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  1. 1

    Survey of parents' ability to answer questions on family life.

    Association Zairoise pour le Bien-Etre Familial; Population Council

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [2] p. (ZAI-16)

    In 1987, the Zairian International Planned Parenthood affiliate, AZBEF, researched adolescents' reproductive health information needs, at a cost of US $2,739, by interviewing more than 10,000 students aged 15 to 27 in schools in the Kinshasa and Bas-Zaire regions. Of approximately 2,000 questions the students asked about sexuality, AZBEF selected 160, representing physiological knowledge, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraceptives (including sterility and abortion), to design a booklet on family life education for young people. In February 1991, the national family planning (FP) association, PSND, joined with AZBEF to explore parents' ability to respond to children's concerns about sexuality. In March 1991, they approached The Population Council to design and carry-out a sample survey to determine the proportion of parents open to providing family life education for their children, their capacity to provide it, reasons they would disapprove of such education, and the impact of sexual taboos on the dissemination and understanding of reproductive health information. To collect the data, 30 questions were chosen from AZBEF's list of 160 and a random sample of 500 parents (50% mothers) aged 25 to 55 was selected from 22 of 24 zones (231 neighborhoods) in Kinshasa. Information was gathered during 10 days in April and May 1991. Questions were categorized as: sexual experiences; knowledge about reproductive health, adolescent sexuality, and STDs; attitudes towards contraceptive use by adolescents; and appropriate scholastic programs for introducing family life education. The results provide the basis for an information, education, and communication (IEC) strategy in FP for both PSND and AZBEF. Levels of knowledge about contraceptive methods were 91% in fathers and 84% in mothers. Yet, approximately 75% of parents thought that educating girls about contraception encouraged promiscuous sexual behavior. Abstinence was the most recommended method for both sexes to avoid pregnancy, followed by the condom for boys and the rhythm method for girls. Surprisingly, 62% of the respondents were willing to speak with their children about sex education; 50% of mothers and 20% of fathers stated that they had already done so. Of the 38% who were reluctant to speak with their children about this subject, 58% of males and 60% of females had distinct reasons for not doing so, age being the primary factor. Many deferred this responsibility to other members of the family or community; husbands would often assign this role to their wives, and vice versa, and parents saw the aunt as an important information source for the youth. 36.4% of fathers indicated that youths could go to the FP center to obtain this information, while 59.6% of the mothers preferred youths to visit a local minister. Most parents were aware of STDs, while holding false information about their transmission; 86% believed that kissing is a major form of transmission of STDs, along with handshakes, exchange of clothes, and use of the same latrines. This study provides the basis for future development of a family life education program tailored for the young people of Zaire.
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  2. 2

    Planned Parenthood education programs: a national overview.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]

    New York, New York, PPFA, 1985 Feb. 8 p.

    This booklet highlights a selection of some current Planned Parenthood education programs. 3 programs in the area of child sexual abuse include the Sexual Abuse Prevention Project (SAPP), the "Bubbylonian Encounter" -- a sexual abuse prevention program, and OK Bears, an education program for parents and other adults. SAPP is designed to get more people involved and informed about sexual abuse, to educate both parents and children in prevention techniques, and to prepare both parents and educators for possible disclosures that may result from the program's presentations. In less than 1 year, "Bubbylonian Encounter", a program for elementary school children, has received so much community support that it has expanded to school districts in other counties. "OK/Not OK Touches" educates parents and other adults about sexual abuse of children so they can separate the myths from the facts and communicate with children about this sensitive subject. In the area of teen theater, "An Ounce of Prevention" is a comprehensive videotape project on child sexual abuse. Also in this area are The Great Body Show -- a rural family planning program designed to reduce teen pregnancy through increased education; TACT (Teenage Communication Theater) -- an approach to education using drama to heighten awareness of problems of teens: Youth Expression Theater, which uses drama to heighten awareness of the real problems and pressures faced by teens in the social and sexual areas of their lives; THE SOURCE -- a 15-member volunteer teen outreach council which wrote their own play, "Speak Up-Speak Out;" and the Washington Area Improvisational Teen Theater, which has as its purpose to increase awareness and provide the information teenagers need in order to make responsible decisions regarding their sexuality. Parent/child education programs include APPLES, a set of 4 prevention and education-oriented programs for adolescent parents and their children; Parents and Children Together (P.A.C.T.), an early teenage pregnancy prevention program aimed at providing family life education to parents and children of all ages; and the Parent Education Program of New York City, which offers a variety of resources to help parents become better sexuality educators for their children. Two male involvement programs and Boys and Babies, a program which enhances and builds on the innate potential of all humans to care and nurture, and The Male Services Program, which is based on the premise that young men can make better, more responsible decisions about their sexual behavior with education and guidance.
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  3. 3

    Meeting the needs of young people.

    Ippf Medical Bulletin. 1984 Apr; 18(2):1-4.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), recognizing its responsibility to assist young people in fulfilling their roles as parents, citizens, and leaders, seeks to improve the quality of life of young people by advocating and promoting, especially to governments and other organizations, measures that will respond to their total human needs, including the provision of education and employment opportunities. IPPF, as a family planning organization, can contribute directly to the preparation of young people for responsible parenthood and to meeting their fertility related needs. Family planning associations (FPAs) are encouraged to initiate, strengthen, or support programs which respond to the needs of young people. Priority should be given to meeting the needs of the most disadvantaged groups, with emphasis on out of school and rural youth, slum dwellers, youth in urban industrialized areas, and abandoned adolescents and children, with special attention to the early group adolescent age group. The involvement of young people as active partners in IPPF's work is essential for its efforts to promote and sustain commitment to family planning at policymaking and community levels in the years ahead and to prepare the next generation of leaders within the Federation. Population, family life, and sex education, including family planning and reproductive health management, provide in both formal and nonformal settings, are the cornerstone of youth programs. FPAs should look for ways to remove legal, administrative, and other barriers to the availability of adequate education and services. As pregnancy poses special hazards for adolescents, particularly those under age 16, services should cater to the special circumstances in which adolescent childbearing is taking place. No single contraceptive method can be regarded satisfactory for adolescents as a group, but each method may have a place in adolescent services. Several factors, such as age, parity, and other personal amd medical considerations, need to be carefully assessed in helping the individual adolescent to make a choice. IPPF affirms that meeting the needs of young people is a major objective for the Federation and that priority should be given to meeting the needs of the most disadvantaged young people. Parents have primary responsibility in the preparation of the young for responsible parenthood, and their participation in meeting the fertility related needs of young people as part of an improved quality of family life should be encouraged and supported. Education and counseling should respond to the needs of young people who engage in sex relations and those who do not. Research should be encouraged, particularly at the national and local level, in biomedical, social science, service delivery, and legal and policy areas.
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  4. 4

    The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong's Services for the mentally handicapped.

    Lam P

    [Unpublished] 1981. 9 p.

    Recognizing a need to provide help to mentally handicapped women with fertility related problems, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong established a clinic for the mentally handicapped in May 1979. The basic rationale for the service was the United Nations 1971 proclamation of a Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons and its call for the protection of these rights. Articles of particular interest in the declaration are listed. After studying the situation, the Association began by introducing a series of educational activities and establishing the special clinic. Several pilot programs were conducted with the cooperation of the Pine Hill Village schools following the workshop organized for professionals working with mentally handicapped youths. Experience from those projects indicated that special skills and materials would be required in order to teach sex education to the mild to moderate grade mentally handicapped youths. 9 welfare agencies cooperated in a project to develop sex education. A monthly sex education course for parents of mentally handicapped children was initiated in September 1980 to help them understand aspects of the child's sexual behavior and how to cope with it. Since May 1979 the Association has been operating a pilot special clinic with a team made up of a gynecologist, psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, counselor, and nurse. Services include self-management skills in menstrual hygiene and preliminary assessment for determining appropriate birth control methods. The clinic has handled 92 cases thus far, and 4 case histories are presented to illustrate the nature and scope of the services.
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  5. 5

    The value of education in a total family planning program.

    Scales P

    New York, New York, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Dept. of Education, 1982 Sep. 4 p.

    This reference sheet examines sexuality education and what it contributes to the total program of a Planned Parenthood affilitate in order to provide a counterbalance to the assumption that there is no problem with diminishing or abandoning education. Clearly, education does contribute to the overall patient recruitment effort. A sexuality education program ideally covers patient, professional, and public education activities. The effect of the Planned Parenthood educational programs on young men and women can provide a direct stimulus, or can promote clinic attendance through the recommendation of "a friend" who has read a Planned Parenthood pamphlet, seen an educator giving a workshop, or educator discuss the confidentiality of services on a radio talk show. Based on the responses of the Education Department received from the 20 largest affiliates during the parental notification commitment period, it is estimated that over 300,000 parents are being reached per year across the country. These programs have significant impact on both teenage pregnancy and patient recruitment. Efforts with adolescent males also contribute to patient recruitment. Research consistently shows that the male partner's attitudes about family planning are key influences on the female's decision to come to a clinic. Education's impact on reducing teenage pregnancy can result from its role in stimulating patient recruitment. In addition, one must ask how many individuals there are who have benefitted from an education presentation or educational material, yet who never come to the clinic in a time and fashion that would allow Planned Parenthood to document its role in that decision. Research on the impact of sexuality education is now growing in both frequency and sophistication. The recent study with the Johns Hopkins University national sample of teenage women validates the trends seen in over 60 previous research studies: sexuality education does not stimulate sexual behavior and if contraceptive information is included, it is associated with fewer pregnancies due to more effective contraceptive use. Planned Parenthood's sexuality education programs have had a significant impact on improving the climate for family planning service delivery. Throughout the Federation, it may be that education is responsible for attracting millions of dollars of unrestricted giving, and this should be kept in mind as the difficult budget decisions are made.
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  6. 6

    IPPF and young people: programme review and future directions.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1983. 19 p.

    This paper reviews the policies of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), assesses the lessons learned, raises key issues influencing policy formulation and program development, and identifies the options available at all levels of IPPF to meet the fertility related needs of young people, be they boys or girls. (IPPF considers young people to range from ages 10 to 25). Young people are an increasing percentage of the world's population and are perplexed by profoundly changing social enviornments and by how to deal with pregnancy. IPPF programs include fertility related services such as counseling and contraceptive services, and education in family planning. The paper stresses that sex education needs to start before young people become sexually active. It is essential that youth participate in the family planning movement; 1 major problem is that parents and many other adults feel that provision of family planning services for adolescents encourages promiscuity. The report documents IPPF collaboration with kindred international nongovernmental organizations. It recommends that family planning associations mobilize community resouces by lobbying policy and decision makers to get them to respect the rights of youth for family planning services. Future directions for the IPPF include youth related activities, influence on government policies and programs, pilot projects, and research data collection.
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