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  1. 1

    The global financing facility and family planning.

    Couture T

    Washington, D.C., PAI, 2016 Oct. 2 p.

    When the Global Financing Facility (GFF) was announced in 2014, it promised a “pioneering” way to finance and improve the lives of women, adolescents, children and newborns through provision of reproductive, maternal newborn and child health programs and policies. Family planning advocates and implementers were interested in the possibility of additional funds particularly as a global contraceptives funding crisis is looming, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are being operationalized. To date, the GFF has had three rounds of countries selected to receive funding. In the first round, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania were selected. In the second round, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda were selected. In the third round, Guatemala, Guinea, Myanmar and Sierra Leone were selected. To better understand the role of the GFF in filling funding gaps for family planning and contraceptive procurement, we analyzed the four published investment cases for Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Uganda.
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  2. 2

    From advocacy to access: Uganda. The power of networks: How do you mobilize funds for reproductive health supplies? Fact chart.

    Reproductive Health Uganda; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 2009 Nov. [2] p.

    In Uganda the IPPF Member Association, Reproductive Health Uganda (RHU) coordinated civil society and mobilized advocates and champions to increase the availability of RH supplies and family planning. Results to date include: The Government of Uganda increased funding for RH supplies in the 2010 budget; The Government of Uganda disburses funds directly to the National Medical Stores on an annual basis enabling the bulk purchase of contraceptives; 30 out of 80 districts have committed to increasing their resource allocation for family planning and RH supplies.
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  3. 3

    Euromapping 2009. Mapping European development aid and population assistance.

    Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung [DSW]; European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development [EPF]

    Brussels, Belgium, DSW, 2009. 62 p.

    In September, DSW and the European Parliamentary Forum (EPF) produced the 2009 edition of our Euromapping report, an annual publication that provides an overview of the comparative ODA and SRH funding contributions and commitments of an individual donor country over time. This year's publication has been produced with the support of the European Commission, which has allowed us to release the publication along with a coordinated advocacy and media campaign in 7 European countries. In addition to being a quick reference guide on European funding levels for family planning and reproductive health, Euromapping is intended as an advocacy tool for NGOs and decision makers to monitor the level and composition of ODA as a means of verifying whether governments are living up to their political and policy commitments.
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  4. 4

    From family planning to HIV / AIDS in Vietnam: Shifting priorities, remaining gaps.

    Le Minh Giang; Nguyen Thi Mai Huong

    In: SexPolitics: Reports from the front lines, edited by Richard Parker, Rosalind Petchesky and Robert Sember. [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Associacao Brasileira Interdisciplinar de AIDS (ABIA), Sexuality Policy Watch, 2008]. 277-309.

    Globally, both the disjunction between sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS, and the fact that HIV/AIDS has taken over the political and funding agenda, are well noted. A recent editorial in the journal, Reproductive Health Matters, summed up this trend, noting that although HIV/AIDS has been with us for more than two decades, "now, suddenly, following rapid shifts in political leadership, priority setting, power brokering, and funding policies in international health and development circles, it is widely considered an unassailable fact that in the global 'competition' for resources and attention, sexual and reproductive health has less priority and has lost out to AIDS, as if addressing the one had no connection with addressing the other". Has this trend been realized in Vietnam? If so, what are some of the factors that have shaped this trend and which of its characteristics should Vietnam take into account moving forward? (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Population assistance and family planning programs: issues for Congress. Updated February 13, 2003. Programas de asistencia a la población y de planificación familiar: temas para el Congreso. Actualización al 13 de febrero de 2003.

    Nowels L

    Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2003 Feb 13. [19] p. (Issue Brief for Congress)

    Since 1965, United States policy has supported international population planning based on principles of voluntarism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control. This policy, however, has generated contentious debate for over two decades, resulting in frequent clarification and modification of U.S. international family planning programs. In the mid-1980s, U.S. population aid policy became especially controversial when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions. Critics viewed this policy as a major and unwise departure from U.S. population efforts of the previous 20 years. The “Mexico City policy” further denied U.S. funds to foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning, regardless of whether the source of money was the U.S. government Presidents Reagan and Bush also banned grants to the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) because of its program in China, where coercion has been used. During the Bush Administration, a slight majority in Congress favored funding UNFPA and overturning the Mexico City policy but failed to alter policy because of presidential vetoes or the threat of a veto. President Clinton repealed Mexico City policy restrictions and resumed UNFPA funding, but these decisions were frequently challenged by some Members of Congress. On January 22, 2001, President Bush revoked the Clinton Administration population policy position and restored in full the terms of the Mexico City restrictions that were in effect on January 19, 1993. Foreign NGOs and international organizations, as a condition for receipt of U.S. funds, now must agree not to perform or actively promote abortions as a method of family planning in other countries. Subsequently, in January 2002, the White House placed a hold on the transfer of $34 million appropriated by Congress for UNFPA and launched a review of the organization’s program in China. Following the visit by a State Department assessment team in May, Secretary of State Powell announced on July 22 that UNFPA was in violation of the “Kemp-Kasten” amendment that bans U.S. assistance to organizations that support or participate in the management of coercive family planning programs. For FY2003, the President proposes no UNFPA funding, although there is a “reserve” of $25 million that could be used if the White House determines that UNFPA is eligible for U.S. support in FY2003. The Administration further requests $425 million for bilateral family planning programs, a reduction from the $446.5 million provided in FY2002. H.J.Res. 2, as passed by the Senate on January 23, 2003, includes the FY2003 Foreign Operations Appropriations. It provides $435 million for bilateral family planning aid and $35 million for UNFPA. Last year, the Senate Appropriations Committee (S. 2779) had recommended $450 million for bilateral activities and $50 million for UNFPA. The Senate bill further would have modified the Kemp-Kasten amendment and partially reversed the President’s Mexico City policy for some organizations. The House bill (H.R. 5410) last year provided $425 million for family planning and $25 million for UNFPA, but made no modifications to Kemp-Kasten or to the Mexico City policy. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    The church and family planning. Bush removes funding for UNFPA.

    Conscience. 2002 Autumn; 23(3):37.

    Bishop Wilton D. Gregory, president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, wrote to President Bush commending him for his decision to withhold the funds. "In the name of the Catholic Bishops of the United States, I thank you for taking this action in defense of women and children in developing nations," the bishop said. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Bush, US policy assailed at UN Population Conference.

    Appelbe A

    Alexandria, Virginia, Cybercast New Service [CNS], 2002 Nov 25. 3 p.

    The Bush administration's withdrawal of support for a United Nations program family planning program, along with recent cuts to international family-planning associations, drew sharp criticism at a UN gathering in Canada late last week. Elected officials from 71 countries met in Ottawa Nov. 21 and 22 in an effort to step-up support for "family planning" services for an estimated 350 million women and men worldwide who have little or no access to birth control or family planning. On many minds was President Bush's decision to withhold $34.5 million from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), the conference host, after testimony that the organization supports forced abortions in some countries. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Bush holds funds for U.N. family planning.

    Associated Press

    [Unpublished] 2002 Jul 21. World Wide Web address: 3 p.

    In a policy reversal, the Bush administration will not pay the $34 million it earmarked for UN family planning programs overseas, an initiative that conservative groups charge tolerates abortions and forced sterilizations in China. (author's)
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  9. 9

    U.S. 2002 UNFPA funds still on hold.

    POPLINE. 2002 May-Jun; 24:3.

    This news article reports on the hold order of President Bush on the $34 million US funds allocated for UN Population Fund, pending the investigation dispatched by the White House on the allegation that the agency supports China's coercive family planning program.
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  10. 10

    International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, Egypt, 5-13th September 1994. National position paper.

    Zambia. National Commission for Development Planning

    Lusaka, Zambia, National Commission for Development Planning, 1993 Dec. viii, 39 p.

    Zambia's country report for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens with a review of the country's unfavorable economic and demographic situation. Population growth has been increasing (by 2.6% for 1963-69 and 3.2% for 1980-90) because of a high birth rate and a death rate which is declining despite an increase in infant and child mortality. The population is extremely mobile and youthful (49.6% under age 15 years in 1990). Formulation of a population policy began in 1984, and an implementation program was announced in 1989. International guidance has played a major role in the development of the policy and implementation plans but an inadequacy of resources has hindered implementation. New concerns (the status of women; HIV/AIDS; the environment; homeless children and families; increasing poverty; and the increase in infant, child, and maternal mortality) have been added to the formerly recognized urgent problems caused by the high cost of living, youth, urbanization, and rural underdevelopment. To date, population activities have been donor-driven; therefore, more government and individual support will be sought and efforts will be made to ensure that donor support focuses on the local institutionalization of programs. The country report presents the demographic context in terms of population size and growth, fertility, mortality, migration, urbanization, spatial distribution, population structure, and the implications of this demographic situation. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the role of population in development planning, the evolution and current status of the population policy, and a profile of the national population program (research methodology; integrated planning; information, education, and communication; health, fertility, and mortality regulatory initiatives; HIV/AIDS; migration; the environment; adolescents; women; and demography training). A description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation covers political and national support, the national implementation strategy, program coordination, service delivery and quality of care, HIV/AIDS, personnel recruitment and training, evaluation, and financial resources. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, and resource mobilization.
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  11. 11

    National population report prepared in the context of the International Conference on Population and Development, ICPD, 1994, Cairo, Egypt.

    Mauritius. National Task Force on Population

    Port Louis, Mauritius, National Task Force on Population, 1993 [16], 64, [2] p.

    Mauritius has one of the highest population densities in the world, and it can boast of one of the highest literacy rates among developing countries. Each of the development plans of Mauritius has contained a chapter devoted to population policy. This country report prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development borrows heavily from those plans. The first development plan (1971-75) emphasized employment creation to achieve growth with equity. By 1982-84, the emphasis shifted to productive employment, and, by 1987 nearly full employment was reached. The goal now is to achieve sustainable development and to dovetail the demands of a rapidly industrializing economy with the social needs of a slowly aging population. The country report presents the demographic context in terms of past trends, the current situation, and the outlook for the future. Demographic transition was achieved in a relatively short time and resulted in changes in the age structure of the population from "young" to "active." The population policy (which aims to maintain the replacement level gross reproduction rate and reduce fertility rates), planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy, the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (maternal-child health and family planning services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the status of women; mortality; population distribution; migration; and multi-sectoral activities). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns (reducing unwanted pregnancies and abortions, particularly among adolescents and unmarried women, an increase in teenage fertility rates, reducing the fertility rate which rose to 2.3 from 1.9 in 1986, and reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality rates), the policy framework, programmatic activities, and resource mobilization.
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  12. 12

    Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.

    Sierra Leone. National Population Commission

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. [4], 15, [4] p.

    The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
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  13. 13

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in Viet Nam.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. ix, 92 p. (Technical Report No. 16)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to Viet Nam took place in 1993. This technical report presents a consensus of the findings and conclusions of that mission. After an executive summary and introductory chapter, which discusses population and family planning and the AIDS epidemic in Viet Nam, chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm contraceptive commodity requirements, short-term forecasting and requirements, and forecasting of condom requirements for HIV/AIDS prevention. Logistics management is considered next, with emphasis on public and private organizations which participate in contraceptive distribution, procurement, and allocation to outlets; the reception, warehousing, and distribution of contraceptives; warehousing regulations; the logistics management information system; and monitoring. Chapter 4 deals with contraceptive manufacturing and discusses the regulatory environment and quality assurance, condoms, IUDs, oral and other steroidal contraceptives, and related issues. The fifth chapter presents the role of NGOs and the private sector and discusses mass organizations, social marketing, and future private-sector options, opportunities, and constraints. A financial analysis provided in chapter 6 relays sources and use of funds, trends in financial contributions for 1985-2000, future funding requirements, and contraceptive cost implications for individuals. The final chapter considers condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention with information given on current status and patterns; projected trends; the National AIDS committee; an overview of international donor assistance; major condom distribution channels and outlets, condom demand-generation activities, forecasting requirements for 1993-2002, and condom supply activities. A summary of key knowledge, attitude, and practice findings about AIDS and condoms is appended as is additional information on contraceptive requirements and condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention. The report contains 17 tables and 1 figure, and 18 specific recommendations are made for the topics covered.
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  14. 14

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in the Philippines.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. x, 122 p. (Technical Report No. 17)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to the Philippines took place in 1993. In the introductory chapter of this technical report, the Global Initiative is described and the Philippine Population Program is presented in terms of the demographic picture, the population policy framework, the Philippine Family Planning (FP) Program, STD/AIDS control and prevention efforts, and an overview of donor assistance from 1) the UNFPA, 2) USAID, 3) the World Bank, 4) the Asian Development Bank, 5) the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, 6) the Canadian International Development Agency, 7) the Commission of the European Community, 8) the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 9) the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, and 10) the Netherlands. The second chapter presents contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm commodity requirements, condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, total commodity requirements for 1993-2002, short-term procurement projections, and projections and calculations of unmet need. Chapter 3 covers logistics management for 1) the public sector, 2) condoms for STD/AIDS preventions, 3) NGOs, and 4) the commercial sector. The fourth chapter is devoted to a consideration of private practitioners and a detailed look at the ways that NGOs relate to FP groups. This chapter also covers the work of NGOs in STD/AIDS prevention and coordination and collaboration among NGOs. Chapter 5 is devoted to the private commercial sector and includes information on social marketing, the commercial sector, and duties and taxes. The issues addressed in chapter 6 are contraceptive manufacturing and quality assurance, including the potential for the local manufacture of OCs, condoms, IUDs, injectables, and implants. The national AIDS prevention and control program, the forecasting of condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, and policy and managerial issues are considered in chapter 7. The last chapter provides a financial analysis of the sources and uses of funds for contraceptives including donated commodities, the private commercial sector, cost recovery issues, and regulations and policies, such as taxes and duties on donated contraceptives, which affect commodities. 5 appendices provide additional information on contraceptive requirements, logistics management and costs, the private commercial sector, condoms for STD/AIDS prevention, and a financial analysis. Information provided by the texts and appendices is presented in tables and charts throughout the report.
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  15. 15

    Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)

    In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
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  16. 16

    Haiti. Project paper. Family planning outreach.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. International Development Cooperation Agency

    [Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)

    The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
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  17. 17

    Project agreement between the Government of India and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    India. Ministry of Education; United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1979. 76 p. (UNFPA Project No IND-79-P10)

    The primary goal of India's population education project is to gear the entire educational system in the country to the realization of the potential role of education in the developmental efforts of the country and of the interrelationship between the population situation and different aspects of the quality of life at the micro and macro levels. Project activities include the following: curriculum and instructional material development; training programs; evaluation and research; and the implementation of the population projects at the state level. Justification for the project is included in this project agreement between the government of India and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The activities planned at the national level have direct relevance to achievement of immediate and long range project objectives. The Ministry of Education and Social Welfare of the government of India would be the implementing agency for the national program in population education. A separate Unit of Population Education would be established in the Ministry of Education, and a national steering committee would be created at the national level. The detailed organizational structure would be developed by each state separately in accordance with their needs and requirements for implementation of the population education program. The existing educational infrastructure would be utilized at the district and local levels for the purpose of training and feedback from the field to the state and national levels. The project duration would be 36 months and the starting date would be April 1980. The UNFPA contribution would be US $5,321,620. India's contribution would be Rs. 8,050,000.
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  18. 18

    Annual report January 1-December 31, 1979.

    International Project of the Association for Voluntary Sterilization

    New York, IP, 1980. 171 p. (Contract AID/pha-G-1128)

    With funds from a contract with the USAID, the International Prpject of the Association for Vuluntary Sterilization (IPAVS) has published this annual report to justify its expenditures and delineate its achievements as they relate to the contract goals. In 1979, the quantifiable program achievements were that: 1) voluntary sterilization services were provided to 78,873 men and women worldwide (30% increase over the previous year); 2) 674 physicians were trained in the techniques of surgical contraception (60% increase); 3) 249 health support personnel were trained by IPAVS auspices (4-fold increase); 4) IPAVS helped establish National associations based on its own philosophy in 28 developing countries in 1979; 5) 53 of 81 subgrants allotted included information service components; 6) 17 conferences on voluntary steilization or related health topics were attended by IPAVS, and the organization sponsored 1 regional, 3 national, and 1 international conference during 1979; 7) 57 of 73 countries attending the 4th International Conference on Voluntary Sterilization in Korea sponsored by IPAVS were developing nations; and 8) an IPAVS regional office for Asia was opened in Bangladesh. Other topics covered include grant management and policy development, program development, program accomplishments, information and education, and program support functions for management activities. This large volume publishes standards required by the IPAVS for medical procedures and minimal equipment.
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  19. 19

    Fortieth report and accounts, 1971-1972.

    Family Planning Association [FPA]

    London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.

    Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
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  20. 20

    Review of family planning aspects of family health with special reference to UNICEF/WHO assistance.


    Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 p

    Family planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
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  21. 21

    The president's overseas reproductive health policy: think locally, act globally.

    Cohen SA

    Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. 2002 Aug; 5(3):1-3.

    This paper discusses the implementation of the US Bush administration's "global gag rule" on international family programs such as the UN Population Fund and the reactions of the development community to these actions. It also details the UN General Assembly Special Session on the Child.
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  22. 22

    A narrow view of family planning [letter]

    Bowie MM

    New York Times on the Web. 2002 Jul 24; [1] p..

    In this letter, the authors criticize the Bush administration for withholding the funds for United Nations Population Fund family planning services.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    The provision of family planning services in the Caribbean.

    Yeboah DA

    Journal of Biosocial Science. 2002 Jul; 34(3):379-94.

    This article examines the provision of family planning (FP) services in selected countries in the Caribbean. The potential impact of the funding shortfall resulting from the phasing out of funding by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the strategies being adopted by the selected countries to cope with this, are considered. Stratified random sampling methods were employed to select eight Caribbean countries and a pre-designed questionnaire was administered to the agency responsible for FP services in each country. The sample was stratified geographically to include countries from different parts of the Caribbean. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the services provided, the name of the agency responsible for the provision of services and, where possible, the number of users of each type of service in 1998 and 1997. Vast disparities were found in the provision of FP services in different Caribbean countries, in terms of the groups involved, the services available in each country, as well as methods of data collection and compilation. Anguilla and Bermuda were found to provide only limited FP services, while Barbados, Jamaica and Grenada provide much more sophisticated services. A salient finding was the innovative approaches that various countries in the region have adopted to fund FP programs in anticipation of the phasing out of IPPF funding. The standpoint taken in the study is that countries such as Anguilla and Bermuda must strive to improve their provision of FP services, and that they could learn from Barbados, Grenada and Jamaica, which provide much more comprehensive services. It is also concluded that, unless alternative funding sources are identified and accessed, the provision of FP services in the Caribbean is likely to decline in the future. (author's)
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    USA bars funds slated for UN Population Fund.

    McCarthy M

    Lancet. 2002 Jul 27; 360(9329):313.

    On July 22, 2002, the State Department announced that the Bush administration will withhold US$34 million from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) that Congress had allocated, charging that the UNFPA supports the programs in China that force women to have abortions and to undergo involuntary sterilization. In contrast, an independent panel, which was sent to evaluate UNFPA programs in China, reported that it found no evidence that UNFPA has knowingly supported or participated in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization. Thus, the panel recommended that the US funds be released. However, the panel did find that government programs still retained coercive elements in law and practice and the panel recommended that no US funds be given directly to the Chinese population programs.
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  25. 25

    India: FPA suffers savage cuts.

    Gillam S

    Real Lives. 2002 Jan; (7):3-4.

    The Family Planning Association of India, a founding member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1952, has suffered cuts of more than 50% in core funding from IPPF over the last four years. It is noted that despite the commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 to provide increased support for sexual and reproductive health programs, most international donors have abridged their contributions, not increased them. The consequences of these relatively sudden cutbacks are considerable: they are leading to the loss of 369 staff members across 43 branches, 38 clinics, 6 community-based projects and 36 outreach facilities, and an inevitable reduction in services. One of the more worrying fears associated with cuts in IPPF core funding is the loss of autonomy and the tendency for remaining staff to become discouraged. There are also serious doubts about being able to replace retiring medical doctors and staff nurses at the low wages being offered. In conclusion, it is hard to come up with recommendations when lack of funding is the main problem.
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