka) were allocated 72% or $4.8 million of FPIA's projected subgrant budget of $6.7 million. Also, in 1987, 35% of the projected budget was allocated to 5 priority countries in which USAID has no bilateral programs: Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Nigeria, and Turkey. The report includes individual country plans for 24 countries: Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and South Pacific, Peru, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Zaire, and Zambia.
International Planned Parenthood Federation adds Norplant implants to its commodities list of approved contraceptives. News release.
New York, New York, Population Council, 1985 Oct 5. 3 p.On December 5, 1985, the Population Council announced that the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has approved the inclusion of Norplant implants on its commodities list of contraceptives available to its affiliates. This action means that the Norplant method will be available to the 120 IPPF-affiliated national family planning associations once the contraceptive has been approved for distribution by regulatory authorities in each country. IPPF has indicated that it will supply the implants to agencies that: 1) have a sufficient number of health workers who have been formally trained in Norplant insertion, removal, and counseling techniques; 2) have suitable clinic facilities and adequate back-up and referral systems; and 3) can arrange training so that additional health workers will qualify to use this method. The Norplant method was approved by the IPPF Advisory Panel on September 8, 1985, following an 18-month period of review of all available scientific data. The Norplant system has been used in clinical trials in 25 countries involving over 25,000 acceptors. The Population Council has cited the inclusion of Norplant implants in the IPPF program as an important step in the worldwide availability of this contraceptive method. The Population Council has established regional training centers in Indonesia, Egypt, Chile, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic where health care personnel can be trained in techniques of insertion and removal of the impants as well as in counseling potential acceptors.