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  1. 1
    180839

    A qualitative evaluation of the impact of the Stepping Stones sexual health programme on domestic violence and relationship power in rural Gambia.

    Shaw M

    [Unpublished] 2002. Presented at the 6th Global Forum for Health Research, Arusha, Tanzania, November, 2002. [6] p.

    The work presented here came from a preliminary evaluation and was followed up by several applications for funding to carry out a prospective community randomised trial. So far none have been accepted. This may be partly due to the fact that such an evaluation runs against current funding culture. Because of it's holistic approach and focus on core skills in couple communication, the Stepping Stones programme is neither just an HIV prevention or just a domestic violence prevention programme, but has something to contribute to both (and would see the two problems as inter-related). Funding on the other hand is often organised 'vertically' by problem, and evaluation criteria may differ from one problem to another. For example donors who fund evaluation of HIV prevention activities usually require a biological outcome, and hence concentrate on geographical areas with high HIV incidence where the epidemic is seen as most severe. Where sociological outcomes are used this tends to be either the use of quantitative tools to assist in risk factor analysis, or qualitative tools which can assist in replication of the intervention. As such they are usually considered secondary to the primary (biological) outcomes. The hope here is that these interventions may provide a 'blueprint' which can subsequently be applied in low prevalence areas. However by concentrating on proximal rather than distal determinants of infection these blueprints may only capture 'half the story', leading to locally inappropriate assumptions about which groups or behaviours HIV prevention programmes should target. An example would be the demand by some donors that interventions should have an exclusive focus on adolescents, when in a polygamous society adolescent's risk is often mediated by the older generation. On the other hand community interventions against domestic violence are forced to rely on self reported behaviour (perhaps backed up by participant observation) as an outcome. If the intervention is also a reflexive process then qualitative studies become essential to describe a process of change which contains empowerment, group dynamic and normative dimensions. The locally appropriate nature of such interventions is used to justify participatory interventions as being more effective than didactic approaches, but at the same time in the epidemiological-evaluation paradigm it can be seen as problematic, because (I would argue incorrectly) a participatory process is assumed to generate a wide spectrum of outcomes (low replicability), which mitigates against quantitative evaluation. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    034290

    Annual report 83/84.

    Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

    Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984. [108] p.

    This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
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  3. 3
    034297

    Annual report 1982/1983.

    Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

    Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1983. [93] p.

    This 1982-83 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association (FPA) of Hong Kong reports on the following: program administration; activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); personnel; clinical services; surgical services; laboratory services; affiliated volunteer groups; education; information; library services; motivation and promotion; statistics and evaluation; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; and the Youth Advisory Service. The Association's services are managed by 133 full-time and 21 part-time staff. The clinic attendance figures quoted are for the 1982 calendar year; otherwise, the report refers to the current financial year. There were 43,818 new cases and 51,031 old cases making a total clinic attendance figure of 257,185. Of the 772 female applicants for sterilization, 599 female clients were treated for sterilization in 1982, 502 having mini-laparotomy and 97 having culdoscopic sterilization. 367 vasectomies were performed, representing an increase of 8.6% over the previous year. Educational efforts took the form of Working Youth's Programs, Sexual Awareness Seminars, Sex in Marriage Seminars, Family Planning Talks, and talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. Information activities included exhibitions, columns in newspapers and magazines, media coverage and advertisements, and talks by Association staff to various service clubs and community organizations and universities. Resource development efforts took the form of the production of new family life education resources as well as other resource materials; film, slide, and video production; and audiovisual services. The 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey revealed that 59.2% of the 1403 currently married women interviewed approved, with or without reservation, of the provision of a contraceptive services to the unmarried. 30.5% disapproved of it, and 10.4% had no idea or gave no answer. Studies of the termination of pregnancy and a family life education survey also were conducted. Training efforts included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for social workers and teachers. Total clinic attendance recorded for the Vietnamese Refugees project was 2680; 580 were new cases. The Youth Advisory Service recorded a big increase in the number of new clients (1723), old clients (270), with a total attendance of 3901.
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