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Statement by the leader of the Ethiopian Delegation to the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6-13 August, 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 6 p.Since Ethiopia's land reform act of 1975 and the nationalization of its major industrial and financial institutions, the government has organized society, has raised the level of literacy from 7% to 63%, and has conducted a 1st population and housing census. Now, in a 10-Year Perspective Plan, population policy is identified as a major issue, reflecting the country's concern over its present high rate of population growth--2.9%/year--and its infant mortality rate of 144/1000 live births, with life expectancy at only 46 years. Health care stratgy, including safe drinking water, is another top government priority, as is improving the status of women. Family planning services are offered, and Ethiopia holds that international assistance should reflect national sovereignty rather than being conditional to any particular family planning policy.
[Unpublished] 1979. Presented at the International Symposium Medicated IUDs and Polymeric Delivery Systems, Amsterdam, Holland, 1979 June 27-30. 23 p.After almost 20 years of worldwide availability and use of IUDs, assessment of their future role for family planning remains difficult. There are differences concerning the success of IUDs in different programs, and there is also wide variation among individual women in the acceptability and utility of the IUD. Successful IUD use seems to depend upon a complex interplay of factors which include the technology of the IUD itself, biological variation among women, individual and cultural differences in tolerance of IUD caused side effects, and the nature and quality of the available medical care and follow-up services. The principal difficulties encountered in IUD use are discomfort and increased bleeding, spontaneous expulsions, increased frequency of uterine and pelvic infection, and pregnancy failures. In the early years of mass programs for family planning in developing countries the IUD was often emphasized. Inadequate data exists to obtain an accurate world picture of IUD usage and demographic impact at this time. IUDs are available in most countries through a number of channels, and figures on distribution and usage through sales and service programs are incomplete. The best measurement of prevalence of use of IUDs comes from special surveys selected in order to provide a representative sample of the nation's or an area's population. The usage of IUDs in China and India is reviewed. When fertility effects on acceptors are examined, the experience with the IUD seems to be favorable compared with other means of fertility control, but the programmatic impact of IUD use has not been so favorable. Many countries have either added additional means of fertility control or switched emphasis to other methods.
Report on The First Meeting of The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee of Southeast Asia Regional Cooperation in Family and Population Planning, Djakarta, Indonesia, April 28-29, 1971.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IGCC, 1971. 49 p.This report is divided into 5 broad sections: 1) Opening Ceremony; 2) Working Sessions; 3) Text of Addresses, Statements, Documents and Press Release; and 4) Members of the Coordinating Committee, Observers, Interim Secretariat and Conference Staff. The Working Sessions include procedural arrangements, consideration of projects and programs agreed to at the first ministerial conference, presentation and consideration of new proposals for cooperation, date and venue of next meeting, adoption of meeting report and press release. Working papers are as follows: 1) Study Tours and Exchange of Family Planning Personnel in Southeast Asia; 2) Exchange of Experience in Training Courses in Southeast Asia; 3) Development and Maintenance of Inventories of Individuals and Institutions possessing Experience and Expertise in areas relevant to Population and Family Planning within Southeast Asia; 4) Circularization of Information, Education and Research Materials on Family Planning; 5) Standardization of Terminology; and 6) Research Projects on Thromboembolic Diseases.
Injectable progestogens - officials debate but use increases. Les progestatifs injectables : les autorites en debattent, mas l'usage s'en repand.
Population Reports. Series K: Injectables and Implants. 1975 Mar; (1): p.A report on the status of the injectable contraceptive agents, Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) and Norigest is presented. Depo-Provera is distributed in 64 countries, though it is not available in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Japan. The drug is usually administered in single 150 mg injections every 3 months, and doses of 300-400 mg every 6 months have been studied. The contraceptive effect of Depo-Provera is primarily through its ability to inhibit ovulation. Norigest exerts its effect by altering the cervical mucus. The suppression of ovulation is most likely caused by action on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, resulting in inhibition of the luteinizing hormone surge. Depo-Provera causes an atrophic endometrium, while Norigest has varying endometrial effects. The reported pregnancy rates for Depo-Provera are usually less than 1%, while those for Norigest are slightly higher. Most method failures occur either shortly after the 1st injection or at the end of an injection interval. Menstrual disorders have been the primary reason for discontinuation. The injectables can cuase shorter or longer cycles, increased or decreased menstrual flow, and spotting. Depo-Provera users experience increased amenorrhea with continued use, while normal cycles increasingly reappear in Norigest users. Cyclic estrogen therapy has been effective in treating excessive or irregular bleeding and amenorrhea. Long-acting estrogen injections have been administered in combination with Depo-Provera or Norigest, though the studies are limited in number. Weight gain of up to 9 pounds has been reported for users of Depo-Provera. Some researchers have found that Depo-Provera raises blood glucose levels, while others have reported it does not. No adverse effects have been reported for injectables on blood clotting, adrenal or liver function, blood pressure, lactation, and metabolic or endocrine functions. The continuation rate for Depo-Provera is reportedly higher than that for oral contraceptives. Generally, 60% of the acceptors will use the method for at least 1 year. Effective counseling on the menstrual alterations resulting from injectables can increase continuation of the method. The return of fertility in Depo-Provera users usually requires 13 months from the time of the last injection, while the afertile period in Norigest users is about 6 months from the time of the last injection. Instances of fetal masculinization as a result of Depo-Provera use have not occurred. The possibility that Depo-Provera can cause cervical carcinoma in situ has not been substantiated by the evidence; doubt about this possible association has prevented its approval as a contraceptive method in the U.S. Although Depo-Provera and Norigest have caused breast nodules in laboratory animals, there is no evidence to suggest that this effect would occur in human. Despite the advantages of injectables, family planning officials have been reluctant to permit its unrestricted use, primarily because it cannot be withdrawn guickly enough if problems arise and because the actual effect on fertility is not yet known. Nonetheless, the use of Depo-Provera has increased in recent years. The IPPF and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities currently supply the drug.