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  1. 1

    Under-served and over-looked: prioritizing contraceptive equity for the poorest and most marginalized women and girls.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2017 Jul. 40 p.

    This report is a synthesis of evidence revealed from a literature review, including 68 reports from 34 countries. The results are dire: the poorest women and girls, in the poorest communities of the poorest countries are still not benefitting from the global investment in family planning and the joined up actions of the global family planning movement. Women in the poorest countries who want to avoid pregnancy are one-third as likely to be using a modern method as those living in higher-income developing countries.
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  2. 2

    UN family planning chief urges Bush resume funding.

    Evans R

    Reuters AlertNet. 2004 Jan 14; [3] p..

    Thoraya Obaid, first Arab woman to head a major United Nations agency, on Wednesday urged U.S. President George W. Bush to drop his controversial ban on funding for the family planning programmes she runs around the world. Giving people, especially women, in developing countries the chance to decide when they have children can help limit global population growth and be at least as effective as free trade in tackling poverty, she told Reuters in an interview. "We hope and plead for the United States to come back as a major donor," said Obaid, a 58-year-old U.S.-educated campaigner for women's rights from Saudi Arabia, who has headed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) for the past two years. Obaid, a U.N. under-secretary general who officials say has recently had problems entering the United States, was speaking during a conference on population issues at which the United States has come under heavy fire. Bush stopped the annual $34 million funding for the New York-based UNFPA when he came to office in 2000, arguing that by working in China it was sustaining a Beijing policy of forced abortion in pursuit of its "one child per family" programme. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Capacity building in reproductive health programmes focusing on male involvement: a South-to-South framework.

    Duza MB

    In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 115-129. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)

    The issue of male involvement in reproductive health is enigmatic. It has traditionally been held that men's role and voice are decisive in the family building process and reproductive health outcomes of both males and females. At the same time, against the backdrop of recent and ongoing experience, men also have been characterized as the neglected half in the pertinent programmes, playing a tangential role relative to women. Within this general area, the present paper explores the opportunities for capacity building in reproductive health programmes, keeping in view some critical areas where male involvement appears to be especially relevant. The exercise is undertaken in light of lessons learned in the South-to- South framework of inter-country sharing and exchange of experience in the field. Possible institutional strengthening towards increased and effective male involvement is considered in order to address capacity-building needs at the level of policy makers, programme managers, service providers and clients. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Understanding the links: globalization, health sector reform, gender and reproductive health.

    Evers B; Juarez M

    New York, New York, Ford Foundation, 2003. [45] p.

    The connections between globalization and women’s reproductive health and rights are not straightforward, and as yet, there is little systematic evidence exploring these linkages. The following paper will examine more closely what is meant by globalization and attempt to analyze its broad implications for women’s health and well-being, albeit largely from first principles. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Cairo commitment must be honored.

    POPLINE. 2003 May-Jun; 25:3, 4.

    The president of the Population Institute contends that it would be "not only unacceptable but also morally reprehensible for the United States to back away" from commitments toward universal access to family planning and reproductive health. In testimony submitted to the foreign operations subcommittee of the House of Representatives Appropriations Committee, Werner Fornos, president of the Population Institute, was referring to apparent efforts by the Bush administration to reverse United States support of the Cairo Program of Action from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Population assistance and family planning programs: issues for Congress. Updated February 13, 2003. Programas de asistencia a la población y de planificación familiar: temas para el Congreso. Actualización al 13 de febrero de 2003.

    Nowels L

    Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2003 Feb 13. [19] p. (Issue Brief for Congress)

    Since 1965, United States policy has supported international population planning based on principles of voluntarism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control. This policy, however, has generated contentious debate for over two decades, resulting in frequent clarification and modification of U.S. international family planning programs. In the mid-1980s, U.S. population aid policy became especially controversial when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions. Critics viewed this policy as a major and unwise departure from U.S. population efforts of the previous 20 years. The “Mexico City policy” further denied U.S. funds to foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning, regardless of whether the source of money was the U.S. government Presidents Reagan and Bush also banned grants to the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) because of its program in China, where coercion has been used. During the Bush Administration, a slight majority in Congress favored funding UNFPA and overturning the Mexico City policy but failed to alter policy because of presidential vetoes or the threat of a veto. President Clinton repealed Mexico City policy restrictions and resumed UNFPA funding, but these decisions were frequently challenged by some Members of Congress. On January 22, 2001, President Bush revoked the Clinton Administration population policy position and restored in full the terms of the Mexico City restrictions that were in effect on January 19, 1993. Foreign NGOs and international organizations, as a condition for receipt of U.S. funds, now must agree not to perform or actively promote abortions as a method of family planning in other countries. Subsequently, in January 2002, the White House placed a hold on the transfer of $34 million appropriated by Congress for UNFPA and launched a review of the organization’s program in China. Following the visit by a State Department assessment team in May, Secretary of State Powell announced on July 22 that UNFPA was in violation of the “Kemp-Kasten” amendment that bans U.S. assistance to organizations that support or participate in the management of coercive family planning programs. For FY2003, the President proposes no UNFPA funding, although there is a “reserve” of $25 million that could be used if the White House determines that UNFPA is eligible for U.S. support in FY2003. The Administration further requests $425 million for bilateral family planning programs, a reduction from the $446.5 million provided in FY2002. H.J.Res. 2, as passed by the Senate on January 23, 2003, includes the FY2003 Foreign Operations Appropriations. It provides $435 million for bilateral family planning aid and $35 million for UNFPA. Last year, the Senate Appropriations Committee (S. 2779) had recommended $450 million for bilateral activities and $50 million for UNFPA. The Senate bill further would have modified the Kemp-Kasten amendment and partially reversed the President’s Mexico City policy for some organizations. The House bill (H.R. 5410) last year provided $425 million for family planning and $25 million for UNFPA, but made no modifications to Kemp-Kasten or to the Mexico City policy. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    UNFPA welcomes EU funds for RH and family planning programmes. European Union pledges 32 million euros for reproductive health in 22 countries.

    Asian Forum Newsletter. 2002 Jul-Aug; 7.

    UN Population Fund (UNFPA) welcomes the announcement made by the European Commission on the 24th of July, 2002, to strengthen its support for sexual and reproductive health in twenty-two developing countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific. The 32 million euros joint project will be carried out by UNFPA in partnership with the European Union (EU), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), to provide the targeted countries with family planning services and advice on population and health issues. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Unsafe abortion and post-abortion family planning in Africa. The Mauritius conference.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Africa Region; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Technical Services Division; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Public Affairs Department

    Nairobi, Kenya, IPPF, 1994. [2], 36 p.

    In March 1994, more than 100 specialists from family planning associations (FPAs) and ministries of health participated in the IPPF-supported Conference on Unsafe Abortion and Post-Abortion Family Planning in Africa (sub-Saharan Africa) in Gran' Baie, Mauritius. It was designed to help FPAs and governments confront the public health and social problems caused by unsafe abortion. Topics discussed in the working groups were abortion and postabortion family planning services, role of support services in abortion and postabortion family planning services, counseling and contraceptive needs, and reducing the number of unsafe abortions. Working groups developed strategies and action plans to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion in Africa. The estimated unsafe abortion rate in Africa is 23/1000 women aged 15-49, ranging from 12 in Middle Africa to 31 in Eastern Africa. In Nigeria, 50% of all maternal deaths are related to abortion. In Kenya, insertion of foreign bodies/instruments is the most common abortion method. In Benin, most abortion patients are married (70.5%) and Catholic (58.7%). No African country provides abortion on demand. Botswana, Ghana, and Zambia have the most liberal abortion laws (abortion allowed for social and sociomedical reasons). In countries where abortion services are legal, FPAs can produce a list of sympathetic health personnel, conduct a follow-up on women who have been denied safe abortion services, document where safe abortion services are withheld from some population groups, promote the use of newer abortion techniques, and provide training in safe abortion techniques. Many donor and technical cooperating agencies have made commitments and implemented initiatives to bring about safe abortion and postabortion family planning services in Africa, such as Family Health International and Johns Hopkins University's Center for Communication Programs.
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  9. 9

    The Tokyo Declaration on population and development.

    Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development (1994: Tokyo)

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1994 Mar; 20(1):239-45.

    In January 1994, a meeting convened in Tokyo by the government of Japan of 15 experts in the field of population, development, and international cooperation resulted in adoption of a document entitled "Towards a Global Partnership in Population and Development: The Tokyo Declaration." This declaration prefigured the key issues and action recommendations of the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The Declaration (presented in this document in its entirety) opens with an introduction which describes the current (and changing) political climate in regard to population issues in which the ICPD will take place. Part 1 of the declaration includes a consideration of the relationship between population and sustainable development, women's role in decision-making and the status of females, reproductive health and family planning (FP), population distribution and migration, and south-south cooperation. The declaration contains specific recommendations for action in each area, with the recommendations addressed to governments, the UN, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), donors, and the international community. Part 2 stresses a move from commitment to action and strongly recommends that by the year 2015 all governments 1) ensure the completion of the equivalent of primary school by all girls and boys and, as soon as that goal is met, facilitate completion of secondary educational levels; 2) in cases where mortality rates are highest, achieve an infant mortality rate below 50/1000 live births with a corresponding maternal mortality rate of 75/100,000 births; 3) in cases with intermediate levels of mortality, achieve an infant mortality rate below 35/1000, an under age 5 years mortality rate below 45/1000, and a maternal mortality rate below 60/100,000; and 4) provide universal access to a variety of safe and reliable FP methods and appropriate reproductive health services (with safe and effective FP methods available in all country's national FP programs by the year 2000). The international community is further urged to support the goals of the ICPD, and the international donor community is asked to support the participation of NGOs in the ICPD. Part 2 ends with an appeal to the international community to mobilize resources to meet these goals. Finally, the declaration calls upon the international community to stabilize world population and address the interrelated issues, and the participants of the Tokyo meeting pledged their individual support to this effort.
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  10. 10

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in the Philippines.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. x, 122 p. (Technical Report No. 17)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to the Philippines took place in 1993. In the introductory chapter of this technical report, the Global Initiative is described and the Philippine Population Program is presented in terms of the demographic picture, the population policy framework, the Philippine Family Planning (FP) Program, STD/AIDS control and prevention efforts, and an overview of donor assistance from 1) the UNFPA, 2) USAID, 3) the World Bank, 4) the Asian Development Bank, 5) the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, 6) the Canadian International Development Agency, 7) the Commission of the European Community, 8) the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 9) the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, and 10) the Netherlands. The second chapter presents contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm commodity requirements, condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, total commodity requirements for 1993-2002, short-term procurement projections, and projections and calculations of unmet need. Chapter 3 covers logistics management for 1) the public sector, 2) condoms for STD/AIDS preventions, 3) NGOs, and 4) the commercial sector. The fourth chapter is devoted to a consideration of private practitioners and a detailed look at the ways that NGOs relate to FP groups. This chapter also covers the work of NGOs in STD/AIDS prevention and coordination and collaboration among NGOs. Chapter 5 is devoted to the private commercial sector and includes information on social marketing, the commercial sector, and duties and taxes. The issues addressed in chapter 6 are contraceptive manufacturing and quality assurance, including the potential for the local manufacture of OCs, condoms, IUDs, injectables, and implants. The national AIDS prevention and control program, the forecasting of condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, and policy and managerial issues are considered in chapter 7. The last chapter provides a financial analysis of the sources and uses of funds for contraceptives including donated commodities, the private commercial sector, cost recovery issues, and regulations and policies, such as taxes and duties on donated contraceptives, which affect commodities. 5 appendices provide additional information on contraceptive requirements, logistics management and costs, the private commercial sector, condoms for STD/AIDS prevention, and a financial analysis. Information provided by the texts and appendices is presented in tables and charts throughout the report.
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  11. 11

    Report: Second Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 23-25 September 1987, Beijing, China.

    Conference of Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (2nd: 1987: Beijing)

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1987. [3], 72 p.

    The formal proceedings of the 1987 Asian (AFPPD) Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (FPPD) are provided in some detail. 23 countries participated. The Asian Forum Beijing Declaration preamble, program of action, call to action, and rededication are presented. Background information indicates that these conferences have been ongoing since 1984 to exchange information and experience, to promote cooperation, and to sustain involvement of Parliamentarians in population and development issues. Official delegations represented Australia, Bangladesh, China, Korea, India, Iraq, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, north and south Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, and Vietnam. Observers were from Bhutan, Cyprus, Indonesia, Kiribati, and Tonga. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was involved as Conference Secretariat as well as the Preparatory Committee of China. Other UN and nongovernmental organizations and Parliamentary Councils of the World, Africa, and Europe were involved. Summaries were made of opening conference addresses of Mr. Takashi Sato, Mr. Zhou Gucheng, Chinese Premier Zhao Zivang, Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda, Dr. Nafis Sadik from the UNFPA, Mrs. Rahman Othman for Mr. Sat Paul Mittal of AFPPD, Australian Prime Minister R.J.L. Hawke, India Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi, Sri Lankan Prime Minister R. Premedasa, Philippine President Corazon Aquino, Pakistan President Mohammad Zia-ul-Hag, and Bangladesh President Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Election of officers was discussed. The plenary sessions reported on the present situation and prospects for Asian population and development, basic health services and family planning (FP), urbanization, population and food, and aging. Reports were also provided of an exchange among Parliamentarians, the adoption of conference documents and the AFPPD constitution, election of officers, and the closing speakers. Appendices provide a complete list of participants, the constitution which was adopted, and the addresses of Mr. Zhou Gucheng from China's National People's Congress; Mr. Zhao Ziyang, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Mr. Takeo Fukuda of the Global Committee of FPPD, Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director, UNFPA; and Mr. Sat Paul Mittal, Secretary General, AFPPD.
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  12. 12

    International Symposium: For the Survival of Mankind: Population, Environment and Development.

    Mainichi Shimbun; Japan. National Institute for Research Advancement; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, [1989]. xxxiii, 134 p.

    In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
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  13. 13

    Strengthening of management of maternal and child health and family planning programmes. Report of an intercountry workshop, New Delhi, 27-31 August 1990.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. South-East Asia Region

    [Unpublished] 1991 Feb 14. [2], 20 p. (SEA/MCH/FP/99; Project No. ICP MCH 011)

    >20 participants from UNFPA/UNICEF/USAID and 23 participants from 10 countries from the WHO Southeast Asia Region attended the Workshop on Strengthening of Management of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Family Planning (FP) Programmes in New Delhi, India in August 1990. The workshop consisted of presentations and discussions of country reports, technical papers, dynamic work groups, and plenary consensus. The WHO/SEARO technical officer for family health presented a thorough overview on strengthening MCH/FP services in a primary health care setting. Issues addressed included regional status on population growth, urban migration and development. MCH status, management of MCH/FP services, strategic planning, and management information. In Bangladesh, the government integrated MCH services with FP services, but other child programs including immunization, control of diarrheal disease program, nutrition, acute respiratory infection remained with the health division. Obstacles of the MCH/FP program in the Maldives were shortage of trained human resources, preference of health providers to work in urban areas, inadequate logistics, and insufficient supervision in peripheral health centers. A nomadic way of life among the rural peoples posed special problems for the delivery of MCH services in Mongolia where large family size was encouraged. Other country reports included Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. A case study of the model mother program in Thailand and the local area monitoring technique in Indonesia were shared with participants. District team work groups identified key MCH/FP management problems including organization, planning, and management; finance and resource allocation; intersectoral action; community participation; and human resource development. The workshop revealed the national health leaders with hopes for WHO technical assistance were developing a rapid evaluation methodology.
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  14. 14

    Report of the Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development, Castries, Saint Lucia, 30 April - 1 May 1984.

    Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development (1984: Castries)

    [Unpublished] 1984. [3], 53, [37] p.

    The Population and Development Project of the Caribbean region aims to increase the awareness of regional leaders on population issues, explain the consequences of continued demographic trends upon socioeconomic development, present up-to-date medical protocols for family planning services to medical practitioners, and improve family planning service delivery in selected countries. Proceedings from a Regional Awareness Conference on Population and Development and presented. Opening remarks of the conference were made by the Minister of Health of Saint Lucia, the Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community, and representatives from the UNFPA and CARICOM. Chairmen for conference sessions were elected, an agenda adopted, and procedural matters settled. An abstract of the regional population policy paper is discussed, followed by consideration of the benefits of population programs for family planning and health, and presentation of the medical steering committee's work. National population task force reports are included for Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Monsterrat, St. Christopher-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, and the Bahamas. Jamaica's experience in formulating and implementing its population policy follows, preceding presentations on migration and adolescent fertility. Concluding sections cover resources for the awareness of population impacts on development, a suggested draft model of national population policy, information on the development law and policy program, a panel discussion of population policy implications, and proposals and recommendations for a plan of action to implement population policy. A list of participants is included among the annexes.
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  15. 15

    Southeast Asia Ministerial Conference on Family Planning and Population, Juala Lumpur, Oct. 1970.

    Southeast Asia Ministerial Conference on Family Planning and Population

    (Proceedings of the Southeast Asia Ministerial Conference. Kuala Lumpur, National Family Planning Board, 1970) 104 p

    Hosted by the Government of Malaysia, this Conference assembled ministries from Malaysia, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam and observers from Canada, Japan, U.S.A., Asian Development Bank, ECAFE, IPPF, OECD, Population Council, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO to explore the possibilities of regional cooperation in family and population planning. This report summarizes the events of the conference and gives the text of statements by each participant delivered at the open session on the 1st day. The details of deliberations at the closed ministerial session and the 3 sessions for officials are not given. However, the report includes the text of the working papers prepared by the Conference Secretariat which served as the basis of discussion. The subjects of these working papers were the population problem in Southeast Asia, objectives of a regional program of cooperation in family and population planning, the activities to be undertaken and priority projects. A Working Committee was appointed by the officials. Its report served as the basis for the Joint Communique issued at the end of the Conference in which the Ministers announced their agreement to create an Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee with the Government of Malaysia providing an interim Secretariat and to implement several intraregional projects of research, communication of information, exchange of personnel, sharing of members and Conference staff are appended.
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  16. 16

    Documents for the final report and recommendations meeting, Geneva, Sept. 1975.

    International Contraceptive Study Project [ICOSP]

    N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities (1975) various pagings

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  17. 17

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.


    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  18. 18

    Saving women's lives, protecting women's health. U.S. global leadership in family planning.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Washington, D.C., USAID, 2000 Apr. 12 p.

    This paper documents the US global leadership in family planning in response to the challenge of saving women’s lives and protecting women’s health. Backed by a strong bipartisan consensus in Congress, the US support for voluntary family planning and related health programs in developing countries began in the 1960s. Since then, profound changes have occurred in reproductive behavior throughout most of the world. The other programs include enabling couples to make reproductive choices and enhancing quality of life and development. In addition, the US government provides family planning assistance to developing countries through the Agency for International Development, and the UN Population Fund. These partnerships seek to: provide comprehensive assistance; integrate family planning and other reproductive health services; expand access to services through partnerships with nongovernmental organizations; focus on quality care and the battle against HIV/AIDS; save women's lives by replacing abortion with contraception; and empower women through integrated approaches. Despite the above initiatives, special efforts are needed to expand access to those needing the family planning services in both public and private sectors.
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  19. 19

    [From family planning to reproductive health and beyond. Draft] De la planificacion familiar a la salud reproductiva y mas alla. Borrador para libro.

    Ramiro Beltran L

    [Unpublished] 1997 Mar. 155, [20] p.

    This work traces the evolving orientation of institutional family planning at the international level, from the beginning of the birth control movement in the US around 1915 to the recent consensus that family planning should be considered in the broader framework of reproductive health. The opening chapter discusses the origins of the antinatalist movement in the birth control, eugenics, and population control movements and the beginning of US government involvement in family planning. Family planning and its objectives are defined, and the growing view of family planning as a right is discussed in chapter 2. The pressures and achievements of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, which led to a broadening of the focus to encompass issues of development, are assessed. The impact of the environmental movement and the international decade of women, and the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and its consequences for family planning are discussed. The attitudes expressed at the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico City and the decline of US support for international family planning activities are then examined. Beginning around the mid-1980s, a series of shortcomings in family planning programs were noted at the same time that worldwide survey programs demonstrated impressive gains in family planning in developing countries. The gathering movement for reproductive health was embraced by foundations, and reflected in changes of emphasis in the most important international organizations. The focus on reproductive health prevailed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, but doubts have arisen since then over the future of support for family planning and other reproductive health services.
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  20. 20

    Why the United States should support UNFPA. Fact sheet.

    Population Action International

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 1997. [2] p. (Fact Sheet No. 3)

    This article reports on the importance of US financial support in the promotion of UN Population Fund (UNFPA) population programs. The UNFPA provides international leadership on population issues and is a key source of financial assistance for family planning programs in poor countries. In order for the fund to function and help promote family planning among poor countries, it needs to derive financial support from other countries such as Japan, Denmark, and the Netherlands. The US, on the other hand, used to be one of the largest donors, but in recent years monetary support has become inconsistent. As a result, the delivery of services by the UNFPA has been hampered, making long-term planning difficult and affecting countries receiving assistance. The family planning programs of the UNFPA should focus on poor countries, especially in China where 20% of the world female population lives. Therefore, US support is badly needed not only to strengthen the UNFPA but also to continue addressing the crucial challenges of population growth in the world.
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  21. 21

    World community observes population milestone, "Day of Six Billion".


    October 12, 1999, marked the date that the 6 billionth human was born on Earth. In this regard, the UN called for the international observance of the "Day of Six Billion," encouraging people to contemplate on the implications of population growth and encouraging governments and other institutions to contribute efforts in alleviating sex discrimination, educational and economic inequalities, and lack of health services that have marked the significant increase in population. Interesting thoughts to ponder for improving the quality of life of every one of the six billion and addressing malnutrition of wealth is also included, suggesting better access to education, jobs, and family planning services that will encourage healthy, life-sustaining choices, and giving women rights to education, employment and health care. During the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt, 179 nations agreed on a Programme of Action that included: improving and expanding of family planning and reproductive health care programs; provisions on basic health services; increasing educational and economic opportunities for women; ending practices on female mutilation; and investing funds for this programs. Lastly, the founding of the Religious Consultation on Population, Reproductive Health and Ethics at the time of the Cairo conference can play a critical role in the ongoing debates over population, women's empowerment, and sustainable development.
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  22. 22

    International cooperation.

    CHINA POPULATION TODAY. 1999 Apr; 16(1-2):34-6.

    As the most densely populated country in the world, China actively conducts international exchanges and cooperation. It takes every opportunity to publicize its family planning policies and practices during international forums. Moreover, the country's State Family Planning Commission has been collaborating with the United Nations Population Fund in implementing health and family planning programs. This program covers public awareness campaigns, technical services, sex education for the youth, and social marketing. For years, China has also been cooperating with WHO in the area of family planning and reproductive health, and has established partnership with the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. In addition, the State Family Planning Commission has worked with the Public Media Center of the US as well as with the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation in introducing "contraceptive methods by informed choice" and "male participation in family planning" in the rural areas of the country. China has also worked closely with many other developing countries on population issues. In October 1998, China collaborated with the Partners in Population and Development for a reporting mission that was attended by journalists from 11 countries.
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  23. 23

    Latin America looks to adolescent needs.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Jan; (295):2.

    64 representatives of UNFPA, Pathfinder, and the Johns Hopkins University, together with high-level representatives of Ministries of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from the Bahamas, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru attended a conference on advocating sexuality education in school programs in the region. The conference, held October 22-26, 1998, was organized by JOICFP and the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in collaboration with UNFPA and IPPF. Conference participants exchanged experiences upon sexuality education in school programs through group discussions and panel and country presentations. One goal of the conference was to strengthen the links between the various Ministries of Education and NGOs in the field of human sexuality. Recommendations for promoting adolescent reproductive health from Latin America and the Caribbean Region to ICPD+5 were made by 3 work groups and accepted by all participants as the outcome of the conference. Steps are currently being taken to develop and implement school curricula designed to raise the levels of awareness among youths of the important relationship between population and sustainable growth, as well as health issues and sexual equality.
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  24. 24

    IPPF takes on the challenges for ICPD + 5.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Jan; (295):1.

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo and attended by 80 government delegations, opened the door to a new phase of cooperation between government organizations (GOs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). A strong partner at Cairo, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) had its Vision 2000 Strategic Plan incorporated into the ICPD Program of Action. Participants at the ICPD+5 conference, to be held in the Hague in 1999, will review what has happened since the original ICPD in 1994. IPPF, the largest NGO in reproductive health and family planning (RH/FP), will be a voice for NGOs and participate in monitoring at ICPD+5. IPPF has encouraged countries to establish national focal points on RH/FP and is now working through a monthly newsletter to keep family planning associations (FPAs), women's unions, and youth groups informed. IPPF is also participating in roundtables with UNFPA and other organizations, as well as with the UN Population Division. The recent and ongoing shift away from core funding to project-specific funding has weakened the structure of existing FPAs. Strengthening the implementation of Vision 2000 is discussed. Japan has consistently been an active partner, supporting IPPF and FPAs in many countries.
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  25. 25

    NCPFP delegation visits the United States.

    VIETNAM POPULATION NEWS. 1998 Apr-Jun; (7):1-2.

    Minister Tran Thi Trung Chien, Chairperson of Vietnam's National Committee for Population and Family Planning (NCPFP), led a delegation to the US during May 16-28, 1998. During the visit, the delegation visited a number of US-based international donor organizations and US population institutions to introduce Vietnam's population and family planning program, its problems and challenges, and to exchange issues of common concern in a bid to secure support for the country's population program. In-depth discussions were held with institutions such as the US Agency for International Development, UN Population Fund, World Bank, Population Reference Bureau, Population Action International, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, The Population Council, The Futures Group International, Carolina Population Center, and Family Health International. Focus was given to improving the quality of reproductive health and other program sectors which are in need of international support and cooperation. Vietnam's current emphasis upon reproductive health is an important policy shift.
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