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  1. 1
    064829

    Kenya at the demographic turning point? Hypotheses and a proposed research agenda.

    Kelley AC; Nobbe CE

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. xvi, 97 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 107)

    The interactions within and between the determinants and consequences of rapid population growth in Kenya are analyzed with a view to fostering a research agenda and proving insights for the creation of a population strategy during the next decade. Despite Kenya's long-standing concern about checking its rapid population growth, annual growth rates reach 4%. However, Kenya may be entering a new demographic phase of declining growth rates. Population pressure, through both reduced benefits and increasing costs of children to the household, may be responsible for moderate demographic change. Fertility declines with an eventually sustainable balance between population numbers and the economy and the environment depend upon factors motivating parents to desire fewer offspring. These motivating factors, in turn, depend upon the interrelations among population growth, society, economy, and population policy and programming. While the time frame for demographic transition remains elusive, population programming undertaken thus far, though failing to effect change up to now, may hold the key to future successes. Health delivery and family planning systems are already in place and will influence the pace of population growth decline during future decades. Population and economic trends, population policies and programs for the period 1965-89, research, strategy, and recommendations are discussed at length.
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  2. 2
    074615

    Population issues: briefing kit 1992.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1992 Jul. [2], 21 p.

    The UN Family Planning (FP) Association briefing kit examines 10 key issues in the field of population and development: changes in population growth; balancing population growth in developing countries; population program needs for 2000; the right to FP; growing support for population policy; valuing women equally; balancing people with environmental resources; migration and urbanization; information, education, and communication (IEC); and overcoming the barriers to reliable statistics. These issues demand prompt and urgent action. World population is expected to reach 6 billion by 1998, or 250,000 births/day. 95% of population growth is in developing countries. There have been decreases in family size from 6.1 to 3.9 today, and population growth has declined, but the absolute numbers continue to increase. Over 50% of the world's population in 2000 will be under 25 years. Population growth is not expected to stop until 2200 at 11.6 billion. By 2020-25, the developed world's population will be under 20% and will account for 3% of the annual population increase. Africa's population growth is the fastest at 3.0%/year, including 3.2% in eastern and western Africa, while Europe's is .24%/year. The demographic trends are indicated by region. FP program funding needs to be doubled by 2000 to US $9 billion in order to achieve the medium or most likely projection. $4.5 billion would have to be contributed by developing countries to achieve coverage for 59% of women of reproductive age. Of the US $971 million contributed in 1990, the US contributed $281 million, followed by $64 million from Japan. Other large contributors were Norway, Germany, Canada, Sweden, the UK, and the Netherlands, including the World Bank. In 1990, 141 countries received international population assistance of US $602 million, of which Asia and the Pacific received 35%, sub-Saharan Africa 25%, Latin America 15%, the Middle East and North Africa 9%, Europe 1%, and interregional 15%. FP must be an attitude toward life. Having a national population policy and implementation of an integrated program with development is the objective for all countries. The best investment is in women through increasing educational levels and status and reducing maternal mortality. Policies must also balance resource use between urban and rural areas; urban strategies must include improvement in rural conditions.
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  3. 3
    054773

    Health-related population issues: report of a study group, Brazzaville, 7-9 October 1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa, 1985. vi, 78 p.

    This is a report from a meeting held to consider questions relating to the implementation of family planning as part of integrated services with maternal and child health programs. The geographic focus is on Africa. Consideration is given to nutritional and ecological problems, women's roles in family planning programs, education and communication in family planning, and WHO's program of research in human reproduction. (ANNOTATION)
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  4. 4
    015188

    Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to Colombia's Maternal, Child Health and Population Dynamic's Programme, 1974-1978.

    Reynolds J; Belmar R; Rodriquez-Trias H; Segovia J; Frieiro L

    New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, July 1981. 181 p.

    This report for UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) on Colombia's Maternal and Child Health and Population Dynamics (MCH/PD) program was prepared by an independent team of consultants which spent 3 weeks in Colombia in February 1980 reviewing documents, interviewing key personnel and observing program services. The report consists of 8 chapters. The 1st describes the terms of references of the evaluation mission. The 2nd chapter provides background information on Colombia and identifies some of the principal environmental factors that affect the program. Chapter 3 describes the organizational context within which the program operates. The chapter also includes a discussion of the UNFPA funding and monitoring mechanism and how that affects program planning and operations. Chapter 4 is a description of the program planning process; goals, strategies and objectives, and of the UNFPA and government inputs to the program between 1974-1978, the period under review. A large part of the report is devoted to describing and assessing each program activity. Chapter 5 consists of descriptions of management information; maternal care; infant, child and adolescent care; family planning; supervision; training; community education; and research and evalutation studies. Chapter 6 is an analysis of the program's impact on: maternal morbidity and mortality; infant morbidity and mortality; and fertility. Chapter 7 summarizes the Mission's conclusions and lists its recommendations. The final chapter deals with the Mission's position in relation to the 1980-1983 proposal. Appendices provide statistical data on medical activities, contraceptive distribution and use, content of training courses, target population, total expenditures, and norms for care, as well as organizational charts, individuals interviewed, and UNFPA assistance to other agencies in Colombia. (author's modified)
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  5. 5
    017122

    The philosophy and strategy of the integrated project.

    Kunii C

    In: Rodrigues W, ed. The Third American Conference on Integrated Programmes [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 17-20, 1982] Capri III. [Unpublished] 1982. 21-7.

    The Integrated Project promoted by the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) is based on the concept of humanistic family planning. The Project integrates family planning, nutrition and parasite control. If these components are arranged according to a parent's priorities, they would be in the following order: parasite control, nutrition, and finally, family planning. In developing countries, the Project controls the most commonly found parasites which are transmitted through soil, conducts nutrition education programs, and family planning. In order to implement and develop the Integrated Project, a pilot project should contain the following objectives: 1) to see the effect of the Integrated Project; 2) to use these projects as opportunities for training people to be family planning workers and parasite examination technicians; and 3) to demonstrate the effect of the Integrated Project to the central and local governments and try to encourage them to takeover the projects as their programs. In addition, a steering committee should be responsible for policy making, project design and support in other areas such as procurement and distribution of necessary materials, monitoring, training, research and coordination with the central government and the foreign donor agencies. Pilot areas should contain 20,000 to 30,000 people. More than 1 site with different living conditions should be selected simultaneously, so that different information and experiences from various regions can be obtained. For future evaluation, preliminary surveys are recommended before project implementation. Such surveys should study the acceptance rate of family planning, parasite infection rate, the status of various diseases, and environmental conditions. Deworming drugs, microscopes, and educational materials must be available. A work plan should be formed by holding discussions and clarifying the implementation of parasite control. As the Integrated Project is transformed from the original pilot projects of the experimental stage into expanded programs, it will obtain a higher reputation. Mass media and observations of people outside will help to expand the projects. As a result, the experiences gained in the Project can be incorporated into government controlled primary health care programs.
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  6. 6
    266355

    Maldives: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 50 p. (Report No. 49)

    The rate of population increase in the Republic of Maldives was very low until the 1950s, but rose to more than 3% in the 1960s and early 1970s. An annual increase of 3.2% is estimated in the 1980s. The crude birth rate is high. Population increases like this will put enormous strains on most social activities. 4 clear population policies are emerging; 1) improvement in the health of mothers and children; 2) the need to control population growth, including improving acceptable family planning methods; 3) relief from overcrowding; and 4) development of the atolls to attract voluntary migration. The government has 3 additional aims: 1) increasing the quality and quantity of population statistics and its ability to analyze such data; 2) integrate women into development plans; and 3) improve education of children on environmental subjects, such as the interrelationship of the environment and population. The 1977 census was conducted with United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance. It is hoped that at least 1 Family Health Worker plus at least one Fooluma (traditional birth attendant) will work on each inhabited island; and 2 Community Health Workers and a health center will exist on each atoll. The Maternal and Child Health Program, including child spacing, is incorporated in their job descriptions. There is 1 hospital in Male'; 4 regional hospitals are planned. Male' hospital provides family planning service. A very active National Women's Committee exists. The government is encouraging the establishment of Women's Committees for Island Progress. The average woman has had 5.73 children, of whom 3.99 are alive. The number of children preferred is 3.38. International migration to Male' is a problem. Literacy is high, but there is a shortage of trained personnel. The country needs external assistance.
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