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[Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
[Main objectives of the WHO Special Program on Human Reproduction] Osnovnye napravleniia Spetsialnoi Programmy VOZ po Reproduktsii Cheloveka.
AKUSHERSTVO I GINEKOLOGIIA. 1984 Jul; (7):3-6.The WHO Special Program on Human reproduction was established in 1972 to coordinate international research on birth control, family planning, development of effective methods of contraception, and treatments for disorders of the human reproductive system. The Program's main objectives are: implementation of family planning programs at primary health care facilities, evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of existing birth control methods, development of new birth control methods, and development of new methods of sterility treatment. In order to attain these goals, the Program forth 3 major tasks for international research: 1) psychosociological aspects of family planning, 2) birth control methods, and 3) studies on sterility. Since most of the participating nations belong to the 3rd World, the Program is focused on human reproduction in developing countries. The USSR plays an important role in the WHO Special Program on Human reproduction. A WHO Paticipating Center has been established at the All-Union Center for Maternal and Child Care in Moscow. Soviet research concentrates on 3 major areas: diagnosis and treatment of female sterility, endocrinological aspects of contraception, and birth control prostaglandins.
Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2, Background documents.
Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 2 986 p.Volume 2 of papers from an international symposium starts with chapter 7--available methods of fertility regulation; problems encountered in family planning programs of developing countries. Natural family planning is discussed here, as well as contraceptives and male and female sterilization. Chapter 8 covers research problems with regard to epidemiological, service, and psychosocial aspects of fertility regulation. Family planning is stressed in this chapter. Chapter 9 discusses future methods of fertility regulation: progress in selected areas. New contraceptive agents are discussed, such as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and its analogues, gossypol for men, and immunological methods of fertility regulation. Chapter 10 also discusses future methods of fertility regulation, but from the point of view of research needs and priorities as viewed by program directors and advisers. Views and research priorities of the Population Council, and the Indian Council of Medical Research are given. Research needs and priorities in China are discussed, as is the role of the World Health Organization's Special Program of Reseach, Development and Reserch Training in Human Reproduction. Lastly, chapter 11 covers the role of governments, agencies and industry in reseach on fertility regulation. The role of the Agency for International Development, the US National Institutes of Health; and the World Bank, among others, are discussed.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.
In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
Social Policy. 1975 Nov/Dec; 6(3):19-23.Failure of family planning efforts in the Third World is inherent in the assumptions of the program. From the beginning family planning has been viewed as a specialized function which can be pursued in isolation from its socioeconomic context. Even though it touches on sex, reproduction, and family life, the most emotion-laden segments of human behavior, the approaches to family planning have been rationalistic. This has been compounded by the fact that most motivators have been college-trained young people and not traditional village leaders. Both the message and the medium resemble a college seminar, which helps preserve the empire of the professionals. Before people can be induced to come to family planning clinics, they have to feel the health services are reliable. In many instances, however, a bride has to be paid to see the doctor and medicines go into the black market. Seldom do family planners point out the necessity of reforming incompetent, arrogant, and corrupt public services. At the Bucharest population conference the Third World nations pointed out that the standards of living of the masses must be improved before family planning will come about. However, between a society and project there is an intermediate institution, the bureaucracies and organizations, which must be reformed . Unless these services are fair, efficient, and accountable, people will not trust their advice. It is popular to blame the failure of family planning on the resistance of the masses, yet the poor and illiterate have adopted tea, Western dress, radios and loudspeakers, vaccinations, and fertilizers -- all over initial objections. If something is of value to them, people will adopt it. Family planning has also become the symbol of outside intervention to the emerging middle class and it is popular to criticize these efforts because they are backed by international organizations. Unfortunately these international efforts merely reinforce the self-seeking careerists who use the conferences and symposiums for international travel, honor, and opportunities to reinforce their position in the power structure. To be effective, family planning programs must be developed by people familiar with local traditions in a setting which will make best use of the circumstances. By appropriating the leadership Western organizations are choking off such local initiative.
In: Grant JP. The state of the world's children, 1982-1983. New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1982. 46-128.The lives of the Yatenga Province villagers in Upper Volta are described after a 2 year drought. The account is drawn from research and interviews conducted during the early rains of 1982. The everyday life of the family of Hamade and Assita, a Yatenga couple, is centered on. The traditional roles of the adult male members of the village in agriculture, grain storage and village affairs, are explored. Women's traditional roles in health care, family planning, agricultural work and spinning raw cotton are presented. Conflict between traditional ideas and new ideas in the areas of health care and family planning are illustrated. The villager's involvement with the Naam movement, a traditional idea of community cooperation that has been integrated with advances in economics and development for rural communities, and that was founded by Bernard Ledea Oue Draogo, is discussed. Cooperation among UNICEF, Naam and Upper Volta's Rural Development Organizations are explored. The activities of the Naam organization in developing supplementary grain supplies for villagers that will be self-perpetuating once the program is fully developed are described.