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Colombo, Sri Lanka, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, 1989. 43 p.The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASL) is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). According to the FPASL the family planning (FP) acceptor rate in 1988 declined by 22% compared to 1987 and is primarily the result of civil war and an election year. Because of complex political and sociological factors, people have been more concerned with staying alive, than with FP. District level programs designed to improve the quality of life for mothers and children were often halted during the end of the year because of terrorist activities and counter security measures. The following contraceptive methods experienced declines in acceptors: sterilization 48%, IUD 12%, pill 12%, injectables 8%, foam tablets 22%. In 1988 there were 629 vasectomies, and 393 tubectomies. Of the new acceptors of temporary methods 57.8% chose depo provera, 21.3% IUD, 15.9% orals, and 5% Norplant. Sales of contraceptives have changed with condom sales down 3.6%, orals up 7.5%, and foam down 78.25%. The Community Managed Integrated Rural Family Health Programme (CMIRFH) has been recognized globally as a story of success. Since 1980 over 45,000 people have volunteered to help this program. In 1988 1676 programs were carried out by these enthusiastic young volunteers. Of the 25,000 estimated villages in Sri Lanka, the FPASL and CMIRFH program had reached 1689 villages through the end of 1988. The Youth and Population Committee is trying to reach the young people with the message that the population is growing out of hand. In July a seminar was conducted when the population of Asia reached 3 billion.
Planned Parenthood Review. 1984 Spring-Summer; 4(1):18.Since the beginning in 1971 of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America's international program, Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), US$54 million has been contributed in direct financial support for the operation of over 300 family planning programs in 51 countries; over 3000 institutions in 115 countries have been supplied with family planning commodities, including over 600 million condoms, 120 cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUD; and about 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA funded projects in 1982 aone. Since 1971, however, the world's population has increased from 3.7 billion to around 4.7 billion people. About 85 million people are added to the world each year. There is consensus that without organized family planning programs, today's world population would be even higher. FPIA measures its progress in terms of expanding the availability of contraceptive services in devloping countries. FPIA supported projects have helped make services available in areas previously lacking them, and has helped involve a wide variety of organizations, such as women's groups, youth organizations, and Red Cross Societies, in family planning services. A prime concern of FPIA, which has limited resources, is what happens to projects once FPIA support is terminated. FPIA has been paying attention to local income generation to help projects become more self-supporting and to increas staff members' management skills. The more successful income-generating schemes appear to be directly related to family planning, selling contraceptives and locally produced educational materials, and charging fees for family planning and related medical services and tuition for training courses. FPIA funded to projects use management by objectives (MBO) to help improve management skills. MBO helps grantees improve their ability to set objectives, plan, monitor, report, and do day-to-day project management.
[Washington, D.C.], American Public Health Association, 1979 Mar 7. 42 p. (Contract AID/pha/C-1100)The needs and opportunities in population and family planning in the Caribbean region are assessed. Focus is on the general setting (regional profile, economic situation, education, health, basic constraints and regionalism), observations and recommendations (population policy, international donor support, community-based distribution, voluntary sterilization, commercial retail sales, status of women, management, regional cooperation), selected regional institutions (government and non-government organizations), and international donor agencies. In general the governments in the Caribbean are supportive of family planning programs, and, except for Belize and Guyana, most of the countries have a national family planning program. Although there is tacit or direct support for family planning and an increasing application of demographic variables in the planning and development of socioeconomic programs, there is no clear indication that the governments understand or recognize the implications of rapid population growth. Except for the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and International Planned Parenthood Federation and World Bank population projects in Jamaica and Trinidad, the international donor community has provided only modest, sporadic and ad hoc support for population and family planning in the Caribbean. In the Caribbean the needs and opportunities for community-based distribution are markedly different from those existing in other countries.
Piact Papers. (6):1-31.Commercial retail sales (CRS) of contraceptives were first begun in developing countries in the early '60's. A conference on the programs was convened in the Philippines in November, 1979. 65 participants from 23 countries attended. The primary objective of a commercial retail sales program is to achieve a social benefit; the secondary objective is to recover a portion of the costs of the program in order to minimize government or donor cost. The 5 components of a CRS program are: preprogram market research, marketing, operations, administration, and evaluation research. Preprogram marketing should examine products, consumer needs, retailer, distribution channels, legalities, prices, and other competing programs. Supply, warehousing, inventory control, distribution, sales management, and personnel training must be available for a successful program. The administrative components of a CRS program are accounting, personnel, statistic, and financing. Overall, commercial retail sales programs are more relevant now than they were 7 or 8 years ago. It is imperative for a program claiming funds for socioeconomic development to demonstrate that the resources needed to support it are in proportion to the relative impact it has on reducing population growth rates.
ICARP Bulletin, No. 1, September 1978. p. 5-7.There is evidence from several Latin American and Asian countries that people prefer private medical practitioners, either Western-trained physicians or indigenous practitioners, to provide them with family planning information and supplies. There is a need to update the family planning training for these practitioners. The World Health Organization is currently developing such training programs for medical students in Mexico. There is a more pressing need to improve systems of delivery and distribution for family planning commodities. Government programs in some countries have worked out a family planning contract arrangement with private physicians. In other areas, subsidized purchasing and mail order of supplies has been tried successfully. When contraceptive supplies are distributed through the private sector, the government program should make an effort to improve record-keeping and reporting.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.