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  1. 1

    [Dialogue [with Dr. Daniel Aspilcueta].

    SUSTAINABILITY MATTERS. 1995 Dec; 1(3):6-7.

    In July 1995, the President of Peru, Alberto Fujimori, announced in his inaugural address that increased access to family planning information and services would be part of his administration's strategy to reduce poverty. Conservative circles in alliance with the Catholic Church attacked the government's position; however, the press sided with the president and educated the public about the benefits of sex education and reproductive health services. Demand increased among the poor, and the legitimization of family planning made it more acceptable for these people still influenced by church dogma. The Ministry of Health, the Social Security Agency, and the education sector expanded their activities related to reproductive health by providing increased funding. Legal restrictions to obtaining voluntary sterilization were lifted by amending the National Population Law. Even the Catholic Church stated that it was in favor of family planning but opposed what it considered to be unnatural methods and sterilization. Scientific evidence was provided to disprove the opposition's allegations about the dangers and risks of modern contraceptives. This tactic isolated the small ultraconservative group in the legislature who had opposed the amendment. A workshop held in Lima also provided a prominent forum to highlight the benefits of family planning as they related to progress. The President had supported family planning for many years and stated his views in 1988. He also designated 1991 the Year of Family Planning. The country had to overcome severe social and economic problems symbolized by the Shining Path insurgency before the family planning policy could be fully implemented. In 1991, IPPF named President Fujimori Outstanding Individual Contributor to Family Planning. The Peruvian family planning association for its part continued informing the press and opinion makers about the issue. An effective program with promotion of sex education has been put in place, which will be expanded to cover the whole country.
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  2. 2

    The politics of fertility control: ideology, research, and programs.

    Warwick DP

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Institute for International Development, 1990 Jun. [2], 52 p. (Development Discussion Paper No. 344)

    Ideology of population control has fueled population research and fertility control programs. This ideology comprises the prochoice and prolife positions; the Roman Catholic doctrine on responsible parenthood and contraception; and fertility control professed by Marxists and environmentalists. The predominant ideology of demographic research and family planning (FP) from the 1950s to 1974 is examined. The solution of population was to be by voluntary action as demonstrated by knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) surveys sponsored by the Population Council that was founded at the behest of John D. Rockefeller III in 1952. The Council also supported technical assistance and vigorously promoted (FP). The Ford Foundation developed a population control program in 1958, funding research with over $181 million during the period. In 1967 the Agency for International Development (USAID) joined population donors, and became the largest financier of FP programs that produced a decline of fertility from 6.1 children/woman to 4.5 in 28 countries. At the World Population Conference in 1974 held in Bucharest the claim of population growth inhibiting development was challenged, and the development of socioeconomic and health care conditions was advocated. The Project on Cultural Values and Population Policy was an 8-nation study on cultural values in FP program implementation whose utility was questioned by UNFPA staff. The World Development Report 1984 by the World Bank was influential and reiterated the danger of population growth checking economic development, although critics charged biases and distortions. The Lapham-Mauldin Scale devised for the evaluation of FP program success is replete with value judgments. FP program implementation difficulties and shortcomings are further examined in Latin America, China, India, and Indonesia.
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  3. 3

    Our next forty years.

    Mahler H

    PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):3-6.

    Marking the 40th birthday of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Secretary-General Halfdan Mahler discusses the crisis facing the organization and calls for IPPF's moral reawakening. Examining the present conditions of the world. Mahler notes with frustration that crass materialism has enveloped the globe. During the 1980s, the economies of developing countries suffered badly. In addition, a vacuum of leadership has emerged, posing an obstacle to development. Development, says the secretary-general, means the actualizing of both the individual and society's potential. 3 rationales guide the family planning efforts of IPPF: development, health, and human rights. Evidence indicates that children in smaller families achieve higher social and economic levels than children in larger families, and that families, and that fewer children and birth spacing contribute to the well-being of mothers and children. The human rights rationale, explains mahler, implies the right to education about family planning and access to services. Opposition to family planning ignores the ethical dimensions of these 3 rationales. Unfortunately, says Mahler, some countries now seem to have retracted their commitment to family planning. It is this fact that brings a sense of urgency to the work of every Family Planning Association (FPA) and the IPPF. Unless IPPF and FPAs meet this challenge with determination, they risk the possibility of becoming irrelevant. Mahler explains that IPPF must engage in aggressive marketing of the characteristics that make family planning successful. Additionally, Mahler calls for a new pioneering role for IPPF that will bring about its moral reawakening. Mahler concludes by suggesting a vision of the future in which family planning has succeeded.
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  4. 4

    For the public good. A history of the Birth Control Clinic and the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    Bailey TM

    Hamilton, Canada, W.L. Griffin, 1974. 35, [1] p.

    The history of the Planned Parenthood Society of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada has been prepared to recognize the fact that the Society is the oldest of its kind in Canada. It is approaching its 50th Anniversary, and it still plays a prominent role in Hamilton as well as being one of the founding members of the Family Planning Federation of Canada. The Federation is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The Society was founded by Mary Elizabeth Hawkins with the help of Albert R. Kaufman. Mr. Kaufman alleviated the plight of wives of the unemployed who were having unwanted children. The constitution of the Society had 2 parts: (1) "to establish and maintain a birth control clinic in Hamilton where free instruction will be given to married women in cases where there are definite physical or mental disabilities in order that the public good may be served." (2) "To educate the public as to the true aims of the birth control movement and its beneficial effect upon the race." In 1932 Mrs. Hawkins and Miss Burgar went to the Wentworth County Court House in Hamilton to talk to the Crown Attorney Ballard about the legality of operating their clinic. At the time the Criminal Code had prohibitions against "every one having for sale or disposal any means of instructions or any medicine, drug or article intended or represented as a means of preventing contraception." The result of the meeting was a letter from George Ballard that openly supported their activities and wished them success. The early days were the hardest because of a lack of money, most of which came from the founding members. There was also a great deal of opposition from the local community. However, it was the work of Society that helped make contraception legal in Canada today.
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  5. 5

    Haiti -- family planning on Rue Barbancourt.

    FORUM. 1988 Apr; 4(1):14-5.

    PROFAMIL, the Haitian family planning association affiliated with the IPPF, has embarked on employment-based education and distribution by trained nurse-visitors. A typical nurse visits 17 workplaces monthly, dispensing pills and condoms, and referring those interested in an IUD or injectable to the clinic. PROFAMIL was established in 1986. It opened a clinic in Port-au-Prince, and has begun working with physicians, private voluntary organizations, as well as the media. Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, has a per capita income of $350, an average fertility of 5 children per woman, a population growth rate that is still growing and virtual desertification in rural areas. Only 6% of couples use a modern method of contraception. PROFAMIL's work is viewed with mistrust by many leaders and voodoo priests, who suspect that it is a form of foreign domination.
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  6. 6

    Freedom to choose: the life and work of Dr. Helena Wright, pioneer of contraception

    Evans B

    London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.

    This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.
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  7. 7

    Male involvement in family planning: trends and directions.

    Carlos AC

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 1-8.

    This introductory paper presents the rationale of male involvement in family planning. 4 major reasons are given: sociological factors point to the importance of male involvement in all stages of contraceptive acceptance; the 2nd reason relates to the role of men as decision makers in matters affecting marital and family life. Experience and research reveal that men's support of, or opposition to, their partner's practice of family planning has a strong impact onn contraceptive usage in many parts of the world. The 3rd reason relates to the limited contraceptive options available for men, which should not, however, deter from efforts at promoting male involvement in family planning. Finally, the 4th reason relates to the encouragement of a better relationship between men and women, through the acceptance of family planning as a joint and equal responsibility. IPPF encourages family planning associations (FPA) to develop and implement education and communication programs aimed at encouraging male support to women in their choice of contraceptive methods, taking on additional family and child rearing responsibilities and using men's leadership role in promoting family planning practice in their communities. A brief review of IPPF's achievements to data shows that there has been no dramatic change in the direction of IPPF's programs towards male-orientated activites; no surge of male clients demanding services. Nonetheless, the amount of fruitful discussion and debate is notable. Perhaps most significant is the stimulus given to activities in IPPF's African and Arab World Regions--2 of the world's most difficult areas in which to bring about male participation in family planning. The 1st 2 years of the IPPF 3-year plan (1982-4) can probably best be described as a period of stimulation and preparation for an accelerated thrust on the part of the Federation to bring about greater male involvement in family planning. Also mentioned here are examples of initiatives, at the FPA level, aimed at reaching and involving men both as acceptors and promoters of family planning. Finally, a number of issues and factors are raised as stimulating questions to guide future action aimed at achieving the Federation's objectives.
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  8. 8

    FPA programs in the Western Hemisphere Region of IPPF.

    Journal of Family Welfare. 1980 Jun; 26(4):64-72.

    The November 1979 progress report of the Western Hemisphere region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, which comprises North and South America and the Caribbean, is presented. Problems faced by different Associations within the region, such as the attacks made by conservative elements of the Catholic Church on the IPPF affiliate in Paraguay, attacks on the Chilean and Costa Rican programs which attempted to include voluntary sterilization, the replacement of governments favorable to birth control by indifferent or hostile governments in a number of countries, and violence in Central America, are discussed. Improvements were noted however in Nicaragua, and in Peru the government has been slightly less hostile recently. Associations in most of the region continue their day-to-day activities despite their problems. The particular situations and activities in each of the countries are sketched. Activities of the region as a whole are then described, including observations of the International Year of the Child, encouragement of sex education, and development of the IPPF infrastructure. Future directions of the IPPF Western Hemisphere region and the individual affiliates are suggested.
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  9. 9

    Health education manpower for family health and health aspects of human reproduction.


    Extracts from the backgound paper for the Consultation Meeting of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization are presented. The meeting's purpose was to obtain specific recommendations that might be used by WHO, PAHO, and the member countries in developing educational personnel for programs dealing with family health and health aspects of reproduction. After reviewing the problems in Latin America and the Caribbean, the various kinds of constraints which have implications for health problems are examined, and key issues relating to family health are analyzed. Many health experts maintain that the family planning approach is the most effective and least expensive means of reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, yet in most countries it is perceived primarily as a means of containing or reducing population growth. In most family planning programs the number of new acceptors appears to be the criterion for measuring success; little if any emphasis is given to continuation of use, teaching the health reasons for regulating reproduction, or increasing acceptance among women with high health risks. In some programs, eligibility requirements are such that many women of high health risk cannot be served. Thus far, research and studies to promote the development of the educational component of family planning programs or to orient selection of educational methodology have had minimal support. In most countries the full potential of the resources invested to achieve improvements in maternal and child health is not being realized. This is partly because of the fact that there is no explicit national policy giving direction to the development of an integrated approach. Few countries have policies and plans for health manpower development and utilization that are based on a careful analysis of priority health needs.
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  10. 10

    People without choice: report of the 21st Anniversary Conference of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.


    London, IPPF, 1974. 68 p.

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  11. 11

    Family planning, poverty and development.


    Family Planning Perspectives. Jan-Feb 1975; 7(1):2-3.

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  12. 12

    National Population Agency of Costaguay.


    In: International Committee on the Management of Population Programmes (ICOMP). 1975 Annual Conference Report: expanding role of the population manager, Mexico City, July 14-17, 1975. (Mahati, Philippines, 1976). p. 102-108

    A case report of the development of family planning services in Costaguay, Latin America, is presented as a basis for class discussion under the auspices of the case development program of the International Committee for the Management of Population Programmes. The official population agency of Costaguay is NPAC which was legalized by an executive decree in February 1968 as an interinstitutional body with representatives of several cabinet ministries and an ex-officio representative from the Costaguayan Family Welfare Association. In 1972 a technical mission from the U.N. visited Costaguay to make recommendations in the field of population. The 4 operating components of the U.N. Assistance Project were: 1) clinic services, 2) information and education, 3) training, and 4) research and evaluation. In May 1974 there were about 80 family planning clinics in Costaguay, serving 30,000 users. There were 5 categories of facilities: 1) hospitals, 2) provincial health centers with afternoon shifts, 3) provincial health centers with integrated services, 4) municipal subcenters, and 5) rural clinics. A new information system was being used by May 1974 which utilized a ''daily report'' for use with a mechanical tabulator or computer.
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  13. 13

    Africa and its population growth.

    Bouvier LF

    Population Bulletin. 1975; 30(1):1-28.

    The economic growth; Africa - the continent; population growth; some views from Bucharest; family planning; and outlook for Africa are discussed in this bulletin. A table depicts the population of Africa, Europe, and Asia in 1650, 1850, and 1900. A 2nd table shows Africa's population in 1975 by country. Family planning in separate countries is discussed by the regions of Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, and Southern Africa. Under Northern Africa, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia are included. Dahomey, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, and other Western Africa Francophone nations are discussed under the heading of Western Africa. The Eastern Africa discussion includes: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, and Tanzania; and Middle Africa includes Gabon and Zaire. Botswana and the Republic of South Africa are discussed under the heading of Southern Africa.
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  14. 14

    Why family planning is failing.

    Qadeer MA

    Social Policy. 1975 Nov/Dec; 6(3):19-23.

    Failure of family planning efforts in the Third World is inherent in the assumptions of the program. From the beginning family planning has been viewed as a specialized function which can be pursued in isolation from its socioeconomic context. Even though it touches on sex, reproduction, and family life, the most emotion-laden segments of human behavior, the approaches to family planning have been rationalistic. This has been compounded by the fact that most motivators have been college-trained young people and not traditional village leaders. Both the message and the medium resemble a college seminar, which helps preserve the empire of the professionals. Before people can be induced to come to family planning clinics, they have to feel the health services are reliable. In many instances, however, a bride has to be paid to see the doctor and medicines go into the black market. Seldom do family planners point out the necessity of reforming incompetent, arrogant, and corrupt public services. At the Bucharest population conference the Third World nations pointed out that the standards of living of the masses must be improved before family planning will come about. However, between a society and project there is an intermediate institution, the bureaucracies and organizations, which must be reformed . Unless these services are fair, efficient, and accountable, people will not trust their advice. It is popular to blame the failure of family planning on the resistance of the masses, yet the poor and illiterate have adopted tea, Western dress, radios and loudspeakers, vaccinations, and fertilizers -- all over initial objections. If something is of value to them, people will adopt it. Family planning has also become the symbol of outside intervention to the emerging middle class and it is popular to criticize these efforts because they are backed by international organizations. Unfortunately these international efforts merely reinforce the self-seeking careerists who use the conferences and symposiums for international travel, honor, and opportunities to reinforce their position in the power structure. To be effective, family planning programs must be developed by people familiar with local traditions in a setting which will make best use of the circumstances. By appropriating the leadership Western organizations are choking off such local initiative.
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  15. 15

    A paradigmatic analysis of Mexican population policy.

    McCoy TL

    In: McCoy, T.L., ed. The dynamics of population policy in Latin America. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Ballinger Publishing Co., 1974. p. 377-408

    In the early 1970s the Mexican government abandoned traditional pronatalist policies and adopted a comprehensive national family planning program. The various interest groups who supported family planning applauded the change in policy but were not responsible for it. The dicision to change population policies was taken at the highest level of government. The revolutionary regime, headed by President Echeverria, saw unlimited population growth as a threat to its economic development program. The new population policy is aimed at maintaining rapid economic growth in the country and extending the benefits of the growth program to calm recent unrest. It is hypothesized that the Brazilian and Peruvian governments will also revise their population policies when they perceive it to be in their best interests. Change in attitudes toward family planning and family planning policies have come slowly in the rest of Latin America. In these authoritarian regimes, the change is made by the government, and other organized interests support the new policy.
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  16. 16

    The politics of family planning in the Dominican Republic: public policy and the political process.

    Wiarda HJ

    In: McCoy, T.L., ed. The dynamics of population policy in Latin America. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Ballinger Publishing Co., 1974. p. 293-322

    United States initiative, encouragement, support, money, planning, organization, and ideas have been responsible for the family planning program in the Dominican Republic. From 1962 to 1965 the program was entirely private. In the 1965-1967 stage, demand increased, support increased, and pressure on the government to establish an official family planning policy increased. From 1967 to 1971 the government established an official program, funded it, and expanded its activities. The program has grown steadily, but it is still weak and largely ineffective. Results on national population figures have been minor. Opposition was most severe at first, due to racial and nationalistic fears of neighboring Haiti. Church and Leftist opposition remains but is less vocal. The family planning program is part of the social, cultural, developmental, and economic changes occurring in the Dominican Republic today. Reduced population growth and limited family size are more accepted now. It is doubtful whether the population program is strong enough to survive a change in regime.
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  17. 17

    The context of population policy formation in Peru.

    Clinton RL

    In: McCoy, T.L., ed. The dynamics of population policy in Latin America. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Ballinger Publishing Company, 1974. p. 353-375

    Peru has the problems created by a 3.1% annual growth rate and heavy rural-to-urban migration, but the Peruvian government has not formulated a population policy. There is a feeling of complacency because of the vast unused tracts of land. In Peru there has been a long-term commitment to social and economic development. With the military take-over in 1968, the few government-sponsored family planning clinics were discontinued. The ruling military aims at a mixed capitalistic-socialistic state while maintaining national sovereignth. Since 1968, there have been a few unofficial, foreign-supported family planning programs. What is needed is leadership, coming neither from the United States nor from the local elite, to convince the Peruvian government to embrace family planning. Population growth must be perceived as a threat to adequate development.
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  18. 18

    Status report on population problems and programs of Pakistan.

    Barnett PG

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1982 Dec. 8 p.

    Pakistan, with a total population estimated at 93 million in mid 1982, a 2.8% annual natural increase, and average completed family size of 6.3, has had little success with efforts to control population growth. The ambitious family planning program launched in 1965 succeeded in making family planning widely known in Pakistan but failed to attract acceptors, the "continuous motivation system" set up in 1969 lacked qualified personnel and was interrupted by the war with Bangladesh, and the contraceptive inundation scheme begun in 1973 failed to achieve results because contraception did not reach consumer outlets. The family planning program was not reactivated until 1980, a year in which only 6.4% of married women were practicing contraception. Pakistan's leaders have publicly supported family planning for 2 decades, and family planning policies and programs have been included in 5-year plans beginning in 1955-1960. The Muslam Family Laws Ordinance, enacted in 1961, forbids marriage for girls under 16 and provides for punishment of those concerned in child marriages. There are not legal restricitons on import or sale of contraceptives, pills do not require prescriptions, and IUDs may be inserted by paramedics. The Islamic Ideology Council, which has a constitutional mandate to bring all laws into conformity with Islam, has indicated that sterilization is not sanctioned but has not taken a position on family planning per se. The present government is decentralizing the family planning program, streamlining the bureaucracy, and putting the emphasis at the grassroots level. At the present there are about 1000 family welfare centers, each serving 25,000-30,000 persons, mainly women and children. Expenditures for family planning have steadily increased, and the current 5-year plan calls for total expenditures of $62 million for 1980-84, half to be supplied by major international donors. A 3-year population education project is planned. The government's Population Division estimated that 44% of those practicing family planning used condoms or foam, 34% used pills, 16% used IUDs, and almost 6% were sterilized. Several private organizations are active in family planning. Obstacles to family planning in Pakistan include the traditional and fragmented nature of the social structure, poverty, fundamentalist Islamic doctrines and traditional pronatalist orientations, poor program leadership, unfavorable age structures, and governmental turmoil.
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  19. 19

    [Manual of questions and answers on family planning] Manual de preguntas y respuestas sobre planificacion familiar.

    Klenicki AR; Olaya CI

    New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1983. 89 p. (Population Information for Policy Makers (PIPOM))

    This manual of questions and answers on family planning, based on an issues manual and a public affairs manual of the International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region, is intended for consultation by family planning personnel who interact with policymakers, government leaders, legislators, and the mass media. The manual contains 2 major sections, 1 of which describes the process of communications with leaders and mass media while the other contains information on contraception, sterilization, other medical services, medical examinations, services for adolescents, sex education, publications, financing, international family planning, and population. Each of the 11 sections has 5 parts: an index, a perspective which places the topic in a general context, the position of the Associations on the particular topic, questions and answers regarding frequent objections raised about the topic, and suggested additional readings. The manual is contained in a 3-ring notebook intended to facilitate incorporation of pertinent local information. A brief introductory statement explains the purpose of the manual in making available information that will allow family planning personnel to respond to attacks on the program by opponents of birth control, and provides general suggestions for dealing with such attacks.
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  20. 20

    The Vatican and population growth control. Why an American confrontation?

    Mumford SD

    Humanist. 1983 Sep-Oct; 43(5):18-24, 34.

    The writer's purpose is to document why an American confrontation with the Vatican over its anti-family planning efforts is a prerequisite to removal of this obstruction. The role of the Roman Catholic Church is seen as an important factor in thwarting organized family planning efforts; it is a variable which must enter population scientists' search for the determinants of fertility. Reasons for which communication with the leadership of the Church will not occur are discussed. Among those is the introduction, under President Reagan, of an administration which is the most Catholic in American history. In addition, international agencies' "population moneys" are being spent for "general development" and not on family planning. It is argued that Catholics have been primarily responsible for propagating the strategy "development will take care of population growth". The decline of the world population growth control effort in the past couple of years has coincided with the activities of the Pope and his position that immoral contraception must be fought. It is claimed that until this stronghold on predominantly Catholic countries is reduced, and the Vatican's strong influence on international donor agencies is eliminated, very little improvement in world efforts to control population growth can be expected. The Vatican's control over governments in predominantly Catholic countries is illustrated by excerpts from a study by a Canadian sociologist who points out that the world is faced with Vatican imperialism to some extent. This article concludes that nothing significant is likely to happen in population control efforts until the United States confronts the Vatican on this issue as the weak governments of most nations would not survive such as effort.
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