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  1. 1

    Reproductive health and health system reform in Romania.

    Arghisan LT; Farcasanu DO; Horga M

    Entre Nous. 2009; (68):24-25.

    Romania is a very special case when it comes to reproductive health in the modern world. After 30 years of a prohibitive society that denied couples and women the right to family planning, as a result of the political changes in December 1989 women in Romania have regained the fundamental right to freely decide the number of desired children, as well as the timing and spacing of births. Decree Law No. 1/ 1989, which promoted total abortion liberalization was the first resolution passed after the political changes in 1989 and it can be considered the symbolic foundation of family planning (FP) in Romania.
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  2. 2

    '93 annual report.

    Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia

    Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia, [1994]. 48 p.

    The Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia (FFPAM), a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), is in its 35th year. The FFPAM has by now established itself as a responsible and effective organization in the field of family planning and women's health. Now that family planning has become more widely accepted by the people as well as by government policy makers, the organization has begun to undertake programs which go beyond family planning, such as family life education and youth sexuality issues, women's status, and menopausal management services. The IPPF, however, criticizes the FFPAM of not being responsive enough to the rapid changes in Malaysia. An overall review was therefore conducted of the country situation, unmet needs, program approaches, and goals in a Strategic Planning Process commenced in 1990. A successful workshop was held in 1992 and the organization has been implementing the strategy ever since. In the 1993 annual report, messages are presented from the President and the Chairman, along with a report of the Secretary General, a listing of principal office-bearers, and a view of the FFPAM strategic plan. Sections report on the service delivery program; the information, education, communication program; the family life education program, the women's development program, and on human resource development. A financial brief, financial statements, officials of FFPAM, FFPAM secretariat staff, and chief staff persons of FPAs are also presented.
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  3. 3

    International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, Egypt, 5-13th September 1994. National position paper.

    Zambia. National Commission for Development Planning

    Lusaka, Zambia, National Commission for Development Planning, 1993 Dec. viii, 39 p.

    Zambia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a review of the country's unfavorable economic and demographic situation. Population growth has been increasing (by 2.6% for 1963-69 and 3.2% for 1980-90) because of a high birth rate and a death rate which is declining despite an increase in infant and child mortality. The population is extremely mobile and youthful (49.6% under age 15 years in 1990). Formulation of a population policy began in 1984, and an implementation program was announced in 1989. International guidance has played a major role in the development of the policy and implementation plans but an inadequacy of resources has hindered implementation. New concerns (the status of women; HIV/AIDS; the environment; homeless children and families; increasing poverty; and the increase in infant, child, and maternal mortality) have been added to the formerly recognized urgent problems caused by the high cost of living, youth, urbanization, and rural underdevelopment. To date, population activities have been donor-driven; therefore, more government and individual support will be sought and efforts will be made to ensure that donor support focuses on the local institutionalization of programs. The country report presents the demographic context in terms of population size and growth, fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization, spatial distribution, population structure, and the implications of this demographic situation. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the role of population in development planning, the evolution and current status of the population policy, and a profile of the national population program (research methodology; integrated planning; information, education, and communication; health, fertility, and mortality regulatory initiatives; HIV/AIDS; migration; the environment; adolescents; women; and demography training). A description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation covers political and national support, the national implementation strategy, program coordination, service delivery and quality of care, HIV/AIDS, personnel recruitment and training, evaluation, and financial resources. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, and resource mobilization.
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  4. 4

    National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.

    Malaysia. National Population and Family Development Board. Technical Working Group for ICPD

    [Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. [4], 64 p.

    Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
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  5. 5

    National report on population. Prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development, September 1994.

    Tunisia. Ministry of Planning and Regional Development

    [Tunis], Tunisia, Ministry of Planning and Regional Development, 1994 Aug. 57 p.

    Tunisia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a brief discussion of the country's history and development achievements (the population growth rate has been reduced from 3.2% in the beginning of the 1960s to less than 2%, and Tunisia has achieved significant improvement over the past 2 decades in human development indices). Tunisia's population policy has gone through 3 stages: the establishment of an important legal framework during the 1950s and 60s, the creation of a National Family and Population Board and establishment of basic health care facilities during the 1970s, and an emphasis on environmentally-responsible development with an attempt to strengthen the integration of population policies into development strategies beginning in the 1980s. The report continues with an overview of the demographic context (historical trends and future prospects). The chapter on population policies and programs covers the evolution and status of the policies; sectoral strategies; development and research; a profile of the family health, family planning (FP), IEC (information, education, and communication), and data collection and analysis programs. This chapter also provides details on policies and programs which link women and families to population and development and on those which concern mortality, population distribution, and migration. The third major section of the report presents operational features of the implementation of population and FP programs, in particular, political support, program formulation and execution, supervision and evaluation, financing, and the importance and relevance of the world plan of action for population. Tunisia's national action plan for the future is discussed next in terms of new problems and priorities and a mobilization of resources. This section also includes a table which sets out the components, goals, strategies, and programs of action of the population policy. In conclusion, it is stated that Tunisia's population policy fits well with the world program of action because it promotes human resources and sustainable development and respects international recommendations about human rights in general and the rights of women in particular.
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  6. 6

    Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.

    Sierra Leone. National Population Commission

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. [4], 15, [4] p.

    The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
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  7. 7

    Community-based distribution (CBD) quality of care evaluation model.

    Zaire. Projet des Services des Naissances Desirables; Tulane University

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [1] p. (ZAI-10)

    This project grew out of the need to monitor the quality of care in the various community-based contraception distribution (CBD) projects which were subprojects of the Tulane Family Planning Operations Research Project. The objectives of this activity were to: 1) assure that women who use the services of CBD workers were properly screened for use of oral contraceptives (if that was the method they chose), that they received correct information about the methods and their use, and that they were referred to other levels in the health system when appropriate; 2) to strengthen the position of existing CBD programs if they were to come under attack in the future over the issue of quality of service; and 3) to develop a methodology that could be used in other CBD programs, including those outside of Zaire. The project consisted of a series of activities designed to improve the quality of care in CBD programs, including conducting workshops among project personnel and standardizing medical norms and program procedures. A system for evaluating distributor performance, based on a knowledge test, observation of interactions with clients, and a client survey, was developed and tested in the field. A guide for implementing contraceptive CBD programs and a manual for training CBD distributors were produced to standardize many of the procedures used in the CBD programs and to provide certain norms for service delivery. A methodology was subsequently developed for evaluating distributor performance which included: a knowledge test for distributors to assure that they were able to answer basic questions about the contraceptives and other medications they sold (correct use, side effects, contraindications); an observation guide consisting of a list of points which a distributor should cover during visits to a potential (new) client as well as to a continuing user; and a subjective measurement of rapport between distributor and client. A short questionnaire was prepared for clients to determine whether they knew the correct use of the method chosen and whether they were satisfied with the services of the distributor. This 3-pronged approach to the evaluation of distributor performance was tested at 2 sites: Kisangani and Matadi. The knowledge test was also administered in Mbuyi Mayi and Miabi. While the knowledge test proved to be a quick way to determine whether distributors were informed on key points, the full evaluation approach proved too labor-intensive to be practical as a tool for continuously monitoring distributor performance. Based on experience with the full model, a supervisory form was developed which included some of the same elements but was more practical for routine use in the field.
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  8. 8

    Monitoring AIBEF's service expansion through situation analysis.

    Association Ivoirienne pour le Bien-Etre Familial; Population Council

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [2] p. (IVO-05)

    The number of family planning (FP) service delivery points (SDPs) in Cote d'Ivoire is increasing rapidly with the assistance of several USAID projects: SEATS for overall management assistance, INTRAH for clinical training, Johns Hopkins University/PCS for information, education, and communication (IEC), and the Africa operations research/technical assistance (OR/TA) project for the management information system (MIS). For example, during 1991, the Association Ivoirienne pour le Bien-Etre Familial (AIBEF) increased its SDPs from 3 to 19. By the end of 1992, 33 AIBEF-assisted public sector maternal and child health centers will become FP SDPs. This is the first step in a longterm program to increase the government's FP service delivery capacity and is a model for future activities. This study, which cost US $29,392, will monitor the management information system (MIS) to define its impact and role in the expansion. The MIS project will provide data on contraceptive use, reproductive intentions, and community flow but it will not describe several service delivery functions or information relative to the client, such as provider relations and IEC activities. The MIS data, therefore, must be complemented by data on 1) the quality of provider-client interactions, 2) the SDPs functional capacity for providing FP services (both physical and human resources), and 3) the user's experiences with FP services. This study will adapt a situational analysis methodology developed by The Population Council. Information will be collected from all operational SDPs (approximately 20). Of the 13 SDPs observed, 4 serviced 1200 to 1800 new and continuing users in 3 months. 3 other clinics serviced between 22 and 37. 24,221 clients accepted modern methods during that time, with 19% (mainly men) choosing condoms and 81% selecting prescription methods (85% oral contraceptives (OCs), 11% injectables, and 3% IUD). All clinics had a system for ordering contraceptives, yet all experienced stock-outs. Only 8% of clinics had an appropriate storage system. 55% of clinics held discussions about FP and reproductive health with service providers and clients. The study also revealed that 25% of all clients interviewed had had an abortion. In terms of personnel, there was a lack of FP educators disseminating IEC, and most clinics needed updated IEC materials. The record-keeping land logistics departments needed improvement as stock-outs were common. International management meetings and external supervisory visits were infrequent. For the most part, clients were satisfied with the FP services, although some mentioned a long wait and a lack of privacy. Numerous recommendations were made in order to provide FP services in clinics including: development of FP activities, improvement of quality of services, and development of counseling and interpersonal communication skills.
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  9. 9

    Inventory and review of research and evaluation studies on population education. Sri Lanka.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    [Unpublished] 1992 Apr. [110] p.

    Sri Lanka's review of population education studies aimed to provide a compilation and an analytical review of research and evaluation findings. Potential benefits are expected for improving policy making and practice, for locating the gaps in programs and the necessary action needed, and for facilitating the use research in planning and evaluation. Research deficiencies in program evaluation were noted by Professor J.E. Jayasuriya in 1986. The population education task in 1972 was tremendous and included introduction of curricular reform in 8000 primary schools and 5500 junior secondary schools, with only a 6-month start-up time. Program implementation was still ongoing when reforms were instituted in 1977, and 1978, and 1983. Data were collected in some fashion during this period, and evaluations were conducted on an ad hoc basis by postgraduate students. Much more research information is available on demographic trends in fertility and family planning (FP). Reforms did not include University Departments of Education, and training activities were devoted primarily to training teachers for the ever increasing demand. The review included 75 listings among the following topics: basic research studies (55), KAP studies (4), management (4), personnel training (2), curriculum development and instructional materials (4), information dissemination (1), and program impact evaluation (3). There were no studies of teaching methodology or classroom instruction. A limitation of the study is the arbitrary nature of the criteria, which was developed by UNESCO/PROAP. There also was a limited time frame which did not allow for direct contact of instructions or researchers. A summary of the research activity is provided. Each study is listed by title, place and publisher, number of pages, series of document number, language, objectives, key words, availability, methodology, and findings.
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  10. 10

    [Republic of Zaire: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique du Zaire: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. ix, 63, [1] p. (Rapport No. 72)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a needs assessment mission to Zaire in 1983. The mission recommends that the 1st priority be given to analyzing and exploiting the results of the 1984 census, Zaire's 1st census. It is recommended that the Institut National de la Statistique participate in data collection and analysis for the census. The lack of trained demographers is noted, and teaching statistics and demography should be made a priority. 3 areas of research in population matters are priorities: 1) the detailed analysis of the results of the census, 2) modern contraceptive usage, and 3) malnutrition in mothers and children. The creation of a national commission on human resources and population is recommended. Zaire has a rather large medical-health infrastructure that is badly adapted to the actual needs of the population. The problem is not only the lack of resources but also the absence of clear health policies. Population education does not currently exist in Zaire, but formal population education could be placed at all levels of the educational system. As regards population information and communication, radio coverage is very important in a country that is largely rural. Women are still undervalued in Zaire society. They participate actively in the country's economy, but they remain on the margins of the modern sector. The new department on female conditions and social affairs has 2 priorities: 1) improving the quality of life of rural women with income-generating projects and 2) creating adult female education centers in urban areas.
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  11. 11

    [People's Republic of the Congo: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Republique Populaire du Congo: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1985. x, 53, [1] p. (Rapport No. 75)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a mission to the Congo (Brazzaville) to assess their needs for assistance in population matters in 1984. Government policy still does not cover linkages between population and economic development. The Mission particularly recommends the assistance be given to the 1984 census. It is necessary to have demographic data on which to base health programs. The Mission also strongly recommends technical assistance for maternal and child health and family planning programs. The Mission recommends providing support for civil registration, an infant and child mortality survey in rural areas, and a national survey of population, migration, and employment to take place 5 years after the census. The effective integration of population in development planning requires not only data collection but demographic, social, and economic research. The recent creation of the Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research will give a new boost to research activities. In the domain of health in general, and maternal and child health in particular, the situation is characterized by insufficiency and by a lack of health statistics. There are grave health problems. Morbidity and mortality are high, especially among infants. Faced with these problems, the government has instituted a huge effort to promote the well-being of families. The Mission recommends a national population education policy. The condition of women remains difficult, and little information is available. The Mission recommends further research on the status of women and the education of women.
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  12. 12

    [Senegal: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Senegal: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, [1988]. vi, 117 p. (Rapport No. 96)

    To deal with Senegal's severe economic situation, the government has put in place the 6th development plan (1981-1985). Increasing population growth and internal migration have rendered data from the 1976 census unuseful. Uncontrolled urbanization also constitutes a major problem for Senegal. Faced with this situation, the government has created a national population commission and laws on contraception, families, family planning, and health. Activities relevant to population have been regrouped under a single ministry, the Ministry of Social Development. The government's approach to population includes integrating population with development, integrating family planning with the well-being of families and maternal and child health, fighting sterility problems, and integrating women into the development process.
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  13. 13

    [Morocco: report of second mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Maroc: rapport de la seconde mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour les activities en matiere de population, 1986. xii, 90 p. (Rapport No. 88)

    This report details the conclusions of a study mission on population matters which visited Morocco from October 24 - November 14, 1985. In June 1985, Morocco had 22 million inhabitants. Numerous studies, including the census of 1982, the Morocco Fertility Survey of 1979-1980, and the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984, reveal demographic changes in Morocco. For example, life expectancy at birth has increased from 52.9 years in 1970-1975 to 59.1 years in 1980. Contraceptive knowledge and use have increased, and marriage age is later than formerly. In spite of these fundamental changes, the population continues to grow. The mission is conscious of real effort by ministries to collaborate in population matters. These efforts take place in the absence of an explicit population policy at a higher level. It is necessary to increase the support given to the Ministry of Public Health to improve strategies for maternal and child health services and to increase family planning services, the demand for which never ceases to grow. Internal and international migration are problems that merit attention. The brain drain is posing problems for economic development. It is necessary to make new efforts to obtain information on women's status and means of improving it. Data collection must be given a high priority for development planning. Data analysis and research activities must be reinforced in Morocco. Multisectoral activities in which population plays a part must be supported. Priority should be given to projects oriented toward assisting disadvantaged groups, such as women, youth, and the rural population, especially mothers and infants.
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  14. 14

    [Mali: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Mali: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, 1988. x, 67 p. (Rapport No. 95)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities sent a 2nd needs assessment to Mali in September 1985. Mali is a vast Sahelian country, characterized by vast deserts. Only 16.8% of the population is urbanized. Mali is essentially agricultural. The 3rd 5-year development plan covered the years 1981-1985. Population factors do not occupy the place they deserve in development planning in Mali. Recommendations for population and development planning include forming an organization to promote population policy and territorial resource management. Recommendations on data collection include creating a national coordinating committee for demographic statistics, analyzing census data from 1976 and planning for the census of 1987, and reorganizing the vital statistics system. The mission recommends the creation of a national organization to coordinate research activities in the country. Recommendations on health and family planning services include examining bottlenecks in the national health system, redistributing health personnel, and improving planning and administration. The mission recommends extending the educational system in Mali. Materials on population must be included in educational materials. Facts on the condition of women and their participation in economic life are insufficient. The mission recommends the creation of a section for women in the Ministry of State to gather social, economic, and demographic information on women.
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  15. 15

    [Cape Verde: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance] Cap-Vert: rapport de mission sur l'evaluation des besoins d'aide en matiere de population.

    Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population

    New York, New York, Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population, 1988. ix, 66 p. (Rapport No. 93)

    The Un Fund for Population Activities sent a mission to Cape Verde in 1986 to evaluate their need for population assistance. Small and densely populated, Cape Verde is a poor country which counts on large amounts of international assistance for economic and social development. Demographic data has been collected in Cape Verde for a long time, but it is necessary to improve data collection so that the results can be better used by the government to plan demographic policy. The census of 1990 will be the 2nd one since independence. The big problems of Cape Verde constitute fertility and migration. Institutional support for the Direction Generale de la Statistique will help them take charge of a national system of data collection. In development planning, the mission recommended 2 projects; 1) the support of the organization Unity for analyzing existing data, and 2) a scheme of national territorial resource management. The mission recommends financing a research program to promote national development. The health situation in Cape Verde is better than that of many African countries. However, there are still many public health problems, such as infectious diseases, malnutrition, high fertility, a lack of health education programs, and insufficient health personnel and training for them. Therefore, the mission recommends decentralization of health services, health education, taking advantage of popular organizations, prenatal care, training for traditional midwives, preventive health measures for children, oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea, and family and sex education. Information, education, and communication activities are extremely limited. To extend the integration of women in the process of development, the mission recommends collecting statistics on women, especially in work and employment, and developing productive activities for women.
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  16. 16

    CFPA 1987 annual report.

    Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation [CFPA]

    St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.

    In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
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  17. 17

    Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)

    In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
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  18. 18

    Policy statement on male involvement in family planning.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Central Executive Committee

    [Unpublished] 1985 Mar. [2] p.

    In this International Planned Parenthood Federation policy statement on male involvement in family planning, the rights of men as well as women to family planning education and services and responsibility for contraceptive decision making and practice is asserted. There is a need for family planning programs to overcome their bias toward services for women and encourage greater male participation. Male involvement in family planning is essential to encourage men to assume responsibility for their sexual behavior and to protect the health and well-being of their partner, potential and existing offspring, and the family as a whole. Men should share responsibility for the couple's practice of contraception, removing from the woman the burden of being the sole contraceptor throughout her fertile life. This perspective requires that family planning associations initiate or strengthen information and education programs to promote male responsibilities in family planning. In addition, there is a need to expand research for the development of a wider array of effective fertility control methods. On the other hand, condoms can continue to play an important role in preventing both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Programs should further emphasize the importance of the male's support to the adoption and continued use of female methods. Program strategies for increasing male involvement should be developed as part of overall family planning programs and, where possible, integrated into existing activities.
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  19. 19

    Report of the second advisory group meeting held in Kuala Lumpur at the Hotel Majestic on the 18-19 September 1972.

    Inter Governmental Coordinating Commitee. Southeast Asia Regional Cooperation in Family and Population Planning. Secretariat

    [Unpublished] 1972. 67 p.

    This report of the proceedings of the 2nd Advisory Group Meeting covers the following: the workshop sessions; the progress report; the role and functions of the Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC); and the speech of Encik Mohd. Khir Johardi. The progress report reviews all the projects and programs that will be initially implemented by the Secretariat IGCC: the regional program for observation and exchange of information; the regional program for exchange of experience through workshop in the various activities of family and population planning; clearinghouse activity; regional research project on thromboembolic disease; the special project to assist member countries without a national family planning program (Laotian Seminar, consultants for Khmer Republic, training 12 Khmers in the Philippines, the contraceptive supplies for the Khmer Republic); population and development planning workshop; joint ECAFE/IGCC/Government of Malaysia Training Course for Statisticians and Demographers; workshop on adult education and family planning; regional incentive program; Second Ministerial Conference and Third IGCC Meeting; and first obstetrician and gynecological meeting within the IGCC Member Countries. Member of the senior government officials who met at the 1st and 2nd Meeting were keen on the idea of exchange of professional staff among member countries for a short period of time. Some of the participants particularly at the 2nd Senior Government Officials Meeting felt that it is necessary to set up IGCC Regional Training Center to be utilized for the training of all facets of family planning program within the IGCC Region. Appendixes review backgrounds and objectives of the visits to Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines; report on the 1st Regional Training Workshop in Jakarta during December 1972, progress to date on clearinghouse activities, the ECAFE trip during August 1972, and the First National Seminar on Population and Family Well Being during August 1972; and discuss the population and development planning workshop proposal, the proposed workshop by IGCC on adult education and family life planning, and the proposed meeting of panel of regional advisers on sexual sterilization.
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  20. 20

    Report of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Planning Programmes.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East [ECAFE]

    In: United Nations. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East [ECAFE]. Report of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Programmes and selected papers. Held at Singapore, 5-15 September 1967. Bangkok, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, [1968]. 1-68. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 3)

    The objective of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Planning Programs, meeting during September 1967, was to collate, examine, and evaluate the collective experience in the region of the use of communications media in family planning programs and to try to develop a basic model for using communications to provide information and motivation in family planning programs as an aid to governmental action in this field. Other purposes were: to evolve appropriate guidelines for operational research and evaluation of family planning communication programs; to discuss the best ways in which the family planning communication work can be strengthened through regional cooperation under the aegis of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE); and to seek practical methods of continuing the exchange and pooling of data in the communication effort within the region and from other areas. 20 participants from 13 member countries participated. This report of the Working Group covers the following: national development and family planning; communications in the context of family planning programs (types of communication; objectives of family planning communications; specific functions of family planning communications; target audiences, groups, and individuals; messages; media and materials; staff; and costs); general guidelines for family planning communication programs; communication programs in countries of the ECAFE region (Ceylon, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand); communications media and methods (radio and television, films, newspapers and other printed materials, hoardings and display signs, posters, exhibitions, campaigns, mailings, face to face communications); communication aspects of special significance; practical aspects of a communication organization; production and distribution of communication materials; specialized training for communications; and research and evaluation. Generally, communications about family planning are of 2 types: informal, characterized as being spontaneous, unplanned; and formal communications, those that are planned, organized, intended to serve specific purposes. Family planning communications serve several purposes. Among them are those of informing, educating, motivating, and reassuring large numbers and varieties of people and of legitimating the practice of family planning. The information component of family planning communications will be directed toward individuals, groups, or the public both within the family planning organization and outside it.
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  21. 21

    UNFPA, IPPF and JOICFP -- regional action partners.

    JOICFP NEWS. 2001 Mar; (321):1-2.

    Within the framework of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Reproductive Health (RH) Sub-program for Asia and the Pacific, UNFPA is supporting a Japan Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP)-executed Asia Regional Project. Entitled “Strengthening of National Capacity for RH/Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) and Advocacy through Community-based RH/FP Program 2000-03,” this project aims to contribute to the improvement of knowledge and understanding of RH issues that facilitate RH approaches at the country level. Moreover, it also aims to improve skills and enhance institutional capacity in the management and implementation of RH programs for the improvement of RH in Asia and the Pacific. The Regional Project commenced with a Regional Technical Workshop held at JOICFP, where four key activities were conducted. These included: compilation of advocacy and IEC tools for RH/FP-sexual health (SH) programs; development and piloting of IEC strategies and IEC materials to support country level RH activities; inter-country training on advocacy and IEC strategies; and increased mobilization and development of resources at the local and country level for RH/FP-SH programs. The workshop was attended by 24 representatives of counterpart agencies from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, and the Philippines, along with the directors and advisors of UNFPA country support teams and the International Planned Parenthood Federation regional director.
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  22. 22

    Communicating family planning in reproductive health: key messages for communicators.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Suport). Family Planning and Population

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support), Family Planning and Population, 1997. xxi, 56 p. (WHO/FRH/FPP/97.33)

    Communication to individuals, communities, and policymakers about the benefits of family planning can be a first step toward improving the quality and accessibility of such services. This booklet, prepared by the World Health Organization, seeks to provide health care workers and communication specialists with tools they need to increase awareness of the need for family planning services and advocate for service improvement and expansion. Detailed information is presented to support 8 key IEC statements: 1) family planning saves women's lives and improves their health; 2) using contraception to delay first births and space births at least 2 years apart saves children's lives and improves child health; 3) family planning provides special social and economic benefits for the couple, family, and community; 4) a variety of safe and effective contraceptives exist, each with different characteristics to meet users' varied needs; 5) contraceptives are safe and offer many health benefits; 6) condoms provide significant protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); 7) adolescents face serious physical, social, and economic consequences from pregnancy and STDs, but can be helped to make responsible choices through sexuality education; and 8) men can support their sexual partners by sharing responsibility for family planning, disease prevention, and child rearing.
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  23. 23

    Emergency contraception: a guide for service delivery.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support). Family Planning and Population

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support), Family Planning and Population, 1998. 60 p. (WHO/FRH/FPP/98.19)

    The introduction of emergency contraception into family planning programs and its distribution through both clinical and nonclinical channels have been urged to prevent the serious health and socioeconomic consequences of unwanted pregnancies. The need for emergency contraception is especially high among adolescents, who may become sexually active before they are informed about contraception or have access to appropriate services. The provision of emergency contraceptive methods through official family planning programs should be regarded as key to the long-term international strategy of upgrading reproductive health care. Moreover, when service outlets offer emergency contraception information and care, they can serve as a first contact point where sexually active men, women, and teens can receive other reproductive health services or referrals. This booklet, prepared by the World Health Organization for service delivery personnel, presents information on emergency contraceptive pills, the use of copper-releasing IUDs as emergency contraception, service delivery aspects, the introduction of emergency contraception in reproductive health programs, and information dissemination. An appendix sets forth medical eligibility criteria.
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  24. 24


    Farrell B

    In: Report from the Meeting on Changing Communication Strategies for Reproductive Health and Rights, December 10-11, 1997, Washington, D.C., [compiled by] Working Group on Reproductive Health and Family Planning. [New York, New York], Population Council, Health and Development Policy Project, [1998]. 21.

    As the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) recommended, the provision of IEC (information, education, communication) and its interface with the community should focus on informing individuals, promoting their rights, and enabling individuals and communities to adopt self-determined behavior changes in response to self-identified needs. This will result in creation of reproductive health communication programs that 1) value the unique needs of women and adolescents rather than demographic or economic concerns, 2) support women in gaining control of their bodies, 3) challenge men to be responsible for their behavior in relation to women and adolescents, 4) seek to eliminate the pressure on women to have undesired sexual intercourse, 5) equip women to assert their right to accept or initiate desired intimacy based on informed decision-making, and 6) stimulate increased equity in gender-power relations. Communities can be empowered to play a critical advocacy role, and donors, national or international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and governments should act as catalysts to community mobilization. Organizations involved in reproductive health should develop internal consistence between programs and the principles of the ICPD Program of Action, promote facilitation of informed choice rather than target-driven behavior, and incorporate gender sensitivity in communications. After this is accomplished, objectives and measures should be made consistent with the ICPD principles and actions.
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  25. 25

    Beyond Cairo: the politics of Indian population policy.

    Desai S

    In: Comparative perspectives on fertility transition in South Asia. Based on the seminar organized by the Committee on Fertility and Family Planning of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) and the Population Council, Islamabad, Rawalpindi / Islamabad, 17-19 December 1996. Papers. Volume II. Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], [1997]. 18 p.

    The International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in September 1994 was one of the most important events in the field of population. A shift in policy was adopted from a societal welfare rationale for population control to an individual needs rationale for the provision of family planning services and reproductive health services in order to satisfy the unmet need. The history of the Indian population policy starts in 1951 when such a policy was announced. In 40 years the crude birth rate fell from 44/1000 population in 1951 to under 30/1000 in 1991. The total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.95 in 1972 decreased to 3.4 by 1991. Nevertheless, the fertility decline has been modest compared to the achievement of Bangladesh in a much shorter period of time. In 1993 the health and family welfare programs were placed under the control of the local governments in tandem with economic liberalization measures. Foreign population assistance has increased recently. USAID chose the state of Uttar Pradesh for a large-scale population project in 1994 which is scheduled to run for 10 years. The Family Welfare Program has supplied contraceptives through the government's program: 79% of users of modern methods obtained them publicly in 1992-93. Information, education, and communication activities are also undertaken and demand for contraceptives is encouraged by other promotional activities. While population control has been endorsed by leading scientists, scholars, and policy makers, the exact means of achieving fertility decline has been neglected. Despite this India is clearly in the middle of a fertility transition. There is a disjunction between the public and private receptiveness to contraception, as Indian society sees contraceptive use as a favor done for the government. Because of the legacy of emergency excesses there is still distrust of the family planning program among people. The challenge is to regain legitimacy and stem bureaucratic expansion when delivering services.
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