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  1. 1

    The Maternal Health Thematic Fund: Annual report 2010.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [2011]. [118] p.

    UNFPA's Maternal Health Thematic Fund, initiated in early 2008, represents a focused effort to accelerate progress towards saving women's lives and achieving universal access to reproductive health, as outlined in Millennium Development Goal 5. This report outlines the activities, results and achievements from 2010 and looks ahead at future challenges. It also features results from the Campaign to End Fistula and the ICM-UNFPA midwifery project and illustrates that significant progress can be made by adopting proven strategies -- including family planning, skilled care during childbirth, and expanded access and utilization of emergency obstetric and newborn care -- combined with partnerships for better coordination under national leadership.
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  2. 2

    Safe Motherhood Initiative: meeting of interested parties, World Health Organization, Executive Board Room, Geneva, Thursday, 7 July 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health

    [Unpublished] 1988. 25 p. (FHE/SMI/MIP/88.2)

    Given the multiple causes of maternal mortality, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Program of Maternal and Child Health addresses 4 factors: 1) social equality for female children and women; 2) universally accessible family planning to avert high-risk or unwanted pregnancies; 3) adequate prenatal care, including nutrition, with early recognition and referral of women with high-risk pregnancies; and 4) access to required obstetric care for women with emergencies that occur during pregnancy, delivery, or in the immediate postpartum period. WHO's Safe Motherhood activities are aimed at reducing maternal mortality by at least 50% by the year 2000. Toward this end, WHO is working to assist countries to determine the magnitude of their maternal mortality problem, identify the immediate underlying causes of maternal deaths, reach decisions about action priorities, evaluate innovations in maternal health care, conduct staff training, and support resource mobilization by national authorities so that programs can be implemented adequately. Research, information analysis and dissemination, technical support, and training comprise the foci of WHO's interventions in maternal health at present. If the Safe Motherhood Initiative is to be achieved, greater coordination and technical support at the global level and collaboration among agencies and national authorities at the country level will be required. The lack of sensitivity and responsiveness on the part of health staff to the perceived needs and perspective of women still comprises an obstacle to women's use of available maternal health services and must be addressed through training. To maintain the pace of its Safe Motherhood activities, WHO required US $4.5 million in extrabudgetary support.
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  3. 3

    Global estimates for health situation assessment and projections, 1990.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Situation and Trend Assessment

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1990. v, 51 p. (WHO/HST/90.2)

    Some estimation of the magnitude of global health problems and trends is essential for the formulation of international health policies and strategies. Toward this end, in 1987, the World Health Organization published a document based on statistics available at the time on global health-related estimates. This document updates and refines the earlier report on the basis of more reliable data. State-of-the-art data are presented for 7 major categories: 1) demographic factors; 2) socioeconomic development; 3) general health problems (e.g., low birthweight, infant mortality, disability); 4) specific health problems (infectious and parasitic diseases, cancer, endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional disorders, anemia, mental and neurological disorders, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, occupational injuries and diseases, and oral health; 5) health-related issues (e.g., alcoholism, smoking, breastfeeding, and sanitation); 6) health services aspects (e.g., family planning, immunization); and 7) health resources (human resources, health expenditures, and pharmaceuticals). In most cases, statistics are presented for the 1985-90 period. It is emphasized in the introduction that, while these statistics provide orders of magnitude sufficient to support health policy planning, they lack the precision required for the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of disease-specific intervention strategies.
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  4. 4

    WHO in the 1970s and 1980s -- a user's view.

    Karim R

    World Health Forum. 1998; 19(4):365-8.

    Raj Karim reflects on her 24 years of involvement with the WHO activities and their effect on her own life and on the maternal and child health services in Malaysia. Raj Karim is responsible for maternal and child health and family planning services in Malaysia. In 1974, she was sent to Warsaw, Poland as a participant in a WHO course on maternal and child health and family planning. From then on, she became very active with WHO activities especially in Malaysia. She mentioned that the 1970s and 1980s were exciting years for building up maternal and child health and family planning services in Malaysia and in other countries. There was a great deal of interaction with teams from WHO and other international agencies, and sharing of information which could save many lives. She emphasized that this was the era of experimentation with integration, introducing new combined programs such as family planning, nutrition, immunization and health education. Specifically in Malaysia, the country was selected for a collaborative project on improving the care of mothers and children by using the risk approach. With the result of this project, the WHO launched the Safe Motherhood Initiative in 1987. And in 1993, Malaysia introduced a National Safe Motherhood Award and launched a Safe Motherhood Research Fund. Overall, Malaysia's improvement of maternal health services was greatly enhanced by their collaboration with the WHO and has given Raj Karim a sense of fulfillment.
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  5. 5

    Managing maternal and child health programmes: a practical guide.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1997. [8], 65 p. (Western Pacific Education in Action, Series No. 10)

    The health of mothers and children in developing countries continues to lag far behind that in the developed world. As a result of cultural factors and a lack of access to essential services, women are often denied freedom of reproductive choice. This manual was prepared by the World Health Organization to assist managers of health services, especially at the district level, to ensure the availability of high-quality maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) care in developing countries. MCH/FP program management has gained recognition as an essential component of adequate reproductive health care. Practical guidelines are presented on how to plan, implement, and evaluate MCH/FP programs as well as how to establish objectives, strategies, training activities, and evaluation procedures.
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  6. 6

    [Reproductive health: agreements and obligations since Cairo] Salud reproductiva: acuerdos y obligaciones despues de El Cairo.

    Donayre J

    In: IV Reunion Nacional sobre Poblacion, [sponsored by] United States. Agency for International Development [USAID], Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Lima, Peru, PROPACEB, 1995 Sep. 83-92.

    The outcome of the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994 had important implications for the development of future programs. Since the end of the 1950s family planning programs have been characterized by an emphasis on contraception, measuring effectiveness by means of continuation rates and new acceptors. In the 1970s it became clear that family planning also had to be associated with maternal-infant health. The 1984 conference in Mexico revealed the importance of the condition of women as relating to problems of fertility, morbidity, mortality, and family formation. The central topic of the Cairo conference was that the right to health includes reproductive health. The Program of Action had a section on reproductive rights and reproductive health from a social perspective. This also means the right to information, services, and family planning methods. The conference accepted five actions relating to family planning, maternal health, abortion (in Peru there were 271,150 abortions out of 905,400 pregnancies in 1989), infections of the reproductive tract including AIDS, and infertility caused by tuberculosis and STDs. Actions outside the health sector relate to problems of the population and health with socioeconomic development and improvement of the status of women and equality with men. Other objectives deal with the elimination of all discrimination against girls, the participation of women in the programs, access to education, and the elimination of poverty.
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  7. 7

    The Lesotho Safe Motherhood Initiative: an experience of collaboration.

    Rojas P; Mwalali P; Camaror I

    In: The health of women and safe motherhood. Presentations at the First Regional Congress of the Medical Women's International Association, Near East and Africa Region, 29 November - 3 December 1993, Safari Park Hotel in Nairobi, Kenya, [compiled by] Medical Women's International Association, Kenya Medical Women's Association, Family Care International. Nairobi, Kenya, Kenya Medical Women's Association, 1993. 103.

    Women's health is becoming a matter of increasing concern in African countries, since women are essential to improving the quality of life of families and society as a whole. The Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI), a global program supported by various international and UN agencies, provides a framework for addressing medical, educational, legal, socioanthropological and developmental factors related to women's health and welfare at all stages of life, in a phased, progressive approach. This paper describes a joint approach adopted by the Ministry of Health of Lesotho and three UN agencies--UNFPA, UNICEF, and WHO--based on the Safe Motherhood framework, which aims to gradually cover the wide range of factors determining women's health. A year of preparatory technical and administrative work led to a comprehensive agenda for action in the midterm, including necessary arrangements for coordinating input from several partners. This phase culminated in a national evaluation of the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) program using rapid evaluation methodologies (REM), which allowed for the identification of priorities within the MCH/FP program and planning of remedial measures. A joint UN/Ministry of Health project was then formulated and presented at the official launching of the Lesotho SMI. Activities undertaken to date include: ensuring political commitment; conducting studies on maternal mortality and legal aspects of women's situation in society; producing IEC materials; conducting operational research; setting up an Advisory Commission and a Technical Committee; and the analysis of the valuable data obtained from the REM, which will be used to strengthen managerial aspects of the MCH/FP program. (full text)
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  8. 8

    Dr Fred Sai speaks out.

    Sai F

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1994. 112 p.

    This booklet contains a selection of nine speeches and articles written by Dr. Fred Sai since he assumed the presidency of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1989. The first article is an open letter to Pope John Paul II written on World Population Day, July 11, 1991, in which Sai points out that the values of IPPF mirror those of the Catholic Church, suggests that the Church misunderstands the family planning (FP) movement, and calls for the opening of a dialogue with the Church. Article 2 is adapted from Sai's acceptance speech on the occasion of receiving the UN Population Award in 1993. Sai dedicated his prize to the mothers in Africa who persist in trusting in the future despite terrible obstacles. In the third article, Sai describes political, religious, cultural, medical, technical, financial, and quality of service obstacles which hinder FP programs. Article 4 discusses the mother-child dyad as it applies to combatting maternal and neonatal health problems. The fifth article presents an African perspective on what works and what does not work in FP programs. Article 6 sets out the scenario for achieving economic and social development through successful population programs. The seventh article considers whether the Mexico City consensus has been implemented. Article 8 takes a look at politics and ethics in FP, and the last article provides a view from the South on the topic of working with parliamentarians.
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  9. 9

    Celebrating its 25th anniversary, UNFPA presents Today's Choices for Tomorrow's World.

    Philippine Legislators' Committee on Population and Development Foundation

    PEOPLE COUNT. 1994 Nov; 4(10):1-4.

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) can be optimistic about achieving the goals adopted for it at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development because its accomplishments of the past 25 years overcame strong obstacles. In 1969, there was little appreciation of the importance of population factors, population was a controversial element in the development debate, it was difficult to achieve funding for population programs, less than 10% of couples (versus 55% today) used family planning (FP), and population growth was more than 2% per year (it is 1.5% today). The proposed UNFPA program for the Philippines for 1994-98 aims to help the Philippine government achieve population growth and distribution which is consistent with sustainable development by 1) broadening awareness of and support for population programs, 2) improving FP services, 3) improving service delivery through nongovernmental organizations, 4) integrating population perspectives into development plans, 5) improving the quality of population data, 6) integrating gender and environmental concerns into population policies and programs, and 7) coordinating program implementation with other donors. Specific goals of the proposed program are to improve the health of women and children through maternal/child health and FP services, to increase contraceptive prevalence by 10%, to extend FP services to remote areas and provide a wide array of methods, to support IEC (information, education, and communication) activities, to strengthen data collection and analysis capabilities at a cost of $500,000, to provide $2.4 million to efforts to promote greater consideration of population factors in policy making and development planning, to contribute $700,000 to research on population dynamics, and to provide $3.7 million to improve the status of women. The program will be managed by the government and monitored in accordance with standard UNFPA guidelines with a mid-term review scheduled for 1996.
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  10. 10

    The World Bank and family planning.

    Thurshen M

    WIPHN NEWS. 1994 Winter; 17:1.

    The World Bank has assumed first place in world health assistance and states that one reason for lending in health is that its presence in the health sector enables it to pressure governments to control population growth. The Bank believes that rapid population growth slows development, and to achieve its goal of lower birth rates in low-income countries, it recommends that governments provide an essential "clinical" package, which consists of perinatal and delivery care, family planning services, management of the sick child, treatment of tuberculosis, and case management of sexually transmitted diseases. "Clinical" in this context means services provided in a health clinic by nurses and midwives, not physicians. Sick children are the main beneficiaries of the package because it is assumed that families will limit the number of births only after child mortality falls. The treatment of tuberculosis is included to save the lives of children. The Bank has predicted that the AIDS epidemic will not result in negative population growth in Africa and has emphasized family planning services in the essential package. The World Bank seems to have made family planning the new, reductionist version of primary health care.
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  11. 11

    Health policies and programmes: accomplishments and future directions of the Safe Motherhood Initiative.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 236-9. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)

    99% of the 500,000 annual maternal deaths worldwide occur in developing countries; women in developing countries are 100 times more likely to die from pregnancy than women in more developed countries. Inadequate health services as well as the social, cultural, and economic environment in which these women live are contributing factors to their excess mortality. A global effort to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity by 50% by the year 2000, the Safe Motherhood Initiative was initiated in 1987 in response to this ongoing trend. It will attempt to realize its objective by improving the socioeconomic and political status of women, providing family planning services, ensuring the availability and accessibility of high-quality, community-based prenatal and delivery care for all women, and ensuring the provision of skilled obstetric care for high-risk and emergency cases. This paper discusses the Initiative's accomplishments in the areas of advocacy, research, human resources development, and program development and considers future directions.
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  12. 12

    Family Health International. Report 1988 - 1990.

    Family Health International [FHI]

    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 1990. 45 p.

    This report describes the Family Health International's (FHI) efforts in the areas of access to contraceptive methods, reproductive health services, and AIDS prevention during 1988-90. Founded in 1971, FHI has developed into a major multidisciplinary organization whose program divisions include AIDSTECH (engaged in AIDS prevention efforts), Clinical Trials, Field Development and Training, Materials Technology, Program Evaluation, and Reproductive Epidemiology, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. FHI has supported research into long-acting steroid systems such as NORPLANT, as well as research into sterilization and barrier methods. FHI has also established a programs to facilitate the introduction of new contraceptive methods and to improve the use of contraceptives. The organization has also devoted considerable efforts into AIDS prevention activities in 45 developing countries. Examples of FHI AIDS prevention efforts include the establishment of intervention programs among commercial prostitutes and blood screening programs. Other FHI activities include promoting the practice of breastfeeding, instructing policymakers as to the overall health effects of contraception, conducting pioneering research on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, developing sustainable family planning, and developing new communication strategies. Finally, responding to the rising demand for family planning services and the increasing scarcity of resources, FHI has embarked on an initiative to examine the economics of family planning.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    IAP-IPA-WHO-UNICEF Workshop on Strategies and Approaches for Women's Health, Child Health and Family Planning for the Decade of Nineties, 22nd-23rd January 1991, Hyderabad.

    Bhargava SK; Hallman N; Shah PM

    INDIAN PEDIATRICS. 1991 Dec; 28(12):1481-2.

    In 1991, health professionals attended a workshop to develop strategies and approaches for women's health, child health, and family planning for the 1990s in Hyderabad, India. The Ministry of Health (MOH) of India should improve and strengthen existing health facilities, manpower, materials, and supplies. It should not continue vertical programs dedicated to 1 disease or a few problems. Instead it should integrate programs. The government must stop allocating more funds to family planning services than to MCH services. It should equally appropriate funds to family planning, family welfare, and MCH. The MOH should implement task force recommendations on minimum prenatal care (1982) and maternal mortality (1987) to strengthen prenatal care, delivery services, and newborn care. Health workers must consider newborns as individuals and allot them their own bed in the hospital. All district and city hospitals should have an intermediate or Level II care nursery to improve neonatal survival. In addition, the country has the means to improve child health services. The most effective means to improve health services and community utilization is training all health workers, revision of basic curricula, and strengthen existing facilities. Family planning professionals should use couple protection time rather than couple protection rate. The should also target certain contraceptives to specific age groups. Mass media can disseminate information to bring about behavioral and social change such as increasing marriage age. Secondary school teachers should teach sex education. Health professionals must look at the total female instead of child, adolescent, pregnant woman, and reproductive health. Integrated Child Development Services should support MCH programs. Operations research should be used to evaluate the many parts of MCH programs. The government needs to promote community participation in MCH services.
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  14. 14

    First Bolivian population programme gaining support.

    POPULATION. 1992 Feb; 18(2):3.

    Bolivia's first population program is gaining support from the government and churches, according to Rainer Rosenbaum, head of UNFPA's Bolivia office. When he arrived to the country in May 1990, population issues were "almost taboo," says Rosenbaum. But since then, population issues have gained interest. Over the past 1 1/2 years, more than 50 major events (such as national conferences and government ceremonies) have included a population theme. The government is currently considering a population policy proposal, and Rosenbaum is optimistic that the country will soon adopt its first population policy. With the aid of UNFPA, the government has already set out to improve reproductive, maternal, and child health. This initiative includes activities such as training staff, distributing contraceptives, and spreading the family planning message. The government has also initiated a 5-year program that includes studies of internal and international migration and employment, efforts to improve the status of women, and educational programs for young people. Not only have the Catholic and Protestant churches not interfered with population activities, they have offered assistance in carrying out the national census scheduled to take place in May. The census will be a difficult enterprise, considering Bolivia's vast and varied geography. UNFPA has allocated some $1.3 million to support the census out of its $10 million assistance to the 5-year program. The rest of the money for the census will come from donor countries such as Sweden and Germany and from the Bolivian government itself. As Rosenbaum explains, the census is a top priority for the government, since nobody knows with any degree of reliability how many people live in the country.
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  15. 15

    Our next forty years.

    Mahler H

    PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):3-6.

    Marking the 40th birthday of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Secretary-General Halfdan Mahler discusses the crisis facing the organization and calls for IPPF's moral reawakening. Examining the present conditions of the world. Mahler notes with frustration that crass materialism has enveloped the globe. During the 1980s, the economies of developing countries suffered badly. In addition, a vacuum of leadership has emerged, posing an obstacle to development. Development, says the secretary-general, means the actualizing of both the individual and society's potential. 3 rationales guide the family planning efforts of IPPF: development, health, and human rights. Evidence indicates that children in smaller families achieve higher social and economic levels than children in larger families, and that families, and that fewer children and birth spacing contribute to the well-being of mothers and children. The human rights rationale, explains mahler, implies the right to education about family planning and access to services. Opposition to family planning ignores the ethical dimensions of these 3 rationales. Unfortunately, says Mahler, some countries now seem to have retracted their commitment to family planning. It is this fact that brings a sense of urgency to the work of every Family Planning Association (FPA) and the IPPF. Unless IPPF and FPAs meet this challenge with determination, they risk the possibility of becoming irrelevant. Mahler explains that IPPF must engage in aggressive marketing of the characteristics that make family planning successful. Additionally, Mahler calls for a new pioneering role for IPPF that will bring about its moral reawakening. Mahler concludes by suggesting a vision of the future in which family planning has succeeded.
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  16. 16

    A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    Manuilova IA

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):4-5.

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
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  17. 17

    The state of world population 1991.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. [4], 48 p.

    Developing countries increased their commitment to implement population policies in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the support and guidance of UNFPA. These policies focused on improving, expanding, and integrating voluntary family planning services into social development. 1985-1990 data revealed that fertility began to fall in all major regions of the world. For example, fertility fell most in East Asia from 6.1-2.7 (1960-1965 to 1985-1990). This could not have occurred without strong, well managed family planning programs. Yet population continued to grow. This rapid growth hampered health and education, worsened environmental pollution and urban growth, and promoted political and economic instability. Therefore it is critical for developing countries to reduce fertility from 3.8-3.3 and increase in family planning use from 51-59% by 2000. These targets cannot be achieved, however, without government commitments to improving the status of women and maternal and child health and providing basic needs. They must also include promoting child survival and education. Further people must be able to make personal choices in their lives, especially in contraceptive use. Women are encouraged to participate in development and primary health care in Kerala State, India and Sri Lanka. The governments also provide effective family planning services. These approaches contributed significantly to improvements in fertility, literacy, and infant mortality. To achieve the targets, UNFPA estimated a doubling of funding to $9 billion/year by 2000. Lower costs can be achieved by involving the commercial sector and nongovernmental organizations, building in cost recovery in the distribution system of contraceptives, operating family planning services efficiently, and mixing contraceptive methods.
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  18. 18

    [The health of mothers and children in the context of HIV/AIDS] La sante des meres et des enfants dans le contexte de l'infection a VIH/SIDA.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. 6, 6 p. (GPA/INF/89.19)

    In the absence of carefully coordinated health and social interventions, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) threatens to reverse whatever gains have been made in women's and children's health status in developing countries and in some minority groups in industrialized countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, by 1990, close to 2 million mothers will be infected with HIV, 80% of whom will be living in sub-Saharan Africa where the health and social services infrastructure is least capable of addressing this evolving crisis. In areas of sub- Saharan Africa where the child mortality rate is currently 100/1000 live births, increases of over 50% in this rate can be anticipated as HIV seroprevalence rates among pregnant women reach 30%. This trend of increased mortality among young mothers will have serious implications for the health and psychosocial status of their dependent children, whether infected or not. The range of problems associated with HIV infections demands constant medical, custodial, and psychosocial care. In countries where existing health and social services already have limited resources, these new demands will be impossible to meet without international collaboration. New approached to health and social services already have limited resources, these new demands will be impossible to meet without international collaboration. New approaches to health and social services will be increasingly required, especially programs related to maternal-child health care and family planning. However, unless family planning programs are able to overcome obstacles to better utilization of services, such as accessibility, cultural values associated with childbearing and women's status, and problems in the provider-client relationship, the role of these programs in HIV prevention and control will continue to be limited.
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  19. 19

    Annual report 1988-1989.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1989. 33 p.

    In 1952 in Bombay, India, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was founded at a conference with delegates from 8 nations. By the end of 1988, 104 members and 2 affiliations made up IPPF and it was providing family planning assistance to >130 countries. Data has confirmed that child spacing, be it through modern contraceptive practices or traditional means, improves the health of both mother and child. These data support what IPPF and the family planning movement have been advocating for decades. To further promote better health through family planning, IPPF has renewed its commitment to work together with its donors, among its members, and other agencies. For example, in 1988, the Kenyan Family Planning Association (KFPA) helped support a soil protection project of a local women's group. The KFPA offered the women family planning services and operated an immunization program. In September 1988, staff and volunteers determined what programs were needed to reach IPPF's goal: 450 million couples worldwide will be using modern contraception by 2000. They also outlined 3 basic principles for IPPF's work: the individual and couple's right to control their own fertility; the opportunity to plan a family contributes greatly to mental and physical health; and the need to maintain a balance between natural resources and population. Also this group identified Africa as the region in most need of IPPF family planning assistance. In Africa, youth projects highlighting adolescent pregnancy and AIDS education have been targeted. During 1988-1989, IPPF continued active support for the remaining regions. As of 1988-1989, USAID had not renewed the financial support it withdrew in 1985. In April 1989, Dr. Halfdan Mahler, who was the Director-General of WHO for 15 years, replaced Mr. Bradman Weerakon as IPPF's Secretary-General.
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  20. 20

    IPPF in action 1980.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1980. 43 p.

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  21. 21

    Family planning and the quality of life.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    [Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p. (E/CONF.76/NGO/3)

    Now 32 years old, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is currently working through Family Planning Associations in 119 countries on all 5 continents. Its primary programs and concerns are voluntary informed choice aboutt parenthood; the relationship of family planning programs to national policy; availability of information concerning family planning in terms of options; maternal and infant health; the status of women; male responsibility; and the quality of human life. It emphasizes the need for other non-governmental organizations (MGOs to promote and implement the World Population Plan of Action.
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  22. 22

    Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to Colombia's Maternal, Child Health and Population Dynamic's Programme, 1974-1978.

    Reynolds J; Belmar R; Rodriquez-Trias H; Segovia J; Frieiro L

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, July 1981. 181 p.

    This report for UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) on Colombia's Maternal and Child Health and Population Dynamics (MCH/PD) program was prepared by an independent team of consultants which spent 3 weeks in Colombia in February 1980 reviewing documents, interviewing key personnel and observing program services. The report consists of 8 chapters. The 1st describes the terms of references of the evaluation mission. The 2nd chapter provides background information on Colombia and identifies some of the principal environmental factors that affect the program. Chapter 3 describes the organizational context within which the program operates. The chapter also includes a discussion of the UNFPA funding and monitoring mechanism and how that affects program planning and operations. Chapter 4 is a description of the program planning process; goals, strategies and objectives, and of the UNFPA and government inputs to the program between 1974-1978, the period under review. A large part of the report is devoted to describing and assessing each program activity. Chapter 5 consists of descriptions of management information; maternal care; infant, child and adolescent care; family planning; supervision; training; community education; and research and evalutation studies. Chapter 6 is an analysis of the program's impact on: maternal morbidity and mortality; infant morbidity and mortality; and fertility. Chapter 7 summarizes the Mission's conclusions and lists its recommendations. The final chapter deals with the Mission's position in relation to the 1980-1983 proposal. Appendices provide statistical data on medical activities, contraceptive distribution and use, content of training courses, target population, total expenditures, and norms for care, as well as organizational charts, individuals interviewed, and UNFPA assistance to other agencies in Colombia. (author's modified)
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  23. 23

    Population programme after Bucharest: some implications for development planning.

    Snodgrass DR

    In: International Committee on the Management of Population Programmes (ICOMP). 1975 Annual Conference Report: expanding role of the population manager, Mexico City, July 14-17, 1975. (Mahati, Philippines, 1976). p. 33-43

    The World Population Plan of Action listed 3 general principles: national self-determination of population objectives: the need to relate population policy to development; and the individual right to determine family size in an informed manner along with the right of each child to adequate food, care, and education. Population planning in countries that want to reduce birthrates is concerned with alternative means of reducing fertility consistent with basic human rights and national goals. This requires adequate attention to the planning process, collection of adequate statistics, persuasion, and recognition of the fact that some socioeconomic changes may actually increase the number of children. Increased income for the husband may, and increased employment for children definitely will, increase the economic and personal value of children. However, increased employment for women seems to reduce birthrates. Improved nutrition may eliminate the sterility effects of poor health and increase live births. To reduce fertility, development must distribute income evenly in the population. Female literacy must be encouraged. Infant and child mortality must be cut. The biggest need in developing countries is for an integrated approach with clear-cut targets. To achieve this objective some organization must take responsibility. There appear to be 3 major organizational alternatives: assigning the function to a ministry, adding it to a national planning agency, or establishing a separate planning board or agency. Whichever system is chose, the work to be done consists of improving demographic statistics, conducting applied research, making projections, and setting policy alternatives. A good deal of training and some technical assistance may be required. The leadership of a program is vital to its success.
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  24. 24

    WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. First Meeting of the Programme Advisory Committee, Geneva, 14-18 June 1982.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1982. 30 p.

    In opening the 1st meeting of the Program Advisory Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Program in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning the Director General focused the Committee's attention on the importance of their discussions in providing guidance to the program, in obtaining the massive identification with its goals as part of the strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA), and in assisting WHO in mobilizing the maximum creative energies to the problem of maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP). This report presents a global overview of the health needs and problems of mothers and children, offering national and regional perspectives and reviews WHO programs. Among issues common to nearly all the developing countries and to significant segments of developed countries, were those that related to: wide discrepancy in perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality between and within countries; the persistently high morbidity and mortality related to diarrheal diseases; malnutrition; the nutritional consequences of infection, particularly with inadequate rehabilitation of infections that give rise to diarrhea, respiratory infections, and measles; the health consequence of the social status of women; the need for locally appropriate pregnancy, birth, infant, and young child care practices; training needs for MCH/FP in primary health care (PHC); and the functional fragmentation and vertical nature of services accompanying the promotion of many specialized components of MCH/FP. The emerging needs in many regions reflect both positive and negative aspects of social and health development. Improvements in environment, nutrition, and control of immunizable infectious diseases have lowered infant and child mortality to the point that problems during the perinatal period are the main child health problems in some countries or areas. Among the most notable of new directions was the recognition that promotion and support to self and family care in MCH/FP represented an important step forward in PHC. The 6 levels of WHO's involvement in defining the health problems of mothers and children include: the collection and dissemination of information; the promotion of awareness of the problem; the development of appropriate technology; training; research; and direct support to countries. Recommendations made within specific program areas are outlined.
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  25. 25

    Planned parenthood and women's development: lessons from the field.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1982. 67 p.

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