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  1. 1

    Sexuality and family planning: report of a consultation and research findings.

    Langfeldt T; Porter M

    Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986. 62 p.

    A Consultation on Sexuality was convened by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Copenhagen in November 1983 to examine the sexual dimensions of health problems. Sexuality influences thoughts, feelings, actions, and interactions and thus physical and mental health. Since health is a fundamental human right, so must sexual health also be a basic human right. 3 basic elements of sexual health were identified: 1) a capacity to enjoy and control sexual and reproductive behavior in accordance with social and personal ethics; 2) freedom from fear, shame, guilt, false beliefs, and other psychological factors inhibiting sexual response and impairing sexual relationships; and 3) freedom from organic disorders, diseases, and deficiencies that interfere with sexual and reproductive functions. The purpose of sexual health care should be the enhancement of life and personal relationships, not only counseling or care related to procreation and sexually transmitted diseases. Barriers to sexual health include myths and taboos, sexual stereotypes, and changing social conditions. In addition, sexuality is repressed among groups such as the mentally handicapped, the physically disabled, the elderly, and those in institutions whose sexual needs are not acknowledged. Homosexuals are often stigmatized because their sexual expression is at variance with dominant cultural values. Sex education programs and health workers must broaden their traditional approach to sexual health so they can help people to plan and achieve their own goals. Family planning programs must expand from their traditional goal of avoiding unwanted births and help people balance the need for rational planning on the one hand and the satisfaction of irrational sexual desires on the other hand. Promoting sexual health is an integral part of the promotion of health for all.
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  2. 2

    The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong's Services for the mentally handicapped.

    Lam P

    [Unpublished] 1981. 9 p.

    Recognizing a need to provide help to mentally handicapped women with fertility related problems, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong established a clinic for the mentally handicapped in May 1979. The basic rationale for the service was the United Nations 1971 proclamation of a Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons and its call for the protection of these rights. Articles of particular interest in the declaration are listed. After studying the situation, the Association began by introducing a series of educational activities and establishing the special clinic. Several pilot programs were conducted with the cooperation of the Pine Hill Village schools following the workshop organized for professionals working with mentally handicapped youths. Experience from those projects indicated that special skills and materials would be required in order to teach sex education to the mild to moderate grade mentally handicapped youths. 9 welfare agencies cooperated in a project to develop sex education. A monthly sex education course for parents of mentally handicapped children was initiated in September 1980 to help them understand aspects of the child's sexual behavior and how to cope with it. Since May 1979 the Association has been operating a pilot special clinic with a team made up of a gynecologist, psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, counselor, and nurse. Services include self-management skills in menstrual hygiene and preliminary assessment for determining appropriate birth control methods. The clinic has handled 92 cases thus far, and 4 case histories are presented to illustrate the nature and scope of the services.
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