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New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
Program scan matrix on child marriage: A web-based search of interventions addressing child marriage.
[Washington, D.C.], International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], . 25 p.The international community and U.S. government are increasingly concerned about the prevalence of child marriage and its toll on girls in developing countries. One in seven girls in the developing world marries before 15. Nearly half of the 331 million girls in developing countries are expected to marry by their 20th birthday. At this rate, 100 million more girls-or 25,000 more girls every day-will become child brides in the next decade. Current literature on child marriage has primarily examined the prevalence, consequences and reported reasons for early marriage. Much less has been analyzed about the risk and protective factors that may be associated with child marriage. Also, little is known about the range of existing programs addressing child marriage, and what does and does not work in preventing early marriage. The work presented here investigates two key questions: What factors are associated with risk of or protection against child marriage, and ultimately could be the focus of prevention efforts? What are the current programmatic approaches to prevent child marriage in developing countries, and are these programs effective? (excerpt)
Population assistance and family planning programs: issues for Congress. Updated February 13, 2003. Programas de asistencia a la población y de planificación familiar: temas para el Congreso. Actualización al 13 de febrero de 2003.
Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2003 Feb 13.  p. (Issue Brief for Congress)Since 1965, United States policy has supported international population planning based on principles of voluntarism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control. This policy, however, has generated contentious debate for over two decades, resulting in frequent clarification and modification of U.S. international family planning programs. In the mid-1980s, U.S. population aid policy became especially controversial when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions. Critics viewed this policy as a major and unwise departure from U.S. population efforts of the previous 20 years. The “Mexico City policy” further denied U.S. funds to foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning, regardless of whether the source of money was the U.S. government Presidents Reagan and Bush also banned grants to the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) because of its program in China, where coercion has been used. During the Bush Administration, a slight majority in Congress favored funding UNFPA and overturning the Mexico City policy but failed to alter policy because of presidential vetoes or the threat of a veto. President Clinton repealed Mexico City policy restrictions and resumed UNFPA funding, but these decisions were frequently challenged by some Members of Congress. On January 22, 2001, President Bush revoked the Clinton Administration population policy position and restored in full the terms of the Mexico City restrictions that were in effect on January 19, 1993. Foreign NGOs and international organizations, as a condition for receipt of U.S. funds, now must agree not to perform or actively promote abortions as a method of family planning in other countries. Subsequently, in January 2002, the White House placed a hold on the transfer of $34 million appropriated by Congress for UNFPA and launched a review of the organization’s program in China. Following the visit by a State Department assessment team in May, Secretary of State Powell announced on July 22 that UNFPA was in violation of the “Kemp-Kasten” amendment that bans U.S. assistance to organizations that support or participate in the management of coercive family planning programs. For FY2003, the President proposes no UNFPA funding, although there is a “reserve” of $25 million that could be used if the White House determines that UNFPA is eligible for U.S. support in FY2003. The Administration further requests $425 million for bilateral family planning programs, a reduction from the $446.5 million provided in FY2002. H.J.Res. 2, as passed by the Senate on January 23, 2003, includes the FY2003 Foreign Operations Appropriations. It provides $435 million for bilateral family planning aid and $35 million for UNFPA. Last year, the Senate Appropriations Committee (S. 2779) had recommended $450 million for bilateral activities and $50 million for UNFPA. The Senate bill further would have modified the Kemp-Kasten amendment and partially reversed the President’s Mexico City policy for some organizations. The House bill (H.R. 5410) last year provided $425 million for family planning and $25 million for UNFPA, but made no modifications to Kemp-Kasten or to the Mexico City policy. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. ix, 92 p. (Technical Report No. 16)In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to Viet Nam took place in 1993. This technical report presents a consensus of the findings and conclusions of that mission. After an executive summary and introductory chapter, which discusses population and family planning and the AIDS epidemic in Viet Nam, chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm contraceptive commodity requirements, short-term forecasting and requirements, and forecasting of condom requirements for HIV/AIDS prevention. Logistics management is considered next, with emphasis on public and private organizations which participate in contraceptive distribution, procurement, and allocation to outlets; the reception, warehousing, and distribution of contraceptives; warehousing regulations; the logistics management information system; and monitoring. Chapter 4 deals with contraceptive manufacturing and discusses the regulatory environment and quality assurance, condoms, IUDs, oral and other steroidal contraceptives, and related issues. The fifth chapter presents the role of NGOs and the private sector and discusses mass organizations, social marketing, and future private-sector options, opportunities, and constraints. A financial analysis provided in chapter 6 relays sources and use of funds, trends in financial contributions for 1985-2000, future funding requirements, and contraceptive cost implications for individuals. The final chapter considers condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention with information given on current status and patterns; projected trends; the National AIDS committee; an overview of international donor assistance; major condom distribution channels and outlets, condom demand-generation activities, forecasting requirements for 1993-2002, and condom supply activities. A summary of key knowledge, attitude, and practice findings about AIDS and condoms is appended as is additional information on contraceptive requirements and condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention. The report contains 17 tables and 1 figure, and 18 specific recommendations are made for the topics covered.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. x, 122 p. (Technical Report No. 17)In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to the Philippines took place in 1993. In the introductory chapter of this technical report, the Global Initiative is described and the Philippine Population Program is presented in terms of the demographic picture, the population policy framework, the Philippine Family Planning (FP) Program, STD/AIDS control and prevention efforts, and an overview of donor assistance from 1) the UNFPA, 2) USAID, 3) the World Bank, 4) the Asian Development Bank, 5) the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, 6) the Canadian International Development Agency, 7) the Commission of the European Community, 8) the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 9) the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, and 10) the Netherlands. The second chapter presents contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm commodity requirements, condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, total commodity requirements for 1993-2002, short-term procurement projections, and projections and calculations of unmet need. Chapter 3 covers logistics management for 1) the public sector, 2) condoms for STD/AIDS preventions, 3) NGOs, and 4) the commercial sector. The fourth chapter is devoted to a consideration of private practitioners and a detailed look at the ways that NGOs relate to FP groups. This chapter also covers the work of NGOs in STD/AIDS prevention and coordination and collaboration among NGOs. Chapter 5 is devoted to the private commercial sector and includes information on social marketing, the commercial sector, and duties and taxes. The issues addressed in chapter 6 are contraceptive manufacturing and quality assurance, including the potential for the local manufacture of OCs, condoms, IUDs, injectables, and implants. The national AIDS prevention and control program, the forecasting of condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, and policy and managerial issues are considered in chapter 7. The last chapter provides a financial analysis of the sources and uses of funds for contraceptives including donated commodities, the private commercial sector, cost recovery issues, and regulations and policies, such as taxes and duties on donated contraceptives, which affect commodities. 5 appendices provide additional information on contraceptive requirements, logistics management and costs, the private commercial sector, condoms for STD/AIDS prevention, and a financial analysis. Information provided by the texts and appendices is presented in tables and charts throughout the report.
Hierarchy of impacts and effects of training and training-related technical assistance interventions.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Program for International Training in Health [INTRAH], 1991 Oct.  p. (Technical Information Memo Series (TIMS) Vol. 1 No. E1)This Technical Information Memo Series focuses on the hierarchy of impacts and effects of training and training-related technical assistance interventions. It includes a graphic illustration that depicts the focal points and boundaries of training impact on service delivery improvements and the achievement of national family planning goals. It is noted that the impact of training can be observed in a variety of ways and at a number of levels, from measurably improved performance on the job to a documented increase in the coverage of services. The structure of the hierarchy suggests that training effects and impact interact and combine with other interventions, particularly those that permit the trainee to apply new skills and knowledge. The developmental approach to training uses training as a means to an end, the end being improved service availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality. Its success relies on an accompanying effort being made by service directors and managers to improve and expand the service infrastructure and to improve working conditions. It is hoped that the "Hierarchy of Training Impacts and Effects" will contribute to heightened awareness of what training requires in order to achieve the highest level of impact, and to the recognition that training alone cannot solve service problems and deficiencies in work conditions.
Current approaches to strengthening the management of national maternal / child health and family planning programs.
[Unpublished] . 7 p.This presentation provides an overview of past efforts by the WHO to support management development in health and to describe some of the specific methods being used in the Family Health Division. WHO has for many years recognized the importance of sound program management and has striven to support countries in practical ways to strengthen management skills, procedures and practices. Certain programs have designed and provided tailor-made management training for the improvement of specific types of services. Generally, WHO has attempted to develop and share methods in health planning and management which were felt of potential usefulness to national administrations. The current management strengthening activities discussed in this paper are the following: 1) rapid evaluation of maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) programs; 2) district team problem-solving in MCH/FP; 3) application of patient flow analysis in clinics; 4) development of indicators for managing MCH/FP services; and 5) the national formulation of major UN Population Fund Projects in MCH/FP.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1992. vi, 81 p.This report reviews the accomplishments and constraints to the population program and identifies new directions for the national population program of the Republic of Cameroon. Chapter topics are devoted to a description of the geography, demographic trends, socioeconomic conditions, and population policy as well as a review of the National Population Program and proposed national strategies (general, sectoral, and UN Population Fund). Cameroon is described as a high fertility country with a total fertility rate of 5.8 in 1987. The population includes 200 major tribes. The world economic crisis shifted the economy from a surplus economy to a deficit trade position. Structural adjustment measures include the goal of slowing population growth. A draft National Population Policy was adopted in 1990 with the aim of reactivating administrative bodies in implementing national population policy, improving maternal and child health, and improving the role and status of women. Sectoral strategies have the goal of improving maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) services, proving IEC, advancing the status of women through the development policy, and providing data collection and research. Obstacles to integrated programs are identified as lack of clear guidelines on family planning, difficulties in implementing multiple educational directions, lack of coordination within some institutions and donor agencies, and weakness in health planning capacities. The educational system is reported to have internal constraints. The UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) mission proposes to prepare and implement regional and sectoral strategies after final approval of the National Population Policy. UNFPA plans to strengthen and expand MCH/FP, to encourage the education of women, to expand women's access to credit, and to strengthen women's network of organizations. Twenty-two specific sectoral strategies are identified.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1993. vii, 95 p.The results of a family planning program review and strategy evaluation are reported by the UN Population Fund mission to Malaysia. This report provides background information on socioeconomic and demographic conditions, the National Population Policy and its development, and plans and programs of the National Population Program for Malaysia. Information is also given on the extent of external assistance received from multilateral, regional, bilateral, and nongovernmental organizations. Demographic conditions are described as including a population growth rate of 2.6% annually. The highest population growth rates are in Sabah (5.7%). Contraceptive prevalence in 1988 is reported as 49%, but 41% of needs for birth spacing and limitation are not being met. The quality of life among poor Malays in rural areas has improved very little. The National Population Program, which was established in 1966, aims to balance economic and demographic conditions, to educate and train a population for adjusting to socioeconomic changes, and to develop and promote responsible life styles. A National Policy on Women, which was adopted in 1989, is included in the 1991-95 plan of action. Improvements are reported as necessary among high risk mothers over 35 years of age and with high parities and in the contraceptive delivery system. Internal migration and urbanization create pressures on the environment and on the infrastructure. Government policy is reported to have shifted to a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach and to community based programs. Suggestions are made to enhance population and development planning and research in Sabah and Sarawak and to expand and direct IEC to male audiences. Training is needed for sensitizing personnel to gender issues. Support is needed for the National Clearinghouse for women and action oriented women's projects.
[Unpublished] 1990. 4 p.As of July 1990, 621 Norplant insertions and 185 removals were performed at 3 sites in Tunisia. In January 1988 the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) started to expand these services to 5 additional sites by training physicians and social personnel and by developing materials. The plan was to expand Norplant insertions to all 23 clinics by the end of 1991. The Norplant program was to be introduced in 2-3 years in 2 phases starting in 1990 and eventually to expand Norplant in the private sector and government facilities. During consolidation in 1991 clinical and acceptability research will be completed by July 1991 and services at the 8 sites will be strengthened by refresher training. During phase 1 participating agencies will have the following role: AVSC is to collaborate with the government family planning program in revising curricula and upgrading training for paramedical and social personnel, to help maintain service delivery at these 8 clinics, to develop flip-charts for education and training, and to review client record form for Norplant users and data collection for monitoring. The World Health Organization is to complete a comparative study and disseminate results. Phase 2 is the expansion phase from 1992 to 1993, when services will be expanded to the remaining 15 clinics. Once this is completed further promotion for information and education should be considered by AVSC to train medical personnel in Norplant insertion and removal, to train paramedical personnel, to assist expansion of services, and to review integration of Norplant into the medical and monitoring systems. The Population Council is to assist the evaluation of Norplant quality. Donor coordination should also be facilitated by in-country meetings with various agencies to review results of program activities. Special central funding must be secured because of lack of bilateral funding for Norplant and also supplies have to be secured for the expansion phase.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. xvii, 243 p. (World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies)Based on a study using country-level data from Asian countries, the World Bank has come to three broad conclusions: by expanding contraceptive knowledge and contraceptive use, family planning programs in Asia have contributed to lower fertility; investments in family planning services, albeit necessary, are not sufficient to bring sustained fertility decreases to replacement level; and despite advances in fertility decline, relatively youthful populations in Asian countries will maintain a substantial population increase over the next 40 years. The capability of institutions (especially government) to provide social services to the people and the capability of individuals to use those services appropriately play a significant role in determining the speed and sustainability of fertility decline. The Asian countries exhibited differences in this social capacity. These differences bring to the fore questions about policies fostering fertility decline. Topics covered in this examination of population policy in Asian countries include: population size and growth; contraceptive prevalence; fertility levels; expenditures and the public vs the private sector in family planning and delivery of family planning services; case studies on family planning programs in China, India, and Indonesia; future population sizes of Asian countries and coping with population growth and change. The appendixes address parameterization of the total fertility rate; government policies and their effects on the use of family planning services; and supplementary data.
New York, New York, PPWP, 1966. 6 p.Add to my documents.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
In: A report on current activities of the Population Council: studies in contraceptive development, publications, and research. [Unpublished] 1981. 108 p.Report on evaluation of the Population Council's International Committee on Applied Research in Population (ICARP), 1 of 7 activities supported by USAID. ICARP was established in 1972 to stimulate adoption of innovations to improve family planning services by getting administrators and researchers to work together to identify promising innovations; developing, testing and demonstrating these through applied research; and disseminating findings. Separate Asian and Latin American committees were formed, with a liaison office in New York City. The report details the ICARP Plan and examines activities of the Latin American and Asian committees and the liaison office. It is concluded that ICARP has had some impact on family planning programs and policies and some effect on administrators, but the impact has been limited. The 2 regions need to redefine their purposes; improve administrative procedures; revise personnel development, review and monitoring processes; and develop a dissemination strategy. Continued AID support is recommended; technical and administrative assistance by the Population Council should lead to the 2 regions being completely independent after 3 years.
Bangkok, Thailand, Population Council, Regional Office for South and East Asia, Aug. 1982. 152 p.Summarizes the Population Council's review of Indian population policy and programs, including their recommendations to USAID concerning future assistance over the next 5 years in this area. The review starts with the assumption that there are no simple or universally applicable approaches for achieving desired demographic objectives. Approaches suitable to local needs and social, economic, and political realities must be found and applied. The report analyzes both the family planning program and nonprogram elements in the Indian development process, assesses the past and present state of population policies and programs in India, examines program and nonprogram constraints, discusses direction for the future and makes recommendations regarding future USAID involvement including the role of other U.S.-based institutions. The population of India has nearly doubled in the past 34 years. The past performance in reducing the growth rate has been disappointing. However, there seems to be a renewed political commitment to reducing population growth rates. The need for continued and if possible, increased USAID support is stressed.
In: Rodrigues W, ed. The Third American Conference on Integrated Programmes [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 17-20, 1982] Capri III. [Unpublished] 1982. 21-7.The Integrated Project promoted by the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) is based on the concept of humanistic family planning. The Project integrates family planning, nutrition and parasite control. If these components are arranged according to a parent's priorities, they would be in the following order: parasite control, nutrition, and finally, family planning. In developing countries, the Project controls the most commonly found parasites which are transmitted through soil, conducts nutrition education programs, and family planning. In order to implement and develop the Integrated Project, a pilot project should contain the following objectives: 1) to see the effect of the Integrated Project; 2) to use these projects as opportunities for training people to be family planning workers and parasite examination technicians; and 3) to demonstrate the effect of the Integrated Project to the central and local governments and try to encourage them to takeover the projects as their programs. In addition, a steering committee should be responsible for policy making, project design and support in other areas such as procurement and distribution of necessary materials, monitoring, training, research and coordination with the central government and the foreign donor agencies. Pilot areas should contain 20,000 to 30,000 people. More than 1 site with different living conditions should be selected simultaneously, so that different information and experiences from various regions can be obtained. For future evaluation, preliminary surveys are recommended before project implementation. Such surveys should study the acceptance rate of family planning, parasite infection rate, the status of various diseases, and environmental conditions. Deworming drugs, microscopes, and educational materials must be available. A work plan should be formed by holding discussions and clarifying the implementation of parasite control. As the Integrated Project is transformed from the original pilot projects of the experimental stage into expanded programs, it will obtain a higher reputation. Mass media and observations of people outside will help to expand the projects. As a result, the experiences gained in the Project can be incorporated into government controlled primary health care programs.
In: Rodrigues W, ed. The Third American Conference on Integrated Programmes [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 17-20, 1982] Capri III. [Unpublished] 1982. 111-8.Group 1 analyzed the question: "How to organize the community and elicit people's participation?" The following items were identified as priorities: 1) previous diagnosis of the community; 2) leadership identification; 3) identification of opposition to the programs; 4) formation of a planned and systematic voluntary action; and 5) selection of human resources. In spite of considering sources at the community, municipal, state, federal, and foreign levels, the group recognizes and advises priority and emphasis to the community as the agent of its own development and therefore all efforts should be made in order to make the maximum use of all available resources. In order to increase the available sources, it is important to reach the highest potentials from all community resources, and elicit the interentity integration besides promoting campaigns for collecting resources. Group 2 developed the Community Development Methodology Pattern in response to the question: "How to organize community and elicit people's participation?" The survey, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of the community and program should be included. Funding can be obtained from international or national agencies, or derive from the community itself. However, the ultimate goal should be the self-financing of the program. In response to the question: "How to organize and elicit people's participation," Group 3 concluded that knowledge of the community, and frankness toward the community was of paramount importance. In order to motivate and educate the community, the strategies of dissemination and motivation must be set up, including the use of popular literature, and audiovisual materials. The development of human resources is a factor essential to any program. Training must cover the working team as well as the leaders and volunteers of the community. A part of the training process is the information and experience exchange meetings held by the participants of the different programs. Coordination with agencies concerned avoids duplication of efforts, program performance efficiency is improved, and each agency's role is clearly delineated.
[Joint report on the future role of United Nations System assistance in family planning research: the case of Senegal] Rapport conjoint sur le role future de l'assistance du systeme des Nations Unies dans la recherche en planification familiale: cas du Senegal.
[Unpublished] 1982. 32 p.A Senegal case study explores the possible role of the United Nations System assistance in family planning research. Family planning seems to be an essential problem not only for mother's and children's sanitary development but mainly also for sociodemographic and economic purposes. There are presently inadequate techniques, logistics and organized family planning programs. Priorities should be given to the following needs: 1) family planning personnel formation, at all levels, for execution, supervision and evaluation; 2) service development; 3) technical support and documentation organization; 4) needs assessment of teenagers and mothers in regard to family planning; 5) utilization of sociologists, psychologists and information specialists in order to better comprehend the social impact of family planning programs, 6) necessity for a central coordinating structure for better technical and administrative assistance for family planning programs.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, May 1982. 12 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)Estimates indicate that 600 million people in less developed countries (LDCs) are in danger of not getting enough to eat. This policy paper reviews the justifications for US investment in improving nutrition in LDCs and sets out some policy guidelines for USAID programs. The objective of the nutrition policy is to maximize the nutritional impact of USAID's economic assistance. The policy recommendations are to place the highest priority on alleviating undernutrition through sectoral programs which incorporate nutrition as a factor in decision making. This can be effected through identifying projects based upon analysis of food consumption problems; this is especially appropriate in formulating country development strategies, especially in the areas of agriculture, rural development, education and health. USAID will give increasing attention, through research, analysis, experimental projects, and programs, to improve the ability to utilize the private sector whenever feasible to implement the policy, and to target projects to at-risk groups with the design of overcoming or minimizing constraints to meeting their nutritional needs. It will also monitor the impacts of development projects and strengthen the capacity of indigenous organizations to analyze and overcome nutrition problems.