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IPPF COUNTRY PROFILES. 1994 Jan; 25-30.The government of Sri Lanka has made progress in its population program, but it remains concerned that Sri Lanka continues to be one of the world's most densely populated countries. Population growth has an adverse effect upon efforts to improve the quality of life and alleviate poverty. The government, therefore, in 1991 implemented a population policy designed to limit population growth to a level feasible given available resources. The policy also calls for replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Emphasizing motivation and contraceptive distribution, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASL) projects support and complement the government's family planning program. Specifically, FPASL operates two clinics and provides educational programs on sexual health and population issues, contraceptive social marketing, sterilization programs, and the rural IEM project Praja Shanthi. FPASL total funding in 1992 was $828,560. 1987 Demographic and Health Survey data indicate that 62% of married women practice contraception. 40% use modern methods, with female sterilization being the most popular at 24.8%, followed by male sterilization (4.9%), and the pill (4.1%). Only 1.9% use condoms. Rhythm is the most popular traditional method with 15% of users. Abortion is legal only to save a women's life. Trained nurses, midwives, and chemists are allowed to distribute oral contraceptives, and both male and female sterilization are permitted without restriction. The paper also reports demographic statistical data and information on social and health aspects of the country.
POPULATION. 1992 Feb; 18(2):3.In 1991, an UNFPA Programme Review and Strategy Development mission went to Egypt and noted that the government's population and development goals for 1988-92 had been realized. Between 1988-91, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 37.6 to 47.6% and infant mortality fell from 54 to 50. Data indicated that maternal mortality was also declining. The crude birth rate fell from 39.8 to 32.2 (1985-90) which slowed growth from 2.8 to 2.5%. Yet this progress may not prevent an environmental disaster or improve individual standards of living. In fact, the Minister for the Economy noted in December 1991 that population growth was the only obstacle to economic success in Egypt. The mission recommended that any large amounts of population and development. The population grew >3-fold in 50 years bringing its population to almost 56 million. Demographers have predicted the population will reach 70 million in 2000. As os 1991, 96% of the population lived on 4% of the land which borders the River Nile. Family planning (FP) programs have traditionally been centrally organized, but the mission noted that decentralized programs are needed. It further stated that local FP efforts should form a bridge between public and private FP providers. The report also stressed that UNFPA should focus its effect in Upper Egypt where population growth is the fastest. It also recommended that UNFPA take a more comprehensive view of women, population, and development issues, especially since the burden of contraception falls on women. This suggestion included a wider range of contraceptives and more female physicians. FP providers should target younger women since most contraceptive users have already reached their desired family size. Finally, the mission advocated local contraceptive production and more involvement of the private sector.
New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities; London, England, Croom Helm, 1980. 215 p.The Arab population, consisting of 20 states and the people of Palestine, was almost 153 million in 1978 and is expected to reach 300 million by the year 2000. Most Arab countries have a high population growth rate of 3%, a young population structure with about 50% under age 15, a high rate of marriage, early age of marriage, large family size norm, and an agrarian rural community life, along with a high rate of urban expansion. Health patterns are also similar with epidemic diseases leading as causes of mortality and morbidity. But there is uneven distribution of wealth in the region with per capita annual income ranging from US$100 in Somalia to US$12,050 in Kuwait; health care is also more elaborate in the wealthier countries. Fertility rates are high in most countries, with crude birthrates about 45/1000 compared with 32/1000 in the world as a whole and 17/1000 in most developed countries. In many Arab countries up to 30-50% of total investment is involved in population-related activities compared to 15% in European countries. There is also increasing pressure in the educational and health systems with the same amount of professionals dealing with an increasing amount of people. Unplanned and excessive fertility also contributes to health problems for mothers and children with higher morbidity, mortality, and nutrition problems. Physical isolation of communities contributes to difficulties in spreading health care availability. Urban population is growing rapidly, 6%/year in most Arab cities, and at a rate of 10-15% in the cities of Kuwait and Qatar; this rate is not accompanied by sufficient urban planning policies or modernization. A unique population problem in this area is that of the over 2 million Palestinians living in and outside the Middle East who put demographic pressures on the Arab countries. 2 major constraints inhibit efforts to solve the Arab population problem: 1) the difficulty of actually reallocating the people to achieve more even distribution, and 2) cultural and political sensitivities. Since in the Arab countries fertility does not correlate well with social and economic indicators, it is possible that development alone will not reduce the fertility of the Arab countries unless rigorous and effective family planning policies are put into action.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 92 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XVII)This article uses available statistics to analyze health conditions in Bangladesh and their impact on the country's socioeconomic development. Background information on the country is first given, after which population characteristics, health status, nutrition, national health policy and adminstration, health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care and donor assistance are examined. Bangladesh's 3% annual population increase is expected to increase already great population pressure and to have a negative impact on the health status of the population. Although reliable health statistics are lacking, infant mortality is estimated at 140 per 1000, 40% of all deaths occur in the 0-4 age group, and maternal mortality is high. Infectious diseases exacerbated by malnutrition are the main causes of death. 4 key factors are responsible for the general malnutrition: 1) rapidly growing population, 2) low per capita income, 3) high incidence of diarrheal diseases, and 4) dietary practices that restrict nutrient intake. Most of the population has access only to traditional health services, and medical education is hospital oriental and curative, with minimal emphasis on public health. The level of environmental sanitation is extremely low.
Intercom. 1980 May; 8(5):1, 12-15.Africa's growing population problems and the role of family planning in Africa were described. Population growth in Africa is accelerating more rapidly than in any other region of the world and population pressures on the continent are just beginning to emerge. The current population of Africa is 472 million and constitutes 10% of the world's population. Most countries in Africa are just entering the early phase of the demographic transition. Mortality rates are declining but the birth rates remain high. Africa's growth rate increased from 2% to 3% from 1955-1980. In sub-Saharan Africa vital statistics are not available for many of the countries and population estimates are based on inadequate data. Fertility is high in the region and the average woman has 6-7 children. Population problems in the region are masked to some extent because population density is still relatively low; however, land pressures are beginning to mount as overgrazed, deforested, eroded, and exhausted land areas increase. Per capita food production is declining by 1.4% annaually due in part to the outdated transportation and marketing systems which characterize many of the sub-Saharan countries. In many of these sub-Saharan countries there is a lack of interest in family planning and some governments have pronatalist population policies. Family planning is viewed by some Africans as an attempt on the part of Westerners to suppress the native population. National governments often hesitate to establish family planning programs for fear that these will be interpreted as veiled attempts to reduce the political influence of opposing tribal groups. Most family planning activities in sub-Saharan countries are financially supported by private and international organizations. Major contributors in 1979 were UNFPA, which provided $18 million primarily for the collection of demographic data, and IPPF, which spent $7.5 million on family planning programs. Other organizations providing assistance are 1) the Pathfinders, 2) the Population Council, and 3) the Family Planning International Assistance. USAID provides direct funding and also funds bilateral and regional programs through individual governments.
Front Lines 17(6):4-5. March 15, 1979.In 1969, the government of Indonesia threw its full support behind a family planning program for the country. Since that time, more than 1/2 the women on the islands of Java and Bali have accepted family planning. In 1978, more than 1/4 of the married women of child-bearing age on the 2 islands were practicing some form of contraception. The fertility rate has dropped by 15% and planners hope for 50% acceptance by 1982. These successes are more remarkable when the poverty and cultural backwardness of the country is considered. Reasons for the extraordinary success of the program are: 1) total commitment of the government with interdepartmental organization; 2) adequate financing and technical support from outside sources; 3) detailed organization; 4) local involvement; 5) support of the country's major religious groups; and 6) the flexibility of the program's young administrators. Outside financing, especially by USAID, is discussed. Population density in Indonesia is so severe that success of the program is indispensable to future development of the country.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
[Viet Nam: Report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Viet Nam: Rapport de Mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.
New York, UNFPA, 1978 May. 76 p. (Rapport No. 2)This report presents the findings of a UNFPA Mission which visited Viet Nam, June 18-27, 1977, to discover what assistance Viet Nam requires to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population policies. After describing the salient geographic, cultural, demographic, economic and governmental features of the country, concentrating on the aftermath of 30 years of war which ended in April 1975, and the status of data collection, processing and evaluation, population dynamics, population policy implementation and sources of external assistance, the Mission states its recommendations. Statistical tables summarize the background information and the provisional plan of action and its requirements. The Mission recommends: 1) Assistance in the form of communications equipment and training of personnel for carrying out a planned census. 2) Establishment of a National Center for Demographic Studies. 3) Material aid, especially housing supplies, to enable the government to carry out its planned resettlement of millions of people in New Economic Zones. 4) Professional and supporting services for the family planning program, which is particularly weak in the South. 5) Special attention to the needs of women to eliminate prevalent gynecological and venereal diseases and to supply them with suitable contraceptives.
Egypt, USAID. 1978 March; 82.A review of Egypt's population/family planning policy and assessment of the current population problem is included in a multi-year population strategy for USAID in Egypt, which also comprises: 1) consideration of the major contraints to expanded practice of family size limitation; 2) assessment of the Egyptian government's commitment to fertility control; 3) suggestions for strengthening the Egyptian program and comment on possible donor roles; and 4) a recommended U.S. strategy and comment on the implications of the recommendations. The text of the review includes: 1) demographic goals and factors; 2) assessment of current population efforts; 2) proposed approaches and action for fertility reduction in Egypt; and 4) implication for U.S. population assistance. Based on analysis of Egyptian population program efforts, the following approaches are considered essential to a successful program of fertility reduction: 1) effective management and delivery of family planning services; 4) an Egyptian population educated, motivated and participating in reducing family size; 5) close donor coordination; and 6) emphasis on the role of women.
In: Watson, W.B., ed. Family planning in the developing world: a review of programs. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 54-55The government of Honduras included a population policy in its National Development Plan for the period 1974-1979. This policy will be implemented by providing information regarding responsible parenthood, by using natural and technical resources to produce a well-nourished and creative population, and by applying the principles of voluntary participation in family planning programs. The 2 family planning programs in Honduras are the government maternal and child health program and the Family Planning Association of Honduras program. The government program, initiated in 1968, operates 34 clinics which offer family planning along with prenatal and postnatal care, child care, and nutrition education services. The Family Planning Association, established in 1961, operates 2 clinics and served 42,000 people during 1975. 9000 of this group were 1st acceptors. Oral contraceptives were chosen by 80% of the new acceptors; 13% chose IUDs and 5% chose injectables. The Association's information and education activities included conferences, talks, courses, seminars, and home visits. Additionally, the Association is operating a demonstration community-based distribution program with financial assistance from the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 40 workers in each of 2 cities provide contraceptives in their own neighborhoods.
Draper World Population Fund Report. 1977 Summer; 4:23-25.Sri Lanka has undergone a classic demographic transition over the last 30 years. In 1971, the country was 1 of the most densely populated agricultural countries in the world. By 1975, Sri Lanka's birthrate had declined to 27.2, the lowest rate in South Asia. This decline in fertility is attributed to increased contraceptive use, due to a greater awareness of modern family planning methods and easier access to contraceptive facilities. A brief history of the family planning movement in the country is presented. The Sri Lanka family planning program today illustrates a cooperative venture between private organizations and government programming. High levels of celibacy and late marriage in Sri Lanka, caused by demographic, economic, and educational factors, have also resulted in a declining percentage of married women in the under-30 age group.
IPPA-News Letter, No. 1. September 1977. p. 2-3.There are 5 important aspects related to family planning (FP) in Indonesia: 1) The large population. It is the 5th largest country in the world in terms of population. 2) The rapid increase in population (2.4%/annum). 3) The uneven distribution - most live in Java and Bali where land area is only 8% of total. 4) Age composition - 45% of the population is under age 15. 5) Mobility - there is little mobility and communication despite urbanization. In 1957 the IPPA cautiously began counseling. In 1968 the Suharto administration declared FP a national program. In 1970 the National FP Coordinating Body was established to oversee action of government institutions and private organizations with the goal of bringing down population increase from 2.4 to 1.2 by the year 2000. The 1st 5-year program (from 1969 to 1974) included Bali and Java, the 2nd (1974-1979) added 10 other provinces, and the 3rd will include the remaining 11 provinces.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, March 22, 1976. 56 pA report of the staff survey team of the Committee on International Relations, whose review had the objectives of assessing the opportunities, challenges and obstacles to the introduction of effective family planning programs and population control programs into the West African environment, evaluates several aspects of U.S. development assistance programs in West Africa including: 1) population/family planning programs; 2) the Senegal River Basin project; and 3) reimbursable development programs in Nigeria. Population planning activities are reviewed for Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; Ivory Coast; Upper Volta; Senegal; and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It is concluded that despite the clear requirement for most nations in West Africa to curb high population growth rates if economic development is to be facilitated, little or nothing is being done in the countries visited. Information is provided for each country on family planning and population projects and organizations; sources of aid and funding; and health services available, concluding with a summary and comment. The Senegal River Basin project is reviewed, concluding that alternate strategies of fulfilling the U.S. pledge to the long-term development of the Sahel be thoroughly explored. Information provided on reimbursable development programs in Nigeria includes: 1) summary of findings; 2) program background; 3) Nigeria as an AID "graduate"; 4) Nigerian economic planning; 6) reimbursable development programs; and 7) staffing.
IPPF Situation Report, January 1969. 3 p.According to 1967 data, the population of the Netherlands Antilles is 212,000; the birthrate is 22.8/1000; and the growth rate is 1.2/100. The Family Planning Foundation was established in October 1965 in Curacao and is now working to extend its efforts to the other islands of the Antilles, Aruba, Bonnaire, St. Martin Saba, and St. Eustace. Clinical services are provided in Curacao by a professional staff consisting of a physician, a nurse, and a field worker. Since its creation, the Foundation has served more than 600 women. The services are free and the women have a choice of methods available. Many women, however, use their own physicians for contraceptive services. The Foundation receives a grant from the government, and contraceptive counseling is also available at government health centers in Aruba. Currently, the focus of the Foundation is on family planning education. An educational campaign is being conducted in Curacao with the use of television and radio. Family planning is discussed within the context of sex education. During 1969 the intention is a broaden the educational campaign from birth control to other aspects of responsible parenthood.
IPPF Situation Report, April 1969. 6 p.Demographic statistics and some information on the cultural situation in Thailand are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) and family-planning-related government personnel are listed. Various FPA-funded projects are summarized. The government started a 3-year family health program in 1968 which will include family planning services. Initial surveys indicated positive attitudes toward and interest in family planning in the country. IUD insertions have totaled 100,000 so far and sterilizations are averaging 10,000 yearly. The plan is to cover 20 million people by 1970. Current training and educational activities are sumarized. Other agencies active in the family planning field are mentioned.
In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.
Population 70. Family Planning and Social Change. (Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Western Pacific Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Tokyo, 13-16 October 1970.)
Tokyo, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Pacific Region, April 1971. 191 pThis booklet includes all the papers presented at the Second Conference of the Western Pacific Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, in Tokyo in 1970. The papers are on different aspects of social change in the Asian countries in the 1970s population, food resources, manpower resources, economic development, changing family patterns, urbanization, and the status of women.
IPPF Situation Report, September 1972. 7 pHong Kong, with 3858 people/sq km, is 1 of the world's most densely populated areas. Family planning was introduced in 1936 by the Hong Kong Eugenics League and 5 clinics were operating by 1940. The Family Planning Association (FPA) was formed in 1950 and was a founder member of IPPF in 1952. Interest in family planning increased as massive immigration from China added to overcrowding. The government supports FPA (in 1972 the grant was U.S.$254,545) and houses 80% of the FPA clinics in government properties. At present there are 46 female clinics providing 189 sessions per week and 2 male clinics operating eac h week. The decline from 54 to 48 clinics is due to the new emphasis on full-time rather than part-time clinics. In 1971 there were 347,894 attenders, an increase of 18% over 1970, and 31,898 new acceptors, an increase of 4%. There has been continued increase in the number of patients requesting oral contraceptives (70.6% in 1971). The IUD began to decline after bad publicity surrounded a large number of loops which had broken in the uterus; in 1971 only 6% of acceptors asked for IUDs. Condoms account for 11.5% and injectables, 3.6%. FPA offers subfertility and marriage guidance services and is extending its Papanicolaou smear service. An active media campaign, exhibitions, and seminars are conducted. Until 1967 fieldwork consisted of random home visits. An efficiency study led to concentration on maternal and child health clinics, postnatal clinics, and follow-up home visits. Home visi ts are still made on request. A number of international trials for various contraceptives have been run in Hong Kong. Many church and international organizations are helping to finance family planning activities, both through FPA and through their own organizations.