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  1. 1
    050519

    Sexuality and family planning programme. Health for All 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe. Sexuality and Family Planning Unit

    Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, Sexuality and Family Planning Unit, 1986 May. 12 p.

    In 1965, the World Health Assemble gave the World Health Organization (WHO) a mandate to offer advice on family planning to member states and later states that family planning is an important part of basic health services. In 1884 the 33 members of the European region adopted a plan of action for a consolidated health policy. The goal of this plan and strategy, is for people to have access to health services that will make it possible to have socially and economically productive lives. There will be 4 main areas of effort including, promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention medicine, better primary health care systems, and more effective political, managerial, technical, manpower, and research to ensure the above. There are ongoing studies to consider sexual health in a variety of cultures. These will assess changing sex roles, information interchange on lifestyle factors and demographic trends, ideas on childrearing styles, and recommendations on the development of healthy sexual relationships. There will be assessments of harmful sexual behavior and the reduction of sexually transmitted diseases. To improve basic health care systems, this program will help[ clarify concepts, investigate needs, analyze present services, get client input, compare information, and draw up guidelines. Methods will be examined to improve information exchange and the distribution of research and other pertinent material. There will be guidelines for legislative proposals in relation to lifestyles that promote better health by 1991. The development of ways to integrate family planning programs and services and connect them to key areas of society, is a goal to be reached by 1993. Also training programs to improve the various aspects of family planning and sexuality, including the attitudes of health professionals is needed.
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  2. 2
    034623

    Adolescents: planning contraceptive and counselling services.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Central Council

    [Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.

    This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
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  3. 3
    134159

    FPAN committed to encompass a wider section of the community in its programme.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1998 Mar-Apr; 18(2):3-4.

    Various organizations working in the field of family planning have been concerned since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development with adopting the holistic life-cycle process and integrating sexual and reproductive health issues and program needs into their programs with the goal of expanding their scope of involvement in reproductive health. In 1997, the South Asia Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) organized a regional workshop in Colombo upon sexual and reproductive health in an attempt to develop a common understanding of the concept, to introduce and discuss several components of sexual and reproductive health relevant in the region, and to help family planning associations integrate sexual and reproductive health components into their existing programs. The workshop served as a forum in which successful field experiences could be shared. A similar workshop was organized for family planning association branch managers.
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  4. 4
    069179

    Interview: Mr. George Walmsley: UNFPA Country Director for the Philippines.

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.

    George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
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  5. 5
    068561

    A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Manuilova IA

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
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  6. 6
    060142

    Implementing a counseling training program to enhance quality of care in family planning programs in Ecuador.

    Kopp Z; Cox K; Marangoni P

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the 117th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Chicago, Illinois, October 22-26, 1989. 9, [2] p.

    To address the need to improve and expand the level of counseling offered trough family planning programs in Latin America, the Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, provided counseling and interpersonal communication training to its 149 staff members in 1988- 89. Before the workshops were held, 724 clients at 6 APROFE clinics were surveyed to provide a baseline assessment of the quality of care from the client's point of view. The 2-day workshops focused on counseling skills, values clarification activities in the area of human sexuality, and the importance of informed choice to the quality of client care. A KAP test was administered to staff before and after the training. The client surveys indicated overall satisfaction with APROFE in the areas addressed--cost, hours, privacy, informed consent, and attitudes of personnel--but pinpointed areas for change, including a preference for specific appointment times, more information on sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and a failure of some staff to provide information on the entire range of contraceptive choices. The clinic's director of counseling has become involved in the selection and training of new staff members. Workshop participants have expressed a need for additional training about ways to counsel clients on matters related to human sexuality and to overcome the sociocultural barriers to such discussions.
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  7. 7
    193505

    The control of AIDS.

    Sencer D

    In: Workshop on the Integration of AIDS Related Curricula into Family Planning Training Programs, Quality Hotel, Arlington, Virginia, May 10-11, 1988. Documents, distributed by The Family Planning Management Training Project [FPMT] of Management Sciences for Health [MSI] Boston, Massachusetts, Management Sciences for Health, The Family Planning Management Training Project, 1988 May. [24] p..

    Current objectives in the fight against AIDS are focused on reducing transmission. International cooperation must be guided by principles including allowing the World Health Organization and participating governments, not donors, to determine policy; work done in developing countries must achieve the same standards as in the US; relationships between health and population programs, donor agencies and governments must be characterized by cooperation, not competition; and flexibility is necessary to respond to new information. Sensitivity is essential, as the control of AIDS involves personal issues, and the diagnosis of AIDS has profound implications. Surveillance is essential to detect and control infection and to guide public policy. As few infections currently result from medical injection, interventions have focused on the difficult problem of modifying sexual behavior, with little success. Social research is essential to determine means of behavior modification and to evaluate their efficacy. A brief history of the AIDS epidemic, as well as a summary of its epidemiology are provided. Efforts to control the spread of AIDS and to care for victims are draining the resources of basic health care programs, interfering with the delivery of primary health care. The extra demands that will be placed on family planning programs, including the shift in emphasis to barrier methods will strain these programs. WHO is currently undertaking a global effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from HIV infections and prevent transmission. Its strategies focus on preventing sexual, blood borne and perinatal transmission, therapeutic drugs against HIV, vaccine development, and helping infected people, and society, deal with the illness. Other agencies which have developed programs are USAID, the DHHS and the Centers for Disease control in the US.
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  8. 8
    045568

    Sexuality and family planning: report of a consultation and research findings.

    Langfeldt T; Porter M

    Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986. 62 p.

    A Consultation on Sexuality was convened by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Copenhagen in November 1983 to examine the sexual dimensions of health problems. Sexuality influences thoughts, feelings, actions, and interactions and thus physical and mental health. Since health is a fundamental human right, so must sexual health also be a basic human right. 3 basic elements of sexual health were identified: 1) a capacity to enjoy and control sexual and reproductive behavior in accordance with social and personal ethics; 2) freedom from fear, shame, guilt, false beliefs, and other psychological factors inhibiting sexual response and impairing sexual relationships; and 3) freedom from organic disorders, diseases, and deficiencies that interfere with sexual and reproductive functions. The purpose of sexual health care should be the enhancement of life and personal relationships, not only counseling or care related to procreation and sexually transmitted diseases. Barriers to sexual health include myths and taboos, sexual stereotypes, and changing social conditions. In addition, sexuality is repressed among groups such as the mentally handicapped, the physically disabled, the elderly, and those in institutions whose sexual needs are not acknowledged. Homosexuals are often stigmatized because their sexual expression is at variance with dominant cultural values. Sex education programs and health workers must broaden their traditional approach to sexual health so they can help people to plan and achieve their own goals. Family planning programs must expand from their traditional goal of avoiding unwanted births and help people balance the need for rational planning on the one hand and the satisfaction of irrational sexual desires on the other hand. Promoting sexual health is an integral part of the promotion of health for all.
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  9. 9
    034489

    Planned Parenthood education programs: a national overview.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]

    New York, New York, PPFA, 1985 Feb. 8 p.

    This booklet highlights a selection of some current Planned Parenthood education programs. 3 programs in the area of child sexual abuse include the Sexual Abuse Prevention Project (SAPP), the "Bubbylonian Encounter" -- a sexual abuse prevention program, and OK Bears, an education program for parents and other adults. SAPP is designed to get more people involved and informed about sexual abuse, to educate both parents and children in prevention techniques, and to prepare both parents and educators for possible disclosures that may result from the program's presentations. In less than 1 year, "Bubbylonian Encounter", a program for elementary school children, has received so much community support that it has expanded to school districts in other counties. "OK/Not OK Touches" educates parents and other adults about sexual abuse of children so they can separate the myths from the facts and communicate with children about this sensitive subject. In the area of teen theater, "An Ounce of Prevention" is a comprehensive videotape project on child sexual abuse. Also in this area are The Great Body Show -- a rural family planning program designed to reduce teen pregnancy through increased education; TACT (Teenage Communication Theater) -- an approach to education using drama to heighten awareness of problems of teens: Youth Expression Theater, which uses drama to heighten awareness of the real problems and pressures faced by teens in the social and sexual areas of their lives; THE SOURCE -- a 15-member volunteer teen outreach council which wrote their own play, "Speak Up-Speak Out;" and the Washington Area Improvisational Teen Theater, which has as its purpose to increase awareness and provide the information teenagers need in order to make responsible decisions regarding their sexuality. Parent/child education programs include APPLES, a set of 4 prevention and education-oriented programs for adolescent parents and their children; Parents and Children Together (P.A.C.T.), an early teenage pregnancy prevention program aimed at providing family life education to parents and children of all ages; and the Parent Education Program of New York City, which offers a variety of resources to help parents become better sexuality educators for their children. Two male involvement programs and Boys and Babies, a program which enhances and builds on the innate potential of all humans to care and nurture, and The Male Services Program, which is based on the premise that young men can make better, more responsible decisions about their sexual behavior with education and guidance.
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  10. 10
    029096

    Freedom to choose: the life and work of Dr. Helena Wright, pioneer of contraception

    Evans B

    London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.

    This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.
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  11. 11
    027345

    Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.

    Andrews D

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 167-76.

    Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
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  12. 12
    024334

    Planned parenthood and sex attitudes.

    Calderone MS

    In: Sobrero AJ, Lewit S, ed. Advances in planned parenthood. Proceedings of the Third and Fourth Annual Meetings of the American Association of Planned Parenthood Physicians, Chicago, Illinois, May, 1965/Denver, Colorado, April 1966. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1967. 227-30. (International Congress Series No. 138)

    The availability of highly effective methods of contraception provides new opportunities for a broadened approach to family planning in which contraception is part of a course of therapy holistically planned for the welfare of the individual. This approach requires family planners to shift their emphasis from responsible parenthood to responsible sexual functioning. Medical practice must recognize human sexuality as a health entity in and of itself and analyze its functioning through anatomical, physiological, and psychological components. In contrast to men's sexuality, which tends to be pelvic-centered, women's sexuality is constantly shifting in focus, from pelvic-centered to emotion-centered to spiritual-centered and back again. This shifting of emphasis reflects the creative interplay between a woman's reproductive and sexual lives and contraindicates a purely mechanistic approach to contraception. The family planning movement, which in its earlier stages of necessity shifted from a clinical to a public health orientation, is now in a position to move toward renewed consideration of the needs of the individual. The goal at this stage should be not just fewer pregnanvies but also a better quality of life and improved marital relationships.
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  13. 13
    035205

    Programmes and services on adolescent fertility and sexuality in ESEAOR.

    Catindig JB

    Concern. 1980 Jul-Sep; (18):1-2.

    The reproductive health needs and behavior of adolescents have been neglected by many health services until recently. The inclusion of adolescent fertility and sexuality in the East and South East Asian and Oceania regions of IPPF initially prompted uneasiness by workers who considered the inclusion of adolescents to be a sensitive issue given prevailing mores. The Singapore seminar/workshop on adolescent fertility and sexuality helped educate family planning workers and executives to the new realities of adolescent life, and many Family Planning Associations in the region made delivery of services to adolescents a major program emphasis. Family life education strategies have improved and IEC efforts are now geared to particular age and sociocultural groups. FPAs have stressed training of dormitory and hostel matrons and supervisors in counseling, adopted policies to "desensitize" the parents of teenage clients, and supported peer group counseling programs in order to deal with adolescent girls without violating the sociocultural norms of the community. The region's developing countries, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand, have large proportions of young people, and their governments welcome the initiatives of FPAs in providing programs and services.
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  14. 14
    790684

    Obstacles to contraception.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Europe Region

    IPPF Regional Information Bulletin 8(2):12. April 1979.

    An English speaking, subregional working group of the IPPF meet in London on March 6-7 to discuss obstacles to contraception and agreed to limit the discussion to problems involved in adolescent sexual education. Points brought out in the discussion were 1) parents should be provided with sex education information since they are able to transmit this information to their children in a more individualized manner, taking into account the maturity and sexual experience of the child, than is possible in the age-graded, sex education programs presented in classroom settings; 2) adults frequently equate sex with coitus and fail to take into account noncoital sexuality; 3) health personnel, responsible for imparting contraceptive information, must be aware of the profit-oriented motives of contraceptive manufacturers; and 4) the legitimacy of some obstacles to contraceptives, such as medical contraindications, must be recognized. The working group will present a full report at the Regional Council meeting in May, 1979.
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  15. 15
    773446

    Desexing birth control.

    STYCOS JM

    Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.

    When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
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  16. 16
    746473

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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