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  1. 1

    Corporate social responsibility: opportunities for reproductive health.

    Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. Commercial Market Strategies

    Washington, D.C., Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Commercial Market Strategies, 2004 May. [5], 25 p. (Working Paper; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-98-00039-00)

    Although health-related CSR programs are fairly common, reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) initiatives are underrepresented in the global portfolio of CSR programs. These programs might include maternal and child health, STI/HIV/AIDS prevention and education, and provision of contraceptives. To help facilitate the inclusion of RH initiatives in CSR programs, this paper addresses the following questions: What are the motivations behind CSR programs, and what are current CSR trends? What characterizes different CSR models, and how does each model lend itself to the inclusion of family planning and reproductive health services? What opportunities exist for partnerships focused on reproductive health? To answer these questions, CMS conducted in-depth interviews with more than 50 business leaders whose companies are noted for their CSR programs. CMS’s research was designed to unearth the depth and detail of CSR processes from the corporate perspective, seeking to understand why corporations become involved in CSR, as well as how they do it, so that this knowledge could be applied to potential RH initiatives. CMS’s research clearly shows that corporate culture and values drive CSR initiatives. There are usually both internal and external motivations for these programs. Most companies do not view their social and financial responsibilities as mutually exclusive; instead, they link CSR to their core business strategies. CMS also found that a company’s stakeholders play an influential role in selecting and designing its CSR program. Companies are increasingly interested in forming partnerships with the public sector or NGOs, in order to bring technical expertise or other resources to CSR programs. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The paradox of progress [editorial]

    Ketting E


    During the last 25 years, the number of people, worldwide, seeking family planning services has increased. Due to the efforts of national governments, international donor agencies, and volunteer organizations, more of these people are able to fulfill their needs. Between the early 1960s and 1990, in developing countries, the percentage of couples practicing family planning rose from 10% to more than 50%. However, research indicates that there is still a large need for information and services among clients. This need will increase if international efforts are not intensified. Global spending on family programs will have to double; international donor aid will have to quadruple; and the percentage of development aid spent on population activities will have to increase from 1% to 4%. Since the rate of acceptance of family planning has been faster than the rate of expansion of services, a paradox of increasing success and growing need has occurred. A concerted international effort is required to remedy this situation. Providing more services is insufficient; quality services that are acceptable to clients, particularly women, are needed, as are programs designed for marginalized populations (refugees, and persons living in occupied territories, remote rural areas, or poor conditions).
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  3. 3

    Gender, health and population policy.

    Postel E


    Indonesia is an international showpiece of successful population control. The number of desired acceptors of family planning is fixed by a coordinating board in cooperation with international advisers including the World Bank. More than 95% of the actual acceptors or users of contraceptives are women rather than couples. Numerical targets are set for districts, subdistricts, villages and hamlets; and local administrators are charged with the execution of the program. Ambitious village or district leaders use a variety of incentives and disincentives to comply with these directives issued by superiors. "2 children is enough" is the slogan on ubiquitous posters in the archipelago. A woman who is pregnant for a 3rd time may face scorn in her village. Although family planning has succeeded in averting births, maternal mortality rates in Indonesia are among the highest in the world. 55% of Indonesian women suffer from anaemia, particularly pregnant or breast feeding women. In principle there is free choice of contraceptives, but effective means such as hormonal implants, IUDs, and sterilization are promoted instead of pills and barrier methods. Thus, a program originally designed to be sensitive to community concerns runs the risk of becoming an oppressive system. Under the rhetoric of human development the quality of family planning services should be improved, the status of women raised by better education and more employment opportunities, no discrimination, and better health services. The aim of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is to extend modern family planning services to 567 million couples, 59% of all married women of reproductive age, by the age 2000. The contraceptive needs of unmarried women have been ignored again, while the plight of unmarried pregnant women has probably increased by increasing violence and wars.
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  4. 4

    In Sri Lanka, a clearer focus.

    POPULATION. 1991 Dec; 17(12):3.

    In order to improve maternal and child health and family planning services in areas of Sri Lanka that lag in health and social development, UNFPA has created a program called "More Focused." This program targets underserved places such as fishing villages, plantations, and slums. More Focused represents part of UNFPA's program package intended to help Sri Lanka reach its goal of replacement level fertility by the year 2000. The approach of More focused offers underserved regions more than simply contraceptive services. The program provides an array of services that address problems such as poor nutrition, low literacy levels, and cultural factors. For example, More Focus is attempting to improve the conditions and the self-confidence of women working in Sri Lanka's free-trade zones, which contain the heaviest concentration of malnourished women. The project gives women instruction on nutrition, money management, health, family planning, etc. The women have gained confidence and have organized themselves to discuss employment-related issues with their employees. For its 1992-96 country program, UNFPA has emphasized the "cafeteria approach" to family planning, which makes available a wide variety of contraceptives. In the past, many had complained that Sri-Lanka had concentrated too heavily on sterilization. The new approach makes contraceptive services more sensitive to specific social and cultural settings. Nonetheless, Sri Lanka still faces serious obstacles to achieving its goal for the year 2000. Years of civil war have interrupted the accomplishments of its once-legendary family planning program. Nonetheless, UNFPA remains optimistic that the country's continuing family planning effort will lead to replacement level fertility.
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  5. 5

    A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Manuilova IA

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
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  6. 6

    Evaluation of Matching Grant II to International Planned Parenthood Federation / Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) (1987-1992).

    Wickham R; Miller R; Rizo A; Wexler DB

    Arlington, Virginia, DUAL and Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 1991 Jul 26. xii, 48, [25] p. (Report No. 90-078-116; USAID Contract No. DPE-3043-G-SS-7062-00)

    This is a mid-term review of a matching grant given to the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) by USAID's Office of Population for 1987-1991. The grant covers projects in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and 9 smaller countries, and 4 regional activities, commodities, technical assistance, management information systems (MIS), and evaluation support. The goal of the grant was to reach new acceptors with quality services, to exert leadership of public sector providers, and to improve internal management. The goals in the 3 large nations are to focus on pockets of need or inadequate service or method mix. The goals of attracting 2.8 million new acceptors, improving services, making detailed plans and keeping strict financial reports have been met. The most serious problem was the lack of a regional evaluation of goal evaluation, the real cost of contraception, and impediments to contraceptive use. There were also difficulties in forwarding funds at the beginning of the FPA's year, and in sending in agency workplans on time. Better communication structures could probably remedy this. It is recommended that the matching grant be renewed in 1992.
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  7. 7

    The population IEC operation in Eastern and Southern Africa. Operational research report one: inventory overview.

    Johnston T

    Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 57 p. (Operational Research Report 1)

    In the context of rapid population growth in Africa, population information, education, and communication (IEC) programs and projects have been implemented in the region. An initial report was prepared describing population IEC operational research in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Fieldwork on the research project was conducted by a small team of researchers who surveyed/inventoried population IEC program and project development. The study was conducted in resource terms, attempting to identify operational problems or deficiencies posing obstacles to improved field activity effectiveness and efficiency. 7 questionnaires were developed and presented to program and project directors, managers, and coordinators to find detailed answers to specific concerns and questions. Researchers wanted to know the extent to which population IEC programs and projects were part of any larger national effort of development support communication, the variety and frequency of different IEC activities within the operation, where programs were failing to meet objectives, and the quantity and quality of available program resources, especially for training and materials development. Personal views, perceptions, and opinions of the interviewees were also sought. Additional questions addressed the relevance and significance of population IEC research to fertility management and communication strategy development. Compiling directories of people and institutions involved in population IEC research, training, and materials production and dissemination was a final purpose of the questionnaires. Common program features are highlighted.
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  8. 8

    Harare Conference on Management of Family Planning Programmes, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1-7 October 1989. Summary of conference proceedings and recommendations.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit [GTZ]

    London, England, IPPF, 1989. 15 p.

    Family planning program managers shared experiences in the development of effective contraceptive delivery systems at an International Planned Parenthood Federation-sponsored workshop held in Zimbabwe in October 1989. Since program managers who have linked family planning to government health services reported mixed results, it was recommended that a careful analysis of the local situation, the clientele, and the way they wish to be served should be undertaken before deciding whether to provide an integrated or vertical service. In many African countries, community-based distribution programs have established the status of family planning in local communities and also contributed to a significant increase in contraceptive acceptors. Also effective have been special programs designed to meet the specific needs of groups such as youth, men, policy makers, and peri-urban populations. Key management issues include a clear organizational mission, a focus on program sustainability, a client-centered approach, improved collaboration between the public and private sectors, increased community involvement in service provision, and research on the barriers to translating knowledge about family planning into contraceptive practice. To ensure program sustainability, an ongoing human resources development plan based on a clear statement of organizational priorities and an assessment of training needs is required.
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  9. 9

    Background paper on 1985 annual country review of GOB/UNFPA collaboration in Bangladesh.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    Dhaka, Bangladesh, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1986. [v], 36, [1] p.

    Annual country Reviews (ACR) are held each year in countries where the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has a major program of assistance. The objective of the ACR is to review the UNFPA-sponsored program in its entirety in relation to the country's population and development program. This background paper for the ACR contains summary information and comments on Bangladesh's national program and the UNFPA program. Outlines of the Family Planning projects that came to an end in 1985 follow. Finally the paper contains descriptions of the projects planned to make up UNFPA's Third Country Program under the Governments Third FIve Year Plan. Specific data on population growth in Bangladesh, contraceptive performance, and targets as provided by the government as well as data on project allocations and expenditures are included in annexes to the paper.
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  10. 10

    Promoting male responsibility in family planning in the Africa Region.

    Onyango-Omuodo D

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 9-12.

    Deliberate involvement of men in family planning matters has only caught on in the Africa Region at the onset of the 1980s. Prior to this, family planning had been of cooperation from their partners, women have sometimes tended to go about family planning matters secretly. Such an approach is undesirable and may have some serious consequences and implications, since family planning involves health matters. Involving men and obtaining their support and commitment to family planning is of crucial importance in the Africa Region, given men's elevated position in African society. The involvement of men in family planning matters will also accelerate the understanding and practice of family planning in general. Regional activities of Family Planning Associations (FPA) in Africa are still in their infancy. A major activity was a Tegional Consultation held in Nairobi, Kenya in February 1983 to formulate appropriate approaches and channels based on actual experiences in a number of countries. This Consultation clearly showed that men could be most profitable reached not as a distinct group but through family life education programs, community education programs and related organizations. Information, materials, approaches and guidelines on male responsibility are being acquired and developed on a continuing basis for distribution to FPAs and Field Offices. A review of FPA activities indicates that practically all FPAs will have some kind of activity aimed at reaching men. However, Anglophone FPAs have greater explicit male orientedd projects than the Francophone ones. Challenges facing this program area will be found in Francophone countriees and countries with concertrations of Muslim culture. Rigid policy and legal systems which favor male domination present anothr challenge. Major efforts, such as small-scale research studies, study visits to successful projects, training in project development and implementation, will be made to enhance the capability of FPAs in devloping and managing projects relating to male involvement in family planning.
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  11. 11

    The food, population and development equation, statement made at Southeastern Dialogue on the Changing World Economy, Atlanta, Georgia, 25 October 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 8 p.

    The 1st type of assistance asked for from developing countries is the collection of basic data. The 2nd type of program is family planning. Countries must formulate their family planning themselves based on assessment of needs. The 3rd area that has evolved is that of population dynamics--the study of demographic variables and their consequences. The 4th area is the field of communication and education to support family planning and population programs. The 5th area is in population policies. Finally, there is the residual category of special activities concerned with youth, women and the aged. Population, therefore, represents a broad core area of 5 to 6 categories. The UNFPA is a voluntary organization which provides assistance only to developing countries. The projections of the UN indicate that, as a result of efforts in population, there is for the 1st time in the history of mankind a decline in the population growth rate of developing countries. Nevertheless, mankind must be prepared for an additional 2 billion people by the turn of the century. Population efforts in the end must aim at the stabilization of total world numbers to enable individuals to develop to their full capacity and to improve the quality of life for all.
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  12. 12

    Assistance in undertaking IE/C appraisal planning.

    Shim DS

    [Unpublished] July, 1979. 49 p.

    This study assesses the effectiveness of family planning education in the Republic of Korea over the past 2 decades. Target populations in various metropolitan areas were studied regarding attitudes toward family planning knowledge, contraceptive behavior, media and personal contacts on family planning, number and gender preferences, and spacing preferences. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were taken into account. Statistics were compiled by area and analyses are presented. Use of more mass media is suggested to get information on family planning across to more people. It is important to extend the range and quality of family planning services, most especially to provide the best information about contraceptive methods.
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  13. 13

    Family planning needs and services in nonmetropolitan areas.


    Family Planning Perspectives. September-October 1976; 8(5):231-240.

    At the end of fiscal year 1974, about 2.5 million low- and marginal-income nonmetropolitan women, or about 3/4 of all such women in the United States, had no access to family planning services from either private physicians or organized clinic programs. By this time, 3/4 of the counties in the U.S. had a family planning service center, but this included 91% of all metropolitan and only 72% of all nonmetropolitan counties. Although there are wide disparities in service levels among states, need was concentrated in nonmetropolitan counties of the South and the East North Central region. The statistics are tabulated, graphed, and mapped. Private physicians seemed to be supplying a small percentage of the nonmetropolitan family planning needs. Physician shortages mean that this trend will continue in the future. Health department programs and hospitals will have to meet the need. Coordinated action on the part of national, state, and local agencies will be necessary. Priority should be given to supplying the larger nonmetropolitan counties, perhaps with mobile units or paraprofessional personnel.
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  14. 14

    Increasing youth programmes in family planning.


    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region (ESEAOR). Community education for family planning services. Proceedings of a Seminar-Workshop held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, March 24-29, 1975. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IPPF/ESEAOR, 1976. p. 34-43

    IPPF's 1st effort for young people took the form of a public session on sex education organized for young people at the 8th Federation International Conference in Chile in 1967. This was followed by a working group on Responsible Parenthood and Sex Education in Tunisia on November 1969. In this working group the aims and objectives of youth programs on responsible parenthood and sex education were discussed and recommendations were made to the Federation. Policy to increase youth involvement was further strengthened by specific recommendatins passed by the 1973 Governing Body meeting: opportunities should be provided for young people to develop their volunteer and professional roles in family planning and population education programs; the IPPF should increase its efforts to develop and support youth programs among its member associations and should involve youth in World Population Year; and regional and national workshops be incorporated in the work plan in order to achieve these identified goals. The following approaches are open to family planning associations which could be explored in implementing programs for young people in planned parenthood: 1) enabling the participation and involvement of young people by policy making, program planning, and implementation of planned parenthood activities in the associations; 2) providing young audiences with information and education programs as part of the ongoing educational activities of the family planning association, and 3) providing family planning counseling and contraceptive services to young single people. Target groups include out-of-school youth, in-school youth, unemployed youth, young workers, and unmarried pregnant teenagers. In order to reach young people it is necessary to involve them in the family planning movement and in the decision-making processes.
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  15. 15

    Reaching out-of-school youth: a project planning handbook for population-family life education.

    Johnston JA

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1975. 75 p.

    The handbook is the result of a workshop held by IPPF in Singapore in 1972 for cross-disciplinary teams from 9 countries in the IPPF Southeast Asia and Oceania Region that included family planning workers and government and nongovernment workers involved with youth groups. Each national team planned specific pilot projects in population-family life education for a target population of out-of-school youth, i.e., children who did not have the opportunity to go to school, as obviously such children would not profit from family planning education offered in schools and, more importantly, as such children generally are part of that segment of the population most in need of family planning education and information. The Southeast Asian area was selected in part because of its acute demographic situation and in part because it contains a sizable chunk of the world's population. Futhermore, 59% of that population is under the age of 24 years. The book is divided into 2 sections: program planning, which includes identification of objectives and target groups, decisions on content, and planning for communication, resources, and evaluation; and the pilot projects designed by the country teams. The section on program planning is based on the contributions of J.A. Johnston, J. Jayasuriya, D. Harman, and Mechai Viravaidya. The appendices include extracts from background papers by S. Heerdjan and P.P. Narayan, workshop details, and a bibliography.
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