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Your search found 24 Results

  1. 1
    180839

    A qualitative evaluation of the impact of the Stepping Stones sexual health programme on domestic violence and relationship power in rural Gambia.

    Shaw M

    [Unpublished] 2002. Presented at the 6th Global Forum for Health Research, Arusha, Tanzania, November, 2002. [6] p.

    The work presented here came from a preliminary evaluation and was followed up by several applications for funding to carry out a prospective community randomised trial. So far none have been accepted. This may be partly due to the fact that such an evaluation runs against current funding culture. Because of it's holistic approach and focus on core skills in couple communication, the Stepping Stones programme is neither just an HIV prevention or just a domestic violence prevention programme, but has something to contribute to both (and would see the two problems as inter-related). Funding on the other hand is often organised 'vertically' by problem, and evaluation criteria may differ from one problem to another. For example donors who fund evaluation of HIV prevention activities usually require a biological outcome, and hence concentrate on geographical areas with high HIV incidence where the epidemic is seen as most severe. Where sociological outcomes are used this tends to be either the use of quantitative tools to assist in risk factor analysis, or qualitative tools which can assist in replication of the intervention. As such they are usually considered secondary to the primary (biological) outcomes. The hope here is that these interventions may provide a 'blueprint' which can subsequently be applied in low prevalence areas. However by concentrating on proximal rather than distal determinants of infection these blueprints may only capture 'half the story', leading to locally inappropriate assumptions about which groups or behaviours HIV prevention programmes should target. An example would be the demand by some donors that interventions should have an exclusive focus on adolescents, when in a polygamous society adolescent's risk is often mediated by the older generation. On the other hand community interventions against domestic violence are forced to rely on self reported behaviour (perhaps backed up by participant observation) as an outcome. If the intervention is also a reflexive process then qualitative studies become essential to describe a process of change which contains empowerment, group dynamic and normative dimensions. The locally appropriate nature of such interventions is used to justify participatory interventions as being more effective than didactic approaches, but at the same time in the epidemiological-evaluation paradigm it can be seen as problematic, because (I would argue incorrectly) a participatory process is assumed to generate a wide spectrum of outcomes (low replicability), which mitigates against quantitative evaluation. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    074503

    Interview: Mr. Tevia Abrams, UNFPA Country Director for India.

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Dec; 3(4):10-2.

    The government of India set up a population program 25 years ago, yet the population is expected to surpass that of China in the near future. The current UN Population Fund (UNFPA) program for India covers the period 1991-95 with coordination, implementation, and evaluation. Improved services focus on states with high fertility and mortality, high infant mortality, self-reliance in contraceptive production, models for maternal health care and traditional health care, national communication strategy, public awareness enhancement, and raising women's status by female literacy expansion and employment generation. UNFPA trains, provides equipment and contraceptives, and nongovernmental organization participation. The bulk of the $90 million cost of the program will come from UNFPA: maternal-child health, family planning (FP), and information, education, and communication (IEC) will receive the most funding. Ethnic and tribal areas will get attention under a decentralized scheme in accordance with the concept of a multicultural society where early age at marriage and high economic value of children are realities. The Ministry is responsible for IEC and FP targets and allocation of funds. Government institutes and universities carry out population research. The creation of India POPIN patterned after the Asia-Pacific Population Information Network is under development under IEC activities. The status of women is varied throughout India, in the state of Kerala literacy reaches 100%, and the birth rate of 19.8%/1000 women is below the national average of 30.5. In contrast, the states of Bihar and Rajasthan with female literacy of 23% and 21%, respectively, have birth rates of 34.4% and 33.9%.
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  3. 3
    034290

    Annual report 83/84.

    Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

    Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984. [108] p.

    This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
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  4. 4
    762112

    Senegal.

    Menes RJ

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)

    This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
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  5. 5
    791259

    Thailand: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 p

    This report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
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  6. 6
    746473

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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  7. 7
    741305

    [Panorama of Costa Rica, 1973. Demographic and social aspects] Panorama de Costa Rica, 1973. Aspectos demograficos y sociales.

    Bermudez MV; Gomez BM

    Centro de Estudios Sociales y de Poblacion (CESPO), Departamento de Investigacion, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1974. 37 p

    A broad synthesis of some socioeconomic and demographic aspects of the population of Costa Rica at the end of 1973 is presented. It covers population size, number of households, marital status of women of reproductive age, age at marriage, population growth, age structure and distribution, ethnic and religious elements, educational level, economic activity, future tendencies, population growth and economic development, historical aspects of the population problem, and the national family planning program. Costa Rica had an annual growth rate of 3.8% in the period 1950-1960; by 1972 the rate was 2.5%. The drop did not seem to be due to the family planning program, though the program's existence may have accelerated the process. Because of the high growth rates, the population is young and dependency rates are high. However, the drop in the birthrate will significantly alter the population structure by the year 2000 such that only 34.1% will be under 15 and 4.4% will be over 65. That fact together with the economic prospects of the country should result in a significantly higher standard of living for the populous in the next decade. The role of the family planning program will become increasingly important as modernization succeeds in lowering mortality rates and increasing longevity.
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  8. 8
    691892

    Thailand. (Family planning)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, April 1969. 6 p.

    Demographic statistics and some information on the cultural situation in Thailand are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) and family-planning-related government personnel are listed. Various FPA-funded projects are summarized. The government started a 3-year family health program in 1968 which will include family planning services. Initial surveys indicated positive attitudes toward and interest in family planning in the country. IUD insertions have totaled 100,000 so far and sterilizations are averaging 10,000 yearly. The plan is to cover 20 million people by 1970. Current training and educational activities are sumarized. Other agencies active in the family planning field are mentioned.
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  9. 9
    746023

    Development and population policy in Ceylon.

    Kodikara SU

    In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60

    The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.
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  10. 10
    753837

    Indonesia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, February 1975. 9 p.

    An overview of the demographic and family planning situation in Indonesia reveals an active movement which began with the 1957 founding of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA). In 1968, the government announced its support of family planning. The Government Family Planning Coordinating Body (BKKBN) coordinates the components of the national program, of which IPPA is one. Most of IPPA's clinics have been turned over to the government for operation, but the organization has plans to establish 14 self-supporting Maternity and Family Planning Clinics throughout Indonesia. Much of IPPA's work in information and education, training, and research and evaluation is also linked with the government program. 16 other organizations also aid Indonesia's family planning program.
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  11. 11
    753836

    The Gambia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, January 1975. 6 p.

    According to 1973 figures, the total population of Gambia is 494,279 and the population growth rate is 4.7%. In 1967 infant mortality was estimated at 122/1000 in Banjul and 500/1000 in rural areas where health services are extremely limited. In 1970 there was 1 hospital in Banjul, 9 rural health centers, 24 dispensaries, and 34 subdispensaries. An increasing demand for abortion, particularly in the Banjul-Kombo-St. Ma ry area, has been reported. Family planning services are provided by the Family Planning Association of Gambia (FPAG), established in 1969, at its 5 clinics. Additionally, a number of health centers are visited by the FPAG. Efforts are now being taken to persuade the government to adopt a population policy and a plan for integrating family planning services into the national health services program. For the 1st half of 1974 Association figures show 791 new acceptors of contraceptive methods, 711 continuing acceptors, and 1442 total visits to the FPAG clinics. Regarding information and education, the FPAG is presently working among both youth and various groups of rural extension personnel. In 1974 the intention had been to increase the motivational literature in 2 of the local languages and to begin the publication of motivational literature in other local languages. In 1975 the Informati on and Education Department will cooperate with the fieldwork cadre in order to receive program feedback. Consequently, fieldworkers will be more actively involved in the preparation of suitable family planning materials.
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  12. 12
    745602

    Republic of Korea (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, February 1974. 10 p.

    The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) was founded in 196 1 to act as a pressure group to persuade the government to set up a family planning program. In 1962 the Korean government became 1 of the 1st in the world with such an official program. PPFK has a permanent staff of 62 at headquarters and 135 at branch offices to implement the information/education program. It was formerly responsible for the training for the government effort and it continues to initiate research and pilot projects. It also indirectly supports the clincs at Seoul National University and Yonsei University Medical colleges, runs 14 demonstration clincs, and has a mobile team unit in Taegi City and surrounding rural areas. Since 1968 it has organized "Mothers' Classes" which have been integrated into the rural community development program. Special projects include a "Stop at 2" campaign which the government officially adopted. The "Two Child Family" club was started in Seoul in 1971 and is expanding. UNFPA is funding an information, education, and communication campaign that will explore various uses of mass media. Pilot telephone consultation was begun in 1973. Vasectomy information is being given to the Homeland Reserve Force, an education project has been started for civil servants, and student newspapers are being used to reach the student population. PPFK has national responsib ility for clinical trials of new contraceptives. Tests on Minovlar ED continue and the results of Neovlar trials are being analyzed. Details of the government organizations are given. Research being carried on at various universities and in other agencies is also capsuled.
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  13. 13
    735203

    Indonesia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1973. 10 p.

    The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) was founded in 1957 and pioneered family planning services. It made little headway duri ng the pronatalist Sukarno regime, but in 1967 the present government announced an intensive family planning program and the IPPA was named as an implementing unit in 1971. 2 primary roles now are the training activities for fieldworkers and the development of community education and motivation programs. This complements the national mass media program. In 1970 the government took over all clinics except those in the Outer Islands (the islands outside Java, Bali, and Madura). The IPPA runs 150 clinics in the Outer Islands, is responsible for all supplies and maintenance, and has a number of model clinics in Java and Bali. The Community Education program has 8 components: speakers bureau, family planning clubs, mobile audiovisual units, exhibitions, tr aditional media, special events, local mass media support, and evaluatio n. In 1971 the 'ippa trained 2951 people; in 1972 this was increased by 25%. In 1973 the target is training 3000 fieldworkers with 16 centers for training and 16 field demonstration areas. An agreement with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities/International Development Association (UNFPA/IDA) will provide for building, equipping, and staffing. The research and evaluation function is also expanding to complement government activities. The government program aims to train 20,250 medical and paramedical personnel over 5 years and medical schools have incorporated the teaching of population and family planning. Government allowances are being curtailed for all children over 3 for government workers. An active clinic program aims to set up 1200 fully equipped and 1250 moderately equipped facilities by 1973. An active media campaign has been launched and for the 1st time in the population field the UNFPA and the IDA are helping to finance a project to expand a family planning program and broaden its activities. This su pport will provide for physical facilities, technical assistance, training, motivation, evaluation, research, and population education.
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  14. 14
    745597

    Laos (Family Planning)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, February 1974. 6 p.

    Laos has been so torn by war and continuing waves of refugees that i t has been difficult to provide basic medical services to the population . In 1969 Laos had 53 medical doctors, 40 of whom were foreign instructors at the School of Medicine, 676 practical nurses, and 400 trained midwives. Before 1971 the government was opposed to family planning. A study commission in that year, however, examined population growth problems and recommended support for family planning. The voluntary association had been formed in 1966 and had sent representatives to international workshops. After the change in government attitude, the association has actively acted to distribute family planning supplies to villages, train midwives as motivators, and give additional training to public health center heads, home economists, medical assistants, and refugee village heads. The governmental emphasis is on better spacing of births rather than limitation. It took over operation of 7 association clinics in 1973 and now helps provide contraceptive services. The association still has 5 fixed and 6 mobile clinics. A refugee pilot program which opened in 1971 now has a permanent building and a full-time rural midwife. The association also stresses influencing opinion leaders through lecture forums, pamphlets, radio commercials, and film shows. Information and Education teams were formed to conduct 2-3 day seminar-lectures in other provinces to diverse groups like village headmen, town influentials, teachers, and other leaders. Many foreign groups have provided assistance, supplies, training, and other aid. WHO is helping with the integration of family planning into the nursing and midwifery curricula in the schools of Laos.
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  15. 15
    745599

    New Zealand. (Family planning)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, January 1974. 4 p.

    The New Zealand Family Planning Association, Inc. (FPA) was founded in 1935 and became a member of IPPF in 1955. In 1975 the government recognized the group's work, for the 1st time made space available for clinic activities, and is permitting Health Dept. doctors to devote sessions to family planning. In 1973 the government donated NZ$18,000 to purchase equipment for new clinics and has provided financial assistance for work in lower income areas. It is estimated that 40% of eligible women are using effective contraception, particularly orals. Prescriptions for orals are generally obtained from private doctors, particularly in rural areas with no family planning clinics. In 1972 the FPA ran 19 clinics, ran an active program of group meetings and press information, and distributed 104,320 copies of leaflets, posters, and pamphlets. 42 doctors were given special family planning training. Trials were undertaken on Copper 7 IUD, Noriday, Depo-Provera, and chlormadnone. In 1973 the number of clinics was increased to 25. Most of the new clinics were in lower socioeconomic areas with equipment purchases subsidized by the government.
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  16. 16
    745593

    Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, January 1974. 5 p.

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, a British colony in the South Pacific, are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) are presented. The FPA was established in 1969 and the government is now integrating family planning into its Maternal and Child Health Services. Public opinion generally favors family planning and family planning education. Charts of services provided over a period of years by the FPA show increasing numbers of acceptors, with the IUD the contin ually increasing favorite. Current educational, research, and evaluation work is summarized. Other organizations have aided in the campaign for family planning.
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  17. 17
    722344

    Fifth annual report, 1970.

    Singapore. Population and Family Planning Board

    Singapore, 1972 (xi). 60 p

    This report presents a detailed analysis of the demographic situation in Singapore, tracing trends in birthrates, fertility rates, and population growth. Family planning services available during 1970 are thoroughly explored, including their funding, birth control methods, and organization and administration. Detailed analyses are given of acceptors of birth control methods by method accepted as well as by acceptor characteristics such as age, parity, education, and race. The Family Planning and Population Board recruited 162,485 acceptors between 1966 and 1970. During that period there was a dramatic decline in the crude birthrate, which was 28.6/1000 in 1966 and 22.1/1000 in 1970. Fertility continued to decline in all age groups and in all ethnic groups during 1970.
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  18. 18
    723681

    Iran (Profile).

    Friesen JK; Moore RV

    Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.

    The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
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  19. 19
    725737

    Sierra Leone (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1972. 5 p

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical sttuation of Sierra Leone are presented. The Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL) was founded in 1960. There is no anticontraceptive legislation in the country but the attitude of the government toward family planning is still tentative. Current educational, fieldwork, clinic operations, and fund raising projects are summarized. Current personneof PPASL are given. New acceptors choose t he IUD generally, with more educated acceptors favoring the pill or spermicides. Other services provided by PPASL are mentioned. Sources of funding, including international organizations, are listed.
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  20. 20
    725732

    Republic of Vietnam (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, May 1972. 5 p

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Republic of Vietnam are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Vietnamese Association for the Protection of Family Happiness are presented. Conservative Catholic opinion considers family planning activity controversial. Contraception is widely practiced by those who can afford to pay for it and the practice is considered private, not open to government interference. The government is showing increasing i nterest in the question of population. Current educational, clinic, training, and research activities are summarized. International organizations providing aid are enumerated.
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  21. 21
    725719

    Hong Kong (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, September 1972. 7 p

    Hong Kong, with 3858 people/sq km, is 1 of the world's most densely populated areas. Family planning was introduced in 1936 by the Hong Kong Eugenics League and 5 clinics were operating by 1940. The Family Planning Association (FPA) was formed in 1950 and was a founder member of IPPF in 1952. Interest in family planning increased as massive immigration from China added to overcrowding. The government supports FPA (in 1972 the grant was U.S.$254,545) and houses 80% of the FPA clinics in government properties. At present there are 46 female clinics providing 189 sessions per week and 2 male clinics operating eac h week. The decline from 54 to 48 clinics is due to the new emphasis on full-time rather than part-time clinics. In 1971 there were 347,894 attenders, an increase of 18% over 1970, and 31,898 new acceptors, an increase of 4%. There has been continued increase in the number of patients requesting oral contraceptives (70.6% in 1971). The IUD began to decline after bad publicity surrounded a large number of loops which had broken in the uterus; in 1971 only 6% of acceptors asked for IUDs. Condoms account for 11.5% and injectables, 3.6%. FPA offers subfertility and marriage guidance services and is extending its Papanicolaou smear service. An active media campaign, exhibitions, and seminars are conducted. Until 1967 fieldwork consisted of random home visits. An efficiency study led to concentration on maternal and child health clinics, postnatal clinics, and follow-up home visits. Home visi ts are still made on request. A number of international trials for various contraceptives have been run in Hong Kong. Many church and international organizations are helping to finance family planning activities, both through FPA and through their own organizations.
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  22. 22
    681113

    Population and family planning in Malaysia.

    Saunders L; Perkin G

    Bangkok, Thailand, March 1968. 28p

    The government of Malaysia has initiated a highly visible, high prio rity family planning program to supplement private family planning efforts in accelerating the decline in birthrates and in promoting the health of families. Because increases in economic production were barely able to meet increase in population, the need for reducing the birthrates in East and West Malaysia became apparent. In 1953, private Family Planning Associations were established and eventually there was one such association in each state. By 1966, these private efforts were providing contraceptive services and supplies through 166 clinics. These associations also sponsor a variety of public information and education activities. In 1966 the government launched a family planning program by passing the Family Planning Act and creating the National Family Planning Board (NFPB). The ultimate aim of the government is to incorporate family planning into an overall health service program. The NFPB is presently a semi-autonomous organization with its own professional staff and clinics and manned by its personnel within the Ministry of Health. The responsibilities of the Board are to establish and administer clinics and distribute funding, conduct social and biological research concerning birth control acceptance and methods, and evaluate the effectiveness of family planning programs. The four divisions of the board include: 1) Administrative Division; 2) Service and Supply Division, whose duties include training new personnel; 3) Research Evaluation and Planning Division; 4) Information Division. The government clinics will be attached to existing government health facilities with priority going to establishing facilities in urban areas. International agencies are supporting the program with contraceptive supplies, technical assistance and training. With the acc eptance of the major ethnic groups and no political or religious opposition and enthusiastic government support, the program is a model for other developing countries.
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  23. 23
    702869

    Malaysia.

    Bin-Marzuki A; Peng JY

    Country Profiles, July 1970. 8 p

    Family planning programs in Malaysia are firmly backed by government policy based on the Family Planning Act of 1966. The estimated population at the end of 1968 was 10 million. The country has a growth rate of 2.8%, a birthrate of 35.2, a death rate of 7.5, and per capita income of U.S.$1056, 1 of the highest in Asia. While the government provides budgetary support, the National Family Planning Board is able to function independently and receives cooperation from a number of Ministries. A strong voluntary Family Planning Association which has existed for many years continues to provide services and cooperates with the government program. The population is highly motivated, and all 3 major ethnic groups accept family planning services. Informational and motivational efforts are being advanced with the setting up of Regional Information Offices staffed by a full-time Information Officer and equipped with vehicles and audiovisual materials. The country's demographic characteristics, socioeconomic development, organization and administration of population programs, research and evaluation, the private sector, educational efforts, and foreign assistance are described.
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  24. 24
    034297

    Annual report 1982/1983.

    Family Planning Association of Hong Kong

    Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1983. [93] p.

    This 1982-83 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association (FPA) of Hong Kong reports on the following: program administration; activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); personnel; clinical services; surgical services; laboratory services; affiliated volunteer groups; education; information; library services; motivation and promotion; statistics and evaluation; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; and the Youth Advisory Service. The Association's services are managed by 133 full-time and 21 part-time staff. The clinic attendance figures quoted are for the 1982 calendar year; otherwise, the report refers to the current financial year. There were 43,818 new cases and 51,031 old cases making a total clinic attendance figure of 257,185. Of the 772 female applicants for sterilization, 599 female clients were treated for sterilization in 1982, 502 having mini-laparotomy and 97 having culdoscopic sterilization. 367 vasectomies were performed, representing an increase of 8.6% over the previous year. Educational efforts took the form of Working Youth's Programs, Sexual Awareness Seminars, Sex in Marriage Seminars, Family Planning Talks, and talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. Information activities included exhibitions, columns in newspapers and magazines, media coverage and advertisements, and talks by Association staff to various service clubs and community organizations and universities. Resource development efforts took the form of the production of new family life education resources as well as other resource materials; film, slide, and video production; and audiovisual services. The 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey revealed that 59.2% of the 1403 currently married women interviewed approved, with or without reservation, of the provision of a contraceptive services to the unmarried. 30.5% disapproved of it, and 10.4% had no idea or gave no answer. Studies of the termination of pregnancy and a family life education survey also were conducted. Training efforts included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for social workers and teachers. Total clinic attendance recorded for the Vietnamese Refugees project was 2680; 580 were new cases. The Youth Advisory Service recorded a big increase in the number of new clients (1723), old clients (270), with a total attendance of 3901.
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