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  1. 1
    372761

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Volume 1.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.

    The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
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  2. 2
    180915

    Bangladesh: contraceptive logistics system. Review of accomplishments and lessons learned.

    Kinzett S; Bates J

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], Family Planning Logistics Management [FPLM], 2000. x, 67 p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00028-00)

    This report documents the status of technical assistance provided by the USAID-funded Family Planning Logistics Management project to the Bangladesh Family Planning Program in developing a countrywide contraceptive logistics system. A study conducted in November 1999 to evaluate the impact of technical assistance on logistics management and contraceptive security is detailed. The report concludes with findings from the study, lessons learned, and recommendations to continue improvements in the system. (author's)
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  3. 3
    724425

    Fortieth report and accounts, 1971-1972.

    Family Planning Association [FPA]

    London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.

    Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
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  4. 4
    132267

    Reaching out: a campaign to take family welfare services to the slums of Bombay and Madras.

    Chaubey S

    Mumbai, India, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, IPP V Directorate, 1995. [6], 50 p.

    This report presents a human perspective on development that reveals the daily lives of people affected by the Bombay and Madras World Bank Urban Slums Family Welfare Project. Chapter topics focus on interactions between workers and clients at a health post and cultural barriers and rebuffs, the uniqueness of the program, innovative outreach schemes, patterns of persuasion, piloting the program in New Bombay, and key program staff. The author concludes that slum dwellers are adjusting to some aspects of modernity, such as watching television, but are also retaining negative traditional health practices and beliefs. For example, only 30% of slum dwellers knew about measles as a treatable disease. Most understand measles as a supernatural phenomenon and respond by asking the gods for help. This project was helpful in addressing cultural orthodoxy that prevents health-seeking behavior by offering training, management information systems, and communications. The constant program monitoring allowed for an immediate correction of deficits. During 1988-94, the unprotected couple ratio declined from 72% to 44.5%. Effective temporary couple protection rates (CPRs) increased from 4% to 19.5%. Effective permanent CPRs increased from 24% to 36%. In Madras, CPRs increased, but the birth rate did not decline. In Mumbai, the crude birth rate declined from 23.2 to 19.8 in 1993, which is significantly lower than the national target for the year 2000. The absolute number of births also declined. The project frugally spent funds. Infrastructure was available at the program start. Future government funding is hoped for.
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  5. 5
    125881

    The strategic approach to contraceptive introduction.

    Simmons R; Hall P; Diaz J; Diaz M; Fajans P; Satia J

    STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1997 Jun; 28(2):79-94.

    In response to difficulties associated with the introduction of new contraceptive technologies to public sector service systems, the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has formulated a new model. The strategic approach to contraceptive introduction shifts the emphasis from the promotion of a particular technology to quality of care issues, a reproductive health focus, and users' perspectives and needs. It further entails a participatory approach with collaboration among governments, women's health groups, community groups, nongovernmental providers, researchers, international donors, and technical assistance agencies. The underlying philosophy is that method introduction should proceed only when a system's ability to provide high-quality services exists or can be generated. Since 1993, WHO has provided support for the implementation of this perspective in public sector programs in Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Myanmar, South Africa, Viet Nam, and Zambia. Preliminary assessments in these countries revealed major structural, managerial, and philosophical barriers to high-quality family planning services. In cases where assessments have indicated the feasibility of new method introduction, this has been implemented through a carefully phased, research-based process intended to encourage the development of appropriate managerial capacity and to promote a humanistic philosophy of care.
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  6. 6
    115336

    Family planning work of the Ministry of Health.

    Aytac U

    In: Planning for the future of family planning in Turkey. Proceedings, [compiled by] Turkey. Ministry of Health. General Directorate-MCH / FP. Ankara, Turkey, Ministry of Health, General Directorate-MCH / FP, 1992. 13-25.

    Turkey's Ministry of Health Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Deputy General Director explains that until 1965, Turkey pursued pronatalist population policies. Family planning (FP) work since 1963, however, has improved mother-child health (MCH) services. The 1963 infant mortality rate of 208/1000 fell to 59.3 during the 1990s, while the 1974 maternal mortality rate of 207/100,000 had declined to 134/100,000 by 1981. The Ministry of Health collaborates with all public institutions and organizations, universities, and nongovernmental organizations as required by law #2827. Promulgated in 1983, law #2827 removed all possible barriers to service delivery and application. Innovations of law #2827 are discussed, followed by the presentation and discussion of the following projects implemented with international organization support: a UNFPA project designed to strengthen integrated MCH/FP services in 17 provinces, UNFPA and UNESCO information/education/communication support for MCH/FP programs, the Japan International Cooperation Agency project to promote population activities, AVSC counseling on FP and voluntary surgical contraception, the IPAS expansion of menstrual regulation services, the JHPIEGO standardization of protocol for laboratory and clinical procedures related to common sexually transmitted diseases, the Pathfinder Fund FP training curriculum for midwifery divisions of health colleges project, and other projects being considered or prepared.
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  7. 7
    090787

    PROFAMILIA's proven ability to bring family planning to the Dominican Republic.

    IPPF / WHR FORUM. 1993 May; 9(1):20-1.

    The Dominican Association for Family Welfare (PROFAMILIA), an affiliate of IPPF, was the first organization to provide family planning services in the Dominican Republic. In 1966, the time of PROFAMILIA's creation, the total fertility rate (TFR) was 7.5. Shortly after PROFAMILIA's inception, the TFR began its steady decline. The 1991 Demographic and Health Survey (ENDESA-91) shows that the TFR has fallen to 3.3. PROFAMILIA persuaded the Dominican Republic's government to provide full-scale family planning services. In 1968 the government set up the National Council on Population and the Family (CONAPOFA) within the Ministry of Public Health and Social Services to provide family planning services. It now provides family planning services through more than 500 health centers. The Dominican Family Planning Association, set up in 1986, provides family planning services in the Federal District and the easternmost provinces. These family planning organizations have reduced the unmet demand for family planning in the Dominican Republic to 17%, essentially the same levels as in developed countries. Even though mean family size is 3.3, ideal family size is 2, indicating a trend toward smaller families. The adolescent pregnancy rate is 13% in urban areas and 27% in rural areas. 13.3% of adolescents in a union use modern contraceptives, while only 3% of those not in a union do. 25.4% of women of childbearing age, 38.5% of women in a union, and 65.4% of 40-44 year old women depend on sterilization. Only women less than 29 years old significantly use oral contraceptives. The family planning programs need to expand family planning messages to adolescents, particularly those not in a union. PROFAMILIA still implements new approaches to expand services, such as health promotion via community-based services. CONAPOFA has since implemented such a program. ENDESA-91 demonstrates what can be accomplished when an effective government family planning program and a private organization work together.
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  8. 8
    084230

    Study of sustainability for the National Family Planning Board in Jamaica.

    Clyde ME; Levy TD; Bennett J

    [Unpublished] 1992 Apr 2. iv, 37, [24] p. (PN-ABL-448)

    The family planning (FP) program sponsored by the National Family Planning Board (NFPB) of Jamaica has proved a successful example to other countries in the Caribbean. New challenges, however, face the Board and the Jamaican government. Specifically, the government wishes to realize replacement fertility by the year 2000; USAID/Kingston will phase out assistance for FP over the period 1993-98, while the UNFPA and the World Bank will also reduce support; the high use of supply methods such as the pill and condom is less efficient than the use of longterm methods; and legal, economic, regulatory, and other operational barriers exist that constrain FP program expansion. A new implementation strategy is therefore needed to address these problems. The NFPB is the best suited body to develop and implement this strategy. Accordingly, it should work to garner the support of and a partnership with the public and private sectors to mobilize resources for FP. Instead of being the primary provider of FP for all consumers, the public sector must start providing for users who cannot pay for services and leave those who can pay to the private sector. This approach will diversify the burden of financing services while expanding the pool of service providers. Recommendations and next steps for the NFPB are offered in the areas of population targets to be served; the role and function of the NFPB to reach and serve various targets; and how to sustain beyond the cessation of donor inputs.
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  9. 9
    074980

    Population and the World Bank: implications from eight case studies.

    Ridker R; Freedman R

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, 1992. xii, 159 p. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)

    The World Bank's first assessment of operations concentrates on development over the past 25 years and the Bank's role in Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Brazil, Kenya, and Senegal. The major issues for the World Bank are discussed, including the neglect of population issues in the nonpopulation sector, policy promotion, project issues, donor coordination and involvement of nongovernmental agencies (NGOs), country organization of population and family planning (FP) activities, the need for a longterm program approach, the extent and allocation of bank resources, and implications for evaluating and staffing Bank population activities. The implications are that too much attention has been paid to inputs rather than outputs for accountability purposes. Attention must also be paid to nonpopulation activities. Appropriateness of the content is more important than the extent of the resources transfer. Errors of commission are pointed out, but there is need to identify errors of omission. The implications for staffing in the field in both nonproject and project work. A small core of dedicated people has been effective thus far, but in the long run greater technical resources are needed, particularly in countries with little assistance or indigenous capacity. The statistical appendix includes tables on demographic indicators for selected countries and years; donor expenditures, 1982-89; summary data for 1990 for case study countries; appraisal project costs and bank financing by category of expenditure for population projects in case study countries; bank lending by sector, for decades between 1970 and 1990; appraisal estimates of civil works, furniture, and equipment in bank population projects; and commitments for international population assistance by the World Bank and other donors, 1952-89. Annexes 1 and 2 pertain to Bangladesh's population program (executive summary, demographic situation, environmental and social and economic context, the national FP program, population projects and the Bank's institutional style), and conclusions and a similar discussion for Indonesia.
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  10. 10
    081708

    Effective family planning programs.

    Bulatao RA; Levin A; Bos ER; Green C

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1993. vii, 103 p.

    The World Bank has conducted an assessment of the performance of family planning (FP) programs in developing countries. The first part examines their contributions and costs. It concludes that FP programs have played a key role in a reproductive revolution in these countries. Specifically, all developing regions have experienced a transition to lower fertility (e.g., in the last 20 years, fertility has fallen 33%), resulting in lower infant, child, and maternal mortality. One chapter looks at experiences in East Asia, South Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank staff use research to present a broad summary of what methods and characteristics achieve effective programs. The book addresses other social development interventions that contribute to a lasting reproductive revolution. Despite the positive results of FP programs, maternal mortality in developing countries is still much higher (10 times) than it is in developed countries and 25% of married women in developing countries report an unmet need for FP. Government commitment to FP programs needs to be strengthened and donor support should keep up with needs to expand successful FP programs. FP programs can satisfy these needs if they provide quality services, including a solid client focus, effective promotion, and strong encouragement of the private sector to increase their participation. Indeed, program quality must be the top priority. Strategic management of FP programs is also crucial. Programs need to integrate and coordinate effective promotion of FP, e.g., social marketing, with other activities.
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  11. 11
    076199

    UNFPA 1991 report.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1992]. 88 p.

    The UNFPA Annual Report provides a regional review of programs, including those that are interregional, a sectoral review, and other activities. The sectoral review covers family planning (FP), IEC, basic data collection, the use of population research for the formation of policy and development planning, women in population and development, special program interests, and population and the environment. Other activities include promotion of awareness and exchange of information, policy and program coordination, staff training and development, evaluations, the International conference on Population and Development, technical cooperation among developing countries, procurement of equipment and supplies, and multibilateral funding of population activities. The appendices include a glossary of terms, the 1991 income and expenditure report, government pledges and payments for 1991, project allocations in 1991 by country and region, governing council decisions for 1991, and 16 resolutions. In spite of the doubling of population from 2 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1990, there is optimism because of progress in country's formulation of population policy and programs, i.e., FP use has increased to 51% from 12% to 14% in 1971, and the average number of births has declined 37% from 6 (1965-70) to 3.8. This progress has been accomplished within a short generation, at low cost, and with 70% of the contributions coming from users and country governments in declining economic circumstances. The challenges ahead are dealing with mass poverty and environmental degradation. Actions to reverse the trends should be to change development priorities, attach poverty directly, shift to cleaner technologies, improve the status of women and girls, and include population in development planning. Highlights of 1991 are that income increased 5.6% and pledges 7.2%. The project expenditure rate was 80.6% vs. 80.1% in 1990, and the resource utilization rate was 102.1% vs. 100.2% in 1990. The number and cost of new projects was lower than in 1990. 55 countries were given priority status. Programs were reviewed in 28 countries. There was a 2% increase in professional women staff to 41%.
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  12. 12
    070873

    Report of the Seminar on Programme Sustainability through Cost Recovery, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 21-25 October, 1991.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1991. 15, [2] p.

    In the face of widespread user acceptance, rapidly growing demand, and developing country financial constraints, family planning associations must learn how to operate more efficiently and mobilize new resources with a view to ensuring greater long-term sustainability. Cost recovery was therefore identified as a means of maximizing the use of limited resources, improving program quality, strengthening management, and making service providers more accountable to clients. This document reports results from seminar participants organized to share the benefits of cost recovery with the international community, and to review policy and management issues. Reviewed in the seminar were country experiences with cost recovery, working group discussions on the definition of sustainability, the cost framework of family planning, determining user fees and clients' willingness to pay, preconditions for setting user fees, prerequisites for social marketing, models for cost sharing with the government and private sector, and country case studies from the Gambia, India, and Kenya. Those programs attaining highest self-sufficiency were aided by strong government commitment to either support family planning or to not impede program progress. Also helpful were a businesslike approach to service provision, a strong promotional campaign, organizational structure conductive to effective resource management, and resolve to try diverse approaches. In concluding, the importance of placing the customer first, cost-effectiveness, cost analysis, strategic planning, inter-FPA cooperation, and business plans are mentioned.
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  13. 13
    070356

    Pakistan. South Asia Region.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF COUNTRY PROFILES. 1992 Jan; 19-24.

    A country profile of demographic/statistical data, social and health aspects, and government policies and program in Pakistan particularly as they relate to family planning is presented by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Finding current population growth too high and impeding of development, the government enacted a population policy in 1991 aimed at reducing population growth to 2.5% in 10 years. An integrated approach will stress population education in secondary schools, the use of mobile services to promote birth spacing and provide maternal-child health care, and the provision of services through government facilities and family welfare centers. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Pakistan was created in 1953, and became a member of the IPPF in 1954. It promotes family planning through education, clinics, and the use of male community institutions, and is the main provider of services. The organization also campaigns for both more government involvement in family planning and improvements in the status of women. 16% of married women practice contraception. Female sterilization is the most popular method, followed by condoms. with husband's consent, sterilization is permitted for married women with at least 2-3 children. Abortion is legal only to save a woman's life. Family planning constraints, education, demographic trends, health issues, status of women, contraceptive availability and accessibility, and the operations and funding of the family planning association are fully discussed.
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  14. 14
    059872

    Private sector joins family planning effort.

    FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
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  15. 15
    069268

    The demand for family planning in Indonesia 1976 to 1987: a supply-demand analysis.

    Dwiyanto A

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 22 p.

    A supply-demand approach is used to estimate total and unmet demand for family planning in Indonesia over the last decade. The 1976 Indonesia Fertility Survey, the 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, and the 1987 National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey form the database used in the study. Women under consideration have been married once, are aged 35-44, have husbands who are still alive, have had at least 2 live births, and had no births before marrying. High demand was found for family planning services, with the proportion of current users and women with unmet demand accounting for over 85% of the population. Marked improvement in contraceptive practice may be achieved by targeting programs to these 2 groups. Attention to unmotivated women is not of immediate concern. Women in need of these services are largely rural and uneducated. Programs will, therefore, require subsidization. The government should gradually and selectively further introduce self-sufficient family planning programs. User fees and private employer service provision to employees are program options to consider. Reducing the contraceptive use drop-out rate from its level of 47% is yet another approach to increase contraceptive prevalence in Indonesia. 33% drop out due to pregnancy, 26% from health problems, 10% because of method failure, 10% from inconveniences and access, and 21% from other causes. Improving service quality could dramatically reduce the degree of drop-outs.
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  16. 16
    070355

    Sri Lanka. South Asia Region.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF COUNTRY PROFILES. 1992 Jan; 25-30.

    A country profile of demographic/statistical data, social and health aspects, and government policies and programs in Sri Lanka particularly as they relate to family planning is presented by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The government regards current population growth as too high, and provides subsidized clinics, contraceptives, and monetary incentives for sterilization. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Sri Lanka was created in 1953, and became a member of the IPPF in 1954. It emphasizes motivation and contraceptive distribution, operates 2 clinics, a rural family health project, and provides for educational, contraceptive social marketing, and sterilization programs. The organization generally plays a limited role in the delivery of family planning, with these projects serving to supplement government programs. 62% of married women practice contraception, with 40% using modern methods. Female sterilization is the most popular method, followed by male sterilization and oral contraceptives. Abortion is legal only to save a woman's life. Family planning constraints, education, demographic trends, health issues, status of women, contraceptive availability and accessibility, and the operations and funding of the family planning association are fully discussed.
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  17. 17
    070354

    Bangladesh. South Asia Region.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF COUNTRY PROFILES. 1992 Jan; 1-6.

    A country profile of demographic/statistical data, social and health aspects, and government policies and programs in Bangladesh particularly as they relate to family planning is presented by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The government regards current population growth as too high, and has launched a National Population Program to reduce fertility through the integration of health care services an socioeconomic programs with legislation. Overall, the government provides family planning services, is attempting to improve the status of women, and encourages NGO involvement in service delivery and education. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Bangladesh was created in 1953, and became a member of the IPPF in 1975. Providing approximately 10% of family planning services while supplementing those of the government, the FPA uses religious leaders, hawkers, traditional healers, general education, and clinics to promote family planning, while also trying to improve women's status. 31% of married women practice contraception, with 22% using modern methods. Female sterilization is the most popular method, followed by oral contraceptives. Abortion is legal only to save a woman's life. Family planning constraints, education, demographic trends, health issues, status of women, contraceptive availability and accessibility, and the operations and funding of the family planning association are fully discussed.
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  18. 18
    070353

    India. South Asia Region.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF COUNTRY PROFILES. 1992 Jan; 7-12.

    A country profile of demographic/statistical data, social and health aspects, and government policies and programs in India particularly as they relate to family planning is presented by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The government finds current high population growth obstructive to reducing poverty, and has combined family planning, family welfare, maternal-child health (MCH), and nutrition with development, female education, and women's rights. The government offers family welfare and primary health centers which provide contraceptive services through the National Family Welfare Program. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of India was created in 1949, and became a member of the IPPF in 1952. The FPA provides education, family planning, MCH, and counselling services through funding from the government, MCH, and counselling services through funding from the government. In addition to working to improve women's status, it also attempts to involve more women and youth in development. Almost 43% of married women practice contraception, with the overwhelming majority using modern methods. Sterilization is the most popular method, followed by the IUD. Abortion is legal to save the woman's life, protect maternal health, for social-medical reasons, for genetic defects, in cases of rape and incest, and occasionally for contraceptive failure. Family planning constraints, education, demographic trends, health issues, status of women, contraceptive availability and accessibility, and the operations and funding of the family planning association are fully discussed.
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  19. 19
    070352

    Nepal. South Asia Region.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF COUNTRY PROFILES. 1992 Jan; 13-8.

    A country profile of demographic/statistical data, social and health aspects, and government policies and programs in Nepal particularly as they relate to family planning is presented by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The government regards current population growth as too high, and has taken steps to provide family planning services to the population including the establishment of a Mother and Child Health Project in 1968 and a National Population Strategy in 1983. Health care and development are integrated with economic, social, and education reforms including attempts to improve the status of women. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Nepal was created in 1958, and became a member of the IPPF in 1960. Providing approximately 20% of family planning services and supplementing those of the government, the FPA operates clinics, educational programs, rural family health projects, sterilization programs, and natural family planning programs, while also working to improve women's status. 15% of married women practice contraception, with nearly all of them using modern methods. Female sterilization is the most popular method, followed by male sterilization. Birth control pills and condoms are widely available free of charge, and pills may be obtained without prescription. Abortion is legal only to save a woman's life and for other unspecified medical reasons. Family planning constraints, education, demographic trends, health issues, status of women, contraceptive availability and accessibility, and the operations and funding of the family planning association are fully discussed.
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  20. 20
    069112

    Programme review and strategy development report: Sri Lanka.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. ix, 66 p.

    This paper discusses Sri Lanka's population policy with special focus upon UNFPA's role in establishing and implementing a successful multi-sectoral family planning program for the country. Progress made in the past years must continue, while ongoing efforts are made to attain the goal of 2.1 TFR by year 2000. A suitable program must be better coordinated with a view to cutting waste and duplication, guarantee an adequate supply of appropriate contraceptive supplies, streamline research operation, more fully implement its educational programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs. UNFPA assistance should be offered to effect such programmatic change and development, with service delivery needs addressed 1st. The Government of Sri Lanka lacks adequate resources to supply calls for an integrated approach focused upon creating a National Coordinating Council; developing a more sophisticated and targeted approach to information, education, and communication; providing contraceptive supplies, software for service delivery, and client counseling; training providers; and improving coordination with other multilateral programs for child care and human resource development. The present population and development situation, the national population program, proposed sectoral strategies for implementation, the role of technical assistance, and general recommendations for external assistance are discussed in detail.
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  21. 21
    068561

    A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Manuilova IA

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
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  22. 22
    066196

    The state of world population 1991.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. [4], 48 p.

    Developing countries increased their commitment to implement population policies in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the support and guidance of UNFPA. These policies focused on improving, expanding, and integrating voluntary family planning services into social development. 1985-1990 data revealed that fertility began to fall in all major regions of the world. For example, fertility fell most in East Asia from 6.1-2.7 (1960-1965 to 1985-1990). This could not have occurred without strong, well managed family planning programs. Yet population continued to grow. This rapid growth hampered health and education, worsened environmental pollution and urban growth, and promoted political and economic instability. Therefore it is critical for developing countries to reduce fertility from 3.8-3.3 and increase in family planning use from 51-59% by 2000. These targets cannot be achieved, however, without government commitments to improving the status of women and maternal and child health and providing basic needs. They must also include promoting child survival and education. Further people must be able to make personal choices in their lives, especially in contraceptive use. Women are encouraged to participate in development and primary health care in Kerala State, India and Sri Lanka. The governments also provide effective family planning services. These approaches contributed significantly to improvements in fertility, literacy, and infant mortality. To achieve the targets, UNFPA estimated a doubling of funding to $9 billion/year by 2000. Lower costs can be achieved by involving the commercial sector and nongovernmental organizations, building in cost recovery in the distribution system of contraceptives, operating family planning services efficiently, and mixing contraceptive methods.
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  23. 23
    054734

    Nongovernmental organizations in international population and family planning.

    Population Crisis Committee [PCC]

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1988 Dec. 20 p. (Population Briefing Paper No. 21)

    This paper provides information on the aims, funding sources, size, and budget, as well as the names of chief executives, of 50 selected non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in international population and family planning. Most are based in the US, some in Europe or Asia. A supplemental list gives less detailed information about other selected NGOs, training and research centers, regional organizations with population activities, United Nations organizations providing population assistance, and major national government agencies providing international population assistance. The organizations listed include those focussing on funding or technical assistance for family planning programs, and/or publishing influential materials, or having extensive public outreach and political influence.
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  24. 24
    077200

    The role of international agencies, governments, and the private sector in the diffusion of modern contraception.

    Sai FT; Nassim J

    TECHNOLOGY IN SOCIETY. 1987; 9(3-4):497-520.

    This paper views diffusion as encompassing three processes: the acceptance of the idea and practice of contraception by consumers; the establishment of the institutions or programs to provide services; and the development of technical capability in research and development and in the production of contraceptives. The historical development of the family planning movement is described, and the contribution of international agencies, governments, and private sectors is discussed in the context of changing development approaches. Substantial achievements have been made, but, in view of future needs and the uncertainty of political and financial commitment to family planning on the part of donors, the future presents a continuing challenge. (EXCERPT)
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  25. 25
    109688

    Employment-based family planning programs. L'emploi et le planning familial.

    Rinehart W; Blackburn R; Moore SH

    Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1987 Sept-Oct; (34):921-51.

    Family planning services through the workplace is an idea that is attracting more attention, benefit's workers, employers, and nations. Large manufacturers and plantations in India first offered family planning to workers in the 1950s. Now also in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, South Korea, Turkey, Egypt, Kenya, and elsewhere, many large companies have added family planning to other health services. In some Latin American countries social security systems have added family planning for many workers. Many different groups, including compaines, labor unions, government-sponsored social marketing programs, and the military, run employment-based programs. Services are offered in workplace clinics, through referrals, in free-standing facilities, in social security hospitals, and in community clinics. Funding comes from employers, governments, unions, family planning associations, and USAID. The most effective programs offer supplies and services as well as information, offer them directly at the workplace, and use worker-volunteers to distribute pills and condoms. Successful programs require the full support of company management. Favorable cost-benefit projections can show managers that offering family planning makes financial sense and contributes to employee health.
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