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  1. 1

    Task sharing to improve access to family planning / contraception

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 12 p. (Summary Brief WHO/RHR/17.20)

    Contraception is an inexpensive and cost-effective intervention, but health workforce shortages and restrictive policies on the roles of mid- and lower-level cadres limit access to effective contraceptive methods in many settings. Expanding the provision of contraceptive methods to other health worker cadres can significantly improve access to contraception for all individuals and couples. Many countries have already enabled mid- and lower-level cadres of health workers to deliver a range of contraceptive methods, utilizing these cadres either alone or as part of teams within communities and/or health care facilities. The WHO recognizes task sharing as a promising strategy for addressing the critical lack of health care workers to provide reproductive, maternal and newborn care in low-income countries. Task sharing is envisioned to create a more rational distribution of tasks and responsibilities among cadres of health workers to improve access and cost-effectiveness.
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  2. 2

    '93 annual report.

    Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia

    Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia, [1994]. 48 p.

    The Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia (FFPAM), a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), is in its 35th year. The FFPAM has by now established itself as a responsible and effective organization in the field of family planning and women's health. Now that family planning has become more widely accepted by the people as well as by government policy makers, the organization has begun to undertake programs which go beyond family planning, such as family life education and youth sexuality issues, women's status, and menopausal management services. The IPPF, however, criticizes the FFPAM of not being responsive enough to the rapid changes in Malaysia. An overall review was therefore conducted of the country situation, unmet needs, program approaches, and goals in a Strategic Planning Process commenced in 1990. A successful workshop was held in 1992 and the organization has been implementing the strategy ever since. In the 1993 annual report, messages are presented from the President and the Chairman, along with a report of the Secretary General, a listing of principal office-bearers, and a view of the FFPAM strategic plan. Sections report on the service delivery program; the information, education, communication program; the family life education program, the women's development program, and on human resource development. A financial brief, financial statements, officials of FFPAM, FFPAM secretariat staff, and chief staff persons of FPAs are also presented.
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  3. 3

    After Rio: co-operation, not confrontation.

    Sadik N

    POPULI. 1992 Jul-Aug; 19(2):14.

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development or the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 marked the 1st time a UN-sponsored environment conference even addressed population and environment issues. World leaders, agency leaders, and respected professionals emphasized that population is a key issue in sustainable development. For example, Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland noted the interconnectedness of poverty, environment, and population. The blueprint for action from the Summit, Agenda 21, provided clear guidelines for countries to adopt to change course. Very little emphasis was placed on population, however. Even though there are various ways to interpret and implement the guidelines, the countries should do so in a spirit of cooperation rather than confrontation. They should remember that the whole planet is at stake. Many discussions of the preparatory committees and at the Global Forum centered around women's rights and government policy. The Executive Director of UNFPA does not consider these 2 concerns as opposites since government programs depend on the cooperation of both women and men. Family planning (FP) programs also depend on them. FP programs cannot succeed without an involved government. The core of population programs is reduction of family size via provision of effective FP services. Yet they also should provide effective maternal and child health care services with adequate numbers of trained and supervised health workers. Agenda 21 did not mention men even though FP and family welfare are also men's issues. Men also determine the success of FP programs and family welfare programs. In the next decade, we must all work together for sustainable development since our lives and those of our children depend on it.
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  4. 4

    Project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and ILO/Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP).

    Employers Confederation of the Philippines [ECOP]; International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [29] p. (Project No. PHI/87/EO1)

    This project agreement between the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO)/Labor and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) continues support to the Population Unit of ECOP for an additional 2 years (July 1987-89). Economic uncertainties in the Philippines resulting from the past period of political turmoil necessitated this extension in ILO funding. After 1989, ECOP will absorb the population education officer into its regular staff. Continued funding of the ECOP program is based on several favorable factors, including the evident commitment of the ECOP directors to population activities, contact made with individual employers and business associations since 1985, and the production high-quality IEC materials. The long-term objective of this project is to promote smaller families through educational and motivational programs that emphasize the close relationship of family planning and living standards and to link such activities with existing health services at the plant level. Specific objectives are to disseminate information on family planning and family welfare to workers and to educate employers in the industrial sector about the relevance of family planning to labor force development. Project activities will include monthly seminars for employers and meetings with member associations of ECOP.
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  5. 5

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA-sponsored country programme in Democratic Yemen, 1979-1984 and role of women in it.

    El-Sherbiny A; El-Khodary M; Molyneux M; Zouain G; Frieiro L

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. xiii, 101 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-sponsored Country Program was the 1st comprehensive effort in the field of population in Democratic Yemen, following earlier sub-sectoral interventions which benefitted from UNFPA assistance. This evaluation covers 1) the country program as such, focusing on the results achieved in terms of building national capacity for formulating and implementing population policies and programs; 2) the 7 component projects, one in data collection and analysis, a maternal child health/family planning project, and 5 in population education for different audiences; and 3) the women's dimension of the program. At the end of the 4th year of implementation, little had been done by the Country Program in terms of institution building and population policy. The program's achievements were hindered by factors such as an extreme shortage of national qualified staff, training facilities, poor program design, insufficient technical leadership and support, as well as unrealistic objectives. The 7 component projects were plagued with similar problems and made only modest acheivements. The Evaluation Mission expressed the view that long term international expertise to serve all projects would have been advisable as well as long term training abroad for a few people who could become leaders/advisors/administrators. In evaluating the role of women, the Mission found that women had participated in the implementation of all the projects evaluated but were mainly to be found in junior positions. The program as a whole contained a substantial portion of women among its direct beneficiaries comprising those who had been trained, employed and targeted as recipients of the services of the projects, although this varied considerably between projects. In general, the Mission was of the view that in the future a country program document should be prepared specifying the long term and immediate objectives for the population program as a whole.
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  6. 6

    The ILO population/family welfare education programme.

    Richards JH

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 177-83.

    The International Labor Organization (ILO) has enlarged its traditional concern and responsibility for labor welfare to encompass the worker's welfare not only at the workplace but also in his living environment. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the ILO's Population/Family Welfare Education Programme. The basic objective of this program is to improve the quality of life of workers and teir families through educational activities aimed at creating an appreciation of interrelations between family income and expenditure, family budgeting and determining of priorities for various needs of the family, including family size. The program is implemented at country level through labor ministries, employers' groups, trade unions, or co-operatives. The program is designed for workers in the organized sector; its content and approach are refined for 4 main sub-groups: male workers, young workers undergoining vocational training, young unmarried female workers, and plantation workers and cooperative members in rural areas. In all cases the ILO program uses existing welfare and educational institutions, and is presented in terms of family level relationships. Once the inter-relationships of needs and resources within the context of the family is considered, it becomes apparent that needs are predominantly determined by family size. To the extent that couples are prepared to regulate their fertility, this decision may be influenced by family decision making. On the other hand, the potential for influencing family resources is limited. Family well-being can thus be seen in terms of family needs, resources and decision making. Workers must therefore be shown that they can determine their family size. This is the basic family welfare education message. It has a distinct ILO flavor about it and has proved to be acceptable to governments, employers, trade union leaders and members.
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  7. 7

    Health education manpower for family health and health aspects of human reproduction.


    Extracts from the backgound paper for the Consultation Meeting of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization are presented. The meeting's purpose was to obtain specific recommendations that might be used by WHO, PAHO, and the member countries in developing educational personnel for programs dealing with family health and health aspects of reproduction. After reviewing the problems in Latin America and the Caribbean, the various kinds of constraints which have implications for health problems are examined, and key issues relating to family health are analyzed. Many health experts maintain that the family planning approach is the most effective and least expensive means of reducing maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, yet in most countries it is perceived primarily as a means of containing or reducing population growth. In most family planning programs the number of new acceptors appears to be the criterion for measuring success; little if any emphasis is given to continuation of use, teaching the health reasons for regulating reproduction, or increasing acceptance among women with high health risks. In some programs, eligibility requirements are such that many women of high health risk cannot be served. Thus far, research and studies to promote the development of the educational component of family planning programs or to orient selection of educational methodology have had minimal support. In most countries the full potential of the resources invested to achieve improvements in maternal and child health is not being realized. This is partly because of the fact that there is no explicit national policy giving direction to the development of an integrated approach. Few countries have policies and plans for health manpower development and utilization that are based on a careful analysis of priority health needs.
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  8. 8

    Family planning in the industrial sector and Asian response: a bibliography reviewed.


    Lucknow, Lucknow University, Dept. of Economics, Demographic Research Centre, Dec. 1976. 44 p. (Series C, Occasional Paper No. 14).

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  9. 9

    Labour and population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    N.Y., UNFPA, [1977]. 47 p. (Population Profiles 5)

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  10. 10

    Aid to developing countries.

    Population Reference Bureau [PRB]

    In: World Population Growth and Response, 1965-1975: a Decade of Global Action, Wash., D.C. Population Reference Bureau, April 1976, pp. 197-263

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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Research training in the biomedical aspects of human reproduction and family planning in developing countries.


    Contraception. 1976 Apr; 13(4):469-77.

    Family planning represents a major concern for many countries. Programmes are, however, encountering major obstacles, some of which can only be resolved through research, and frequently through research at the local level. Shortage of trained manpower has held back such research in developing countries. The paper describes trends over the past two decades in training for research in human reproduction and family planning. It addresses itself primarily to the needs of developing countries for such research training and the extent to which these needs have been met. (author's)
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  12. 12

    Reports of session 2.

    In: Rodrigues W, ed. The Third American Conference on Integrated Programmes [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 17-20, 1982] Capri III. [Unpublished] 1982. 111-8.

    Group 1 analyzed the question: "How to organize the community and elicit people's participation?" The following items were identified as priorities: 1) previous diagnosis of the community; 2) leadership identification; 3) identification of opposition to the programs; 4) formation of a planned and systematic voluntary action; and 5) selection of human resources. In spite of considering sources at the community, municipal, state, federal, and foreign levels, the group recognizes and advises priority and emphasis to the community as the agent of its own development and therefore all efforts should be made in order to make the maximum use of all available resources. In order to increase the available sources, it is important to reach the highest potentials from all community resources, and elicit the interentity integration besides promoting campaigns for collecting resources. Group 2 developed the Community Development Methodology Pattern in response to the question: "How to organize community and elicit people's participation?" The survey, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of the community and program should be included. Funding can be obtained from international or national agencies, or derive from the community itself. However, the ultimate goal should be the self-financing of the program. In response to the question: "How to organize and elicit people's participation," Group 3 concluded that knowledge of the community, and frankness toward the community was of paramount importance. In order to motivate and educate the community, the strategies of dissemination and motivation must be set up, including the use of popular literature, and audiovisual materials. The development of human resources is a factor essential to any program. Training must cover the working team as well as the leaders and volunteers of the community. A part of the training process is the information and experience exchange meetings held by the participants of the different programs. Coordination with agencies concerned avoids duplication of efforts, program performance efficiency is improved, and each agency's role is clearly delineated.
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  13. 13

    Recommendations of Capri III.

    In: Rodrigues W, ed. The Third American Conference on Integrated Programmes [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 17-20, 1982] Capri III. [Unpublished] 1982. 129-36.

    The Third American Conference on Integrated Programmes--CAPRI III, was held in the City of Rio de Janeiro, from August 17-20, 1982. It was attended by representatives from Maylasia, Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, and Brazil. CAPRI III approved and adopted CAPRI II recommendations, to which the following recommendations were added: 1) the humanitarian character of the parasite control and family planning programs be conducted independently from any political or religious implications; 2) support is given to the "Manila Declaration," (the achievement of more effective utilization of appropriate approaches to attain the social and economic well-being of the people, through the experiences gained in the Integrated Family Planning, Nutrition and Parasite Control Project; 3) the integrated programs should be considered as an important and positive strategy of primary health care; 4) there is a need for permanent training of human resources and, with a veiw to this, courses and other activities concerning their development should be carried out; 4) it is necessary to find ways to increase the availability of financial resources from governments as well as from active involvement of the various segments of the community itself; and 5) use every effective demonstration means with a view toward obtaining an ever increasing mobilization of all possible community resources to assure continuity and development to integrated programs. In addition, the Seventh Asian Parasite Control/Family Planning Conference urges that all governments recognize the experiences gained in the Integrated Family Planning, Nutrition and Parasite Control Project; that all governments recognize the role that the project has played; that all governments recognize the catalytic role played by the nongovernment/voluntary organizations and continue to support them; that all internatioal organizations/agencies take note of the experiences gained in the Project; that all governments and international agencies reaffirm their continuing commitments to ensuring the participation of the people in the planning and implementation of the Program; that all international agencies/organizations increase their support for the implementation of all policies and programs aimed at achieving a better quality of life for the people.
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  14. 14

    Zimbabwe: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 57 p. (Report No. 50)

    Zimbabwe has experienced high fertility. The government has established a Population Studies Unit to produce demographic analyses and population studies. The Mission recommends creation of a high-level body to set population policy directions. 2 demographers/statisticians and a population economist should be provided. Also recommended are: 1) demographic training, staff development, and the inclusion of population development topics in the curriculum of the proposed National Training Center and the Public Service Training College; and 2) funding for 2 international consultants. A national census will be taken in 1982 (the previous census was taken in 1969). Assistance to the University of Zimbabwe's Department of Geography is recommended for a census-related project. Short-term training for a population geographer in demography should be provided. A strong research program should be developed at the University. Health services will be expanded and strengthened. The Mission recommends the funding of an expert in maternal and child health/child-spacing programs. More contraceptives are needed. The Family Planning Association plans to produce and develop appropriate population and family life education materials. A Ministry of Community Development and Women's Affairs has been created, and the Ministry of Youth, Sport, and Recreation has been revitalized. Efforts should be made to increase the number of women and youth receiving training. Teacher training should include development issues, including population dynamics. The Mission recommends: 1) funding of international consultants in nonformal education; 2) funding for a preproject consultant mission; 3) support for population education programs; and 4) support for a public education campaign in support of the census and civil registration system. Courses offered by the School of Social Work should be restructured.
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