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Statement by the leader of the Ethiopian Delegation to the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6-13 August, 1984.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 6 p.Since Ethiopia's land reform act of 1975 and the nationalization of its major industrial and financial institutions, the government has organized society, has raised the level of literacy from 7% to 63%, and has conducted a 1st population and housing census. Now, in a 10-Year Perspective Plan, population policy is identified as a major issue, reflecting the country's concern over its present high rate of population growth--2.9%/year--and its infant mortality rate of 144/1000 live births, with life expectancy at only 46 years. Health care stratgy, including safe drinking water, is another top government priority, as is improving the status of women. Family planning services are offered, and Ethiopia holds that international assistance should reflect national sovereignty rather than being conditional to any particular family planning policy.
[Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 8 p.The Philippines government has for 14 years pursued a policy of fertility reduction based on non-coercive community-based family planning programs. The country has programs to develop agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and minerals, its rural areas being given top priority. The population growth rate is expected to drop from the 2.8% rate of 1970-75 to 2.2% in 1987, with replacement-level fertility by the year 2000.. Life expectancy and infant mortality figures are also improving. Women have traditionally enjoyed high status in the Philippines, but further access to educational and employment opportunities is being advocated. A cooperative venture among Southeast Asian nations has formulated and implemented 19 projects to meet the challenge of rapid population growth. Gratitude is expressed for the help of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), along with a plea to conference participants to strengthen that organziation as well as the activities of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), of which there are 138 in the Philippines.
People. 1983; 10(2):6-9.The main findings of the World Health Organization (WHO) recent global review of the progress that has been made in the Health for All campaign are presented. The attempt was made to assess progress on the basis of the following 12 global indicators: endorsement of Health for All as a policy at the highest official level; establishing mechanisms for involving people in Health for All strategies; spending at least 5% of the gross national product (GNP) on health; a reasonable percentage of national health expenditures devoted to local health care; primary health resources equitably distributed; the number of developing countries with well-defined strategies for Health for All, accompanied by explicit resource allocations and sustained outside support; primary health care available to the whole population; adequate nutritional status for children; infant mortality rate to be below 50/1000 live births; life expectancy at birth of over 60 years; adult literacy for men and women over 70%; and gross national product per head over $500. 39 of the 70 countries have signed regional charters pledging themselves to strive to achieve Health for All by the Year 2000. Another 9 countries have committed themselves through other policy statements. 31 countries have reported on efforts to involve communities, half of them by adopting policies and half through actual mechanisms, although not necessarily on a national scale. 26 of the 70 countries are spending more than $5 a head each year on health care. Many countries are placing more emphasis on providing resources for local care, but the shift is nowhere near what is required. WHO has been unable to establish the per capita spending on primary health since it permeates so many levels and sectors of the health services. Activities to increase food supply and improve nutrition are being integrated into primary health care in the form of nutritional surveillance, preventing and controlling deficiency disorders, promoting breastfeeding, direct treatment of malnutrition, oral rehydration therapy, food supplements, immunization, and the addition of iodine to salt. Only 7 of the 54 countries reporting infant mortality rates were below 50/1000, and these included 3 developed countries. Rates in the remaining 47 ranged from 56/1000, to 250/1000. Of the 70 countries, 51 had life expectancy rates varying between 40 and 59; in 1979, 13 had rates over 60 and 6 did not report. Only 4 countries reported male and female literacy rates over 70%. Over 60% of the countries reviewed had a per capita GNP of less than $500.
[Child health in Chile and the role of the international collaboration (author's transl)] Salud infantil en Chile y el rol de la colaboracion internacional.
Revista Chilena de Pediatria. 1982 Sep-Oct; 53(5):481-90.Assuring the rights sanctioned by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Children requires the participation of the family, community, and state as well as international collaboration. Health conditions in Chile have improved significantly and continuously over the past few decades, as indicated by life expectancy at birth of 65.7 years, general mortality of 9.2/1000 in 1972 and 6.2/1000 in 1981, infant mortality of 27.2/1000 in 1981. Although the country has experienced broad socioeconomic development, due to inequities of distribution 6% of households are indigent and 17% are in critical poverty. The literacy rate in 1980 was 94%, but further progress is needed in environmental sanitation, waste disposal, and related areas. Enteritis, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, and infections caused 60.4% of deaths in children under 1 in 1970 but only 37.8% in the same group by 1979. Measures to guarantee the social and biological protection of children in Chile, especially among the poor, date back to the turn of the century. Recent programs which have affected child health include the National Health Service, created in 1952, which eventually provided a wide array of health and hygiene services for 2/3 of the population, including family planning services starting in 1965; the National Complementary Feeding Program, which supervised the distribution in 1980 of 25,195 tons of milk and protein foods to pregnant women and small children; the National Board of School Assistance and Scholarships, which provides 300,000 lunches and 750,000 school breakfasts; and programs to promote breastfeeding and rehabilitate the undernourished. Health services are now extended to all children under 8 years in indigent families. Bilateral or multilateral aid to health services in Chile, particularly that offered by the UN specialized agencies and especially the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and UNICEF, have contributed greatly to the improvement of health care. The Rockefeller, Ford, and Kellogg Foundations have contributed primarily in the areas of teaching and basic and operational research. Aid from the US government assisted in the development of health units and in nutritional and family health programs. The International Childhood Center in Paris rendered educational aid in social pediatrics. (summary in ENG)