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  1. 1
    182585

    ICT, gender equality, and empowering women.

    Daly JA

    [Unpublished] 2003 Jul 9. 15 p.

    How can information and communication technologies (ICT) be used to promote gender equality in developing nations and to empower women? This essay seeks to deal with that issue, and with the gender effects of the “information revolution.” While obvious linkages will be mentioned, the essay seeks to go beyond the obvious to deal with some of the indirect causal paths of the information revolution on the power of women and equality between the sexes. This is the third1 in a series of essays dealing with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As such, it deals specifically with Goal 3: to promote gender equality and to empower women. It is published to coincide with the International Conference on Gender and Science and Technology. The essay will also deal with the specific targets and indicators for Goal 3. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    074857

    International Symposium: For the Survival of Mankind: Population, Environment and Development.

    Mainichi Shimbun; Japan. National Institute for Research Advancement; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, [1989]. xxxiii, 134 p.

    In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
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  3. 3
    051763

    CFPA 1987 annual report.

    Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation [CFPA]

    St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.

    In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
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  4. 4
    273137

    Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].

    Pan American Health Organization

    [Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.

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  5. 5
    019447

    Haiti. Project paper. Family planning outreach.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. International Development Cooperation Agency

    [Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)

    The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
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  6. 6
    168060

    Securing future supplies for family planning and HIV / AIDS prevention.

    Ashford L

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, MEASURE Communication, 2002 Feb. [8] p. (MEASURE Communication Policy Brief; USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)

    This document presents factors that contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies in developing countries. These include: 1) more people of reproductive age; 2) growing interest in contraceptive use; 3) the spread of HIV/AIDS; 4) insufficient and poorly coordinated donor funding; and 5) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. An international network called the Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security is helping to raise awareness of the problem and find solutions. The group convened a meeting in Istanbul in May 2001, in which representatives of governments and nongovernmental organizations endorsed actions in four areas-- advocacy, national capacity building, financing, and donor coordination. Continued work on this issue focuses on developing country-specific strategies that bring together the national and international partners who play a role in bringing supplies to those who need them.
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  7. 7
    147553

    [From family planning to reproductive health and beyond. Draft] De la planificacion familiar a la salud reproductiva y mas alla. Borrador para libro.

    Ramiro Beltran L

    [Unpublished] 1997 Mar. 155, [20] p.

    This work traces the evolving orientation of institutional family planning at the international level, from the beginning of the birth control movement in the US around 1915 to the recent consensus that family planning should be considered in the broader framework of reproductive health. The opening chapter discusses the origins of the antinatalist movement in the birth control, eugenics, and population control movements and the beginning of US government involvement in family planning. Family planning and its objectives are defined, and the growing view of family planning as a right is discussed in chapter 2. The pressures and achievements of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, which led to a broadening of the focus to encompass issues of development, are assessed. The impact of the environmental movement and the international decade of women, and the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and its consequences for family planning are discussed. The attitudes expressed at the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico City and the decline of US support for international family planning activities are then examined. Beginning around the mid-1980s, a series of shortcomings in family planning programs were noted at the same time that worldwide survey programs demonstrated impressive gains in family planning in developing countries. The gathering movement for reproductive health was embraced by foundations, and reflected in changes of emphasis in the most important international organizations. The focus on reproductive health prevailed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, but doubts have arisen since then over the future of support for family planning and other reproductive health services.
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  8. 8
    130823
    Peer Reviewed

    The ICPD Programme of Action: pious hope or a workable guide?

    Sai FT

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:1-5.

    The consensus achieved at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) signaled a move away from discussing population issues in the context of demographic targets, toward global recognition that the problems associated with rapidly growing human populations are part of a broader human development agenda. Devoid of demographic targets, the ICPD program of action instead challenges countries to change their approach to population programs, family planning, and reproductive health. World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Survey data indicate a high level of unwanted fertility in almost all countries covered. The lack of availability or inaccessibility of family planning services is but one reason why there is so much unmet need. There would be greater uptake of family planning if services were planned with community involvement and oriented toward clients, offering them real choices and paying more attention to them as individuals and their overall circumstances. That expansion in concept and of services is at the core of the Cairo agenda. A number of countries around the world have started taking steps to broaden existing family planning and related programs to include other reproductive health information and services. Mexico and India are examples of two developing countries which are making program and structural changes in order to implement the ICPD recommendations, while most African countries have welcomed the approach and are looking for technical and resource help for implementation.
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  9. 9
    130822
    Peer Reviewed

    The new international population movement: a framework for a constructive critique.

    Basu AM

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:7-31.

    With the support of the international women's movement, the ideology and methods of traditional population policy were effectively attacked at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The author discusses some of the complaints about population policy and family planning programs, then considers the substantive, ethical, and feasibility issues of population and reproductive health policy. The majority of the international population movement's (IPM) new agenda is motivated by goals which tend to be more sensitive to individual needs and human rights than earlier, more impersonal versions of population policy in the developing world. Critical academic examination of the old IPM forced the discussion of the meaning of population policy and population research as they relate to the new reproductive health approach. However, the new population policy approach is now itself ready to be examined internally with regard to its practical recommendations and its assessment of the population problem. An internal critique developed by the movement but drawing upon the experience of mainstream population research and policy will strengthen the movement and hone its ability to match methods to goals. Internal dissent within the movement needs to be aired.
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  10. 10
    130821
    Peer Reviewed

    Reaching a stationary global population: what we have learnt, and what we must do.

    Caldwell JC

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:37-42.

    The onset of fertility decline in France during the late 18th century and broader decline during the last third of the 19th century in Western Europe and the English-speaking European colonies demonstrates that humans are willing to control their fertility. Fertility transition was a social phenomenon. It has also been observed that the idea of fertility decline can spread and be acted upon elsewhere. The events of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) are described and the need to control population growth in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed. While the ICPD's advocacy of improving women's autonomy, status, education, and reproductive health is laudable, those goals are opposed to that of completing the demographic transition. The existence of this opposition indicates that there have been changes in longstanding intellectual and technical aid consensuses. In the wake of the ICPD, developed country governments may never again emphasize the need for family planning programs in developing countries. The largest effect of such a course will probably be upon the demographic transition in sub-Saharan Africa. However, those interested in improving reproductive health in the Third World may join forces with the population movement when they realize that well-funded family planning programs are the key to improving reproductive health services.
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  11. 11
    107011

    International workshop report: Counselling and HIV Infection for Family Planning Associations, 13-17th March, 1989.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. AIDS Prevention Unit

    [Unpublished] 1989. [60] p.

    The International Family Planning Federation's AIDS Prevention Unit sponsored a five-day workshop on counseling and HIV infection for family planning associations (FPAs) at a facility for people with HIV/AIDS in March 1989. The objectives included sharing experiences in counseling on HIV/STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) in family planning programs, examining the integration of sexual health issues into family planning counseling, identifying training needs in interpersonal communication and sexual health issues, sharing approaches to meeting those training needs, and developing an action plan for counseling and sexual health. After introductions on the first day, participants divided into groups to address what they wanted to get out of the workshop, what they wanted to contribute to the workshop, and what their biggest concern is about integrating counseling with AIDS/STDs into their family planning programs. They also shared information on their programs about the status of FPAs in terms of counseling and HIV. The second day involved a name game and role playing to illustrate different levels of communication. Participants also discussed the difference between information, education, and counseling and took part in an exercise geared to trigger facts and feelings. On the third day, the group provided feedback on the facts and feelings discussion trigger, toured the London Lighthouse (the workshop site), and participated in counseling role plays. Activities on the fourth day aimed to process the role plays, to develop counseling skills, and to define sexual health. Participants also played the "safer sex" game. The last day of the workshop involved role plays of exploring the situation, showing materials participants had brought with them and talking about them, future plans, and discussion of the most valuable thing learned at the workshop. Participants also made conclusions and recommendations based on discussions at the workshop.
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  12. 12
    098622

    Donors promise increased support for population, reproductive health.

    ICPD 94. 1994 Aug; (18):3.

    Increased support is needed from the international community to implement the actions proposed in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. Some countries have already indicated their willingness and plans to provide additional funds for population-related programs. For example, the Group of Seven major industrial nations strongly endorsed the ICPD at their July 8-9 summit in Naples. The group called on the World Bank and regional development banks to reinforce private capital flows to developing countries while providing growing resources for health, education, family policies, and environmental protection. The summit in 1995 will focus specifically upon the challenge of providing sustainable development and prosperity for the world's peoples and nations. Most striking, however, is the European Union pledge to increase by fifteen-fold the amount of aid it already gives for population-related development activities in developing countries. Its contribution will total a pledged $347 million/year by the year 2000, with an increased percentage going to sub-Saharan Africa.
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  13. 13
    097748

    [The World Conferences on Population] Les Conferences mondiales sur la population.

    Tabah L

    Population et Societes. 1994 May; (290):1-3.

    The first international population conference was organized in 1927 by the League of Nations, and led to creation of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. At the time, the concept of family planning as an exercise of individual freedom was controversial in countries such as France which were intent on raising their low birth rates. After the war, the UN created a Population Commission and a Population Division for demographic study. The first director general of UNESCO, Julian Huxley, recommended that each country develop a population policy to be integrated into a world policy. His proposed World Population Conference finally was held in Rome in 1954. It was a conference of experts, not of government representatives, but the debates were as much political and ideological as scientific. The concept of population explosion was at the time replacing the notion of overpopulation. In 1962, Sweden announced that it would include family planning in the population programs it financed. The willingness of the UN to respond to all requests for population and family planning assistance was announced at the 1965 World Population Conference in Belgrade. The idea that rapid population growth had negative effects on economic development was becoming prominent. In December 1966, twelve heads of government signed a Population Declaration affirming the right of couples to knowledge and means of family planning. The UN Fund for Population Activities was created; its annual budget has grown from $5 million in 1969 to $240 million at present. The 1974 World Population Conference at Bucharest was a meeting of governments and not of experts. The Plan of Action finally adopted declared demographic variables to be dependent on development and social justice. Fertility regulation was related to family welfare and contraception to maternal and child health, female education, and regulation of age at marriage. The Bucharest Conference legitimized the concept of population policies. By the 1994 World Population Conference in Mexico City, a deceleration of demographic growth was occurring in many countries due to the combined effects of economic progress and family planning programs. The gap between countries better integrated into the world economic system and those especially in sub-Saharan Africa that were failing to achieve integration was widening. The European countries began calling attention to their own population problems of aging, low fertility, and international migration. Abortion was debated but did not appear in the final conference document. The eighty-eight recommendations were adopted by acclamation. The upcoming 1994 Cairo Conference, like the Bucharest and Mexico City conferences, was preceded by expert meetings and regional conferences. The proposed World Population Plan of Action is more elaborate than its predecessors, and the range of problems to be addressed is daunting. The Cairo Conference will have been useful if it advances international cooperation even slightly.
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  14. 14
    084015
    Peer Reviewed

    Medical barriers to contraceptive use.

    Cottingham J; Mehta S

    REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS. 1993 May; (1):97-100.

    Various practices keep women from receiving and using contraception. These medical barriers include those pertaining to eligibility, process, and regulatory and provider bias. Eligibility barriers place too strict criteria on what women may use a particular contraceptive. For example, severe migraine headaches are a relative contraindication for oral contraceptives (OCs), but some community-based distribution programs include headaches without being specific on their checklist, resulting in denying OCs to women who have had a recent headache. Blood tests to rule out liver and cardiovascular diseases as a prerequisite for a prescription of combined OCs in some West African countries represent a process hurdle. Yet, just a brief medical history can identify women at risk of these diseases. Restricting IUD insertion to physicians in some countries is another example of a medical barrier. Family planning providers or program managers sometimes determine themselves what methods are best suited for various women. This provider bias essentially eliminates women's choice of methods. Until 1992, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had not approved the 3-month injectable contraceptive method, Depo-Provera, despite many studies confirming its safety. The lack of FDA approval prevented other countries from approving it. Despite 30 years of OC use worldwide, Japan still does not allow OC use. According to a WHO survey of 50 collaborating centers, the most common medical barrier to contraceptive use is requiring women who use OCs and IUDs to return for follow-up examinations more often than is necessary. This recent survey concludes that no overall standardized information about contraceptives, their side effects, and who can and cannot use them safely exists. WHO and other groups are developing internationally accepted guidelines to counteract conflicting information and outdated criteria for contraceptive delivery.
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  15. 15
    076201

    A reassessment of the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning services. Proceedings of a seminar presented under the Population Council's Robert H. Ebert Program on Critical Issues in Reproductive Health and Population, February 12-13, 1990, the Population Council, New York, New York.

    Rooks J; Winikoff B

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1990. x, 185 p.

    Conference proceedings on reassessing the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning (FP) services cover the following topics: assessment of the history of the concept of reproductive risk, the epidemiology of screening, the implementation of the risk approach in maternity care in Western countries and in poorer countries and in FP, the possible effects on the health care system, costs, and risk benefit calculations. Other risk approaches and ethical considerations are discussed. The conclusions pertain to costs and allocation of resources, information and outreach, objectives, predictive ability, and risk assessment in FP. Recommendations are made. Appendixes include a discussion of issues involved in developing a reproductive risk assessment instrument and scoring system, and the WHO risk approach in maternal and child health and FP. The results show that the application of risk assessment warrants caution and usefulness in service delivery is questionable. The weaknesses and negative effects need further investigation. Risk-based systems tend toward skewed resource allocation. Equal access to care, freedom of choice, and personal autonomy are jeopardized. Risk assessment can accurately predict for a group, but not for individuals. Risk assessment cannot be refined as it is an instrument directed toward probabilities. The risk approach must be evaluated within a functioning health care system. Screening has been important in developed countries, but integration into developing country health care systems may be appropriate only when basic health care is in place and in urban and periurban communities. Recommendations are 1) to prevent problems and detect rather than predict actual complications when no effective maternity care is available; to provide effective care to all women, not just those at high risk; and to provide transportation to adequate facilities for women with complications. 2) All persons attending births should be trained to handle emergencies. 3) Risk assessment has no value unless basic reproductive health services are in place. Cost benefit analysis precludes implementation. Alternative strategies are available to increase contact of women with the health care system, to improve public education strategies, to improve the quality of traditional birth attendants, and to improve the quality of existing services. Women's ideas about what is "risk" and the cost and benefits of a risk-based system to women needs to be solicited. All bad outcomes are not preventable. Copies of this document can be obtained from The Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, NY, NY 10017. Tel: (212) 339-0625, e-mail vkallianes@popcouncil.org.
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  16. 16
    080771

    Needed: a brave and angry plan.

    Anand A

    POPULI. 1993 Feb; 20(2):12-3.

    The Delhi Declaration and Vision 2000 is IPPF's strategic plan for directing efforts through the end of the 20th century. This brave and angry plan points out the need for IPPF to interact more closely with women's groups and nongovernmental organizations to address the needs of marginalized people. Women's status is lower than that of men in most societies. During the 1980s, family planning (FP) programs in some developing countries (e.g., Bangladesh, Brazil, India, and Mexico) directly or structurally pressured women to become sterilized or take part in clinical trials of injectable contraceptives and subdermal implants. IPPF calls for more funds from donor governments for research and development because pharmaceutical companies do the research, but lawsuits, adverse publicity, and consumer campaigns have resulted in reduced pharmaceutical company supported research. Adverse publicity has also been waged against international FP and population control groups, mainly because they do not include women in decision-making roles in all aspects of contraception research. The Declaration calls for a wider women's role in making decisions affecting FP, sexual health, and reproductive rights. Developed and developing countries should share power and freedom. Contraception has brought about positive changes in women's lives, e.g., better health for mother and child. About 51% of couples in developing countries use FP methods, but 300 - 500 million married women who want to use contraceptive still do not have access to it. Since religion, tradition, and peer pressure influence family size, public education is needed. The media needs to become more objective when they report on FP successes rather than on 1 problematic sterilization. AIDS, more unsafe abortions, and unwanted pregnancies make this brave and angry plan even more relevant to addressing today's needs.
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  17. 17
    075112

    After Rio: co-operation, not confrontation.

    Sadik N

    POPULI. 1992 Jul-Aug; 19(2):14.

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development or the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 marked the 1st time a UN-sponsored environment conference even addressed population and environment issues. World leaders, agency leaders, and respected professionals emphasized that population is a key issue in sustainable development. For example, Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland noted the interconnectedness of poverty, environment, and population. The blueprint for action from the Summit, Agenda 21, provided clear guidelines for countries to adopt to change course. Very little emphasis was placed on population, however. Even though there are various ways to interpret and implement the guidelines, the countries should do so in a spirit of cooperation rather than confrontation. They should remember that the whole planet is at stake. Many discussions of the preparatory committees and at the Global Forum centered around women's rights and government policy. The Executive Director of UNFPA does not consider these 2 concerns as opposites since government programs depend on the cooperation of both women and men. Family planning (FP) programs also depend on them. FP programs cannot succeed without an involved government. The core of population programs is reduction of family size via provision of effective FP services. Yet they also should provide effective maternal and child health care services with adequate numbers of trained and supervised health workers. Agenda 21 did not mention men even though FP and family welfare are also men's issues. Men also determine the success of FP programs and family welfare programs. In the next decade, we must all work together for sustainable development since our lives and those of our children depend on it.
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  18. 18
    072011

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Jolly R

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):28.

    UNICEF advocates the reduction of infant/child mortality because it feels that such an action will reduce both fertility and human suffering. It was feared in the beginning, and today as well, that increasing the survival rate for children would cause rapid population growth. However, there is a large body of evidence to the contrary. When such measures are combined with measures to promote and support family planning there are even greater reductions in fertility levels. This is why such organizations as UNFPA, WHO, and UNICEF have advocated this course of action. This strategy is also present in the Declaration of the World Summit for Children. Anyone advocating the reduction in support for programs designed to enhance child survival as a method of population control is confusing the issues, misdirecting environmental attention, and stirring up the debate about international mortality. The evidence clearly shows that family planning without family health, including child health, is much less successful. Further, child mortality, even at high levels does little to slow population growth while such death and suffering greatly burden women and families. While rapid population growth and high population densities in developing countries present serious problems, both are much less important than the high levels of consumption in developed nations. Each child in the industrialized world will, at present levels of consumption, be expected to consume 30 to 100 times more than a child born in the poorest nations. Such suggestions in a time of instant global communication only attempt to set back international morality and tempt those in the international intellectual community to embrace ideas similar to the eugenic principles that led to the holocaust.
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  19. 19
    050909

    [Annual report of activities 1987] Informe anual de actividades 1987.

    Fundacion Mexicana para la Planeacion Familiar [MEXFAM]

    Mexico City, Mexico, MEXFAM, 1988 Feb. [2], 10 p.

    During 1987 the Mexican Federation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) continued developing its programs following the same orientation as in the previous year, but at a slower pace intended to achieve a greater degree of consolidation. A permanent mechanism for qualitative evaluation was arranged with the Mexican Institute for Social Studies, an external organization. Work was initiated in 4 new states, bringing the total to 26 of Mexico's 32 states. Activities were suspended in Yucatan because new information revealed that fertility rates were relatively low. MEXFAM does not seek to provide massive family planning coverage but rather to act as a catalyst for family planning activities. MEXFAM is expanding its program of "community doctors", in which it assists young medical school graduates to establish practices in underserved urban areas. In a similar program, "affiliate doctors", physicians already established in their communities, receive technical assistance and materials to begin offering family planning services. During 1987, MEXFAM initiated the "Young People" program to provide sex and family planning education to young people under 20 in schools, clubs, and recreation centers. Various films were made to provide sex education to the Young People program. They were well received in Mexico and some were broadcast in other countries. In 1987, 382,328 new users were served, compared to 174,634 in 1986. 73% of the new users were in MEXFAM programs and the rest were in collaborative programs. Mexico's deteriorating economic situation in 1987 was reflected in increasing resource scarcities for public health organizations. The broad geographic distribution and remoteness of some MEXFAM programs pose a serious challenge for control and supervision. Programs have been grouped into logistic centers with responsibility for supervision assigned on a regional basis. MEXFAM is making great efforts to improve its record system, adapt it to International Planned Parenthood Federation requirements, and make it compatible with the Ministry of Health record system. A certain amount of confusion is anticipated in 1988 as workers become accustomed to new record formats. User payments are the main source of local revenues for MEXFAM. Given Mexico's poor economic situation, the prospects for an increase in local donations are poor, but efforts to raise funds locally are continuous. 4 new external donors were added in 1987. The International Planned Parenthood Federation continues to be the main source of funds. 87% of MEXFAM funds were directly spent on projects and 13% on administration and general services in 1987.
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  20. 20
    064186

    The state of world population 1990: choices for the new century.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 40 p.

    The decade of the 1990's, the Fourth Development Decade, will be "critical" because of the world's demographic situation will determine the future for the 21st century in terms of population growth and the effect of growing populations in terms of damage to the environment. Despite the fact that government political support for population programs and activities rose from 97 countries in 1976 to 125 in 1988 (Africa rose from 16 in 1978 to 30 in 1988), the contraceptive prevalence rates in developing countries (excluding China) during the 1980's fell below 40%. Many countries encountered a "mix" of difficulties maintaining their family planning programs (FP) because of declining political support and the debt burden forcing governments to reduce investments in health and social welfare programs, including FP. By the year 2025 the UN expects 8,467 million people; 147 million (<5%) will be in the industrialized countries and 95% in the developing countries of Africa, Latin America and Asia. This report discusses human resource development during the Fourth Development Decade. FP and population programs must become integral components of countries' development process to achieve sustainable economic growth. 19 recommendations are offered on how to achieve sustained fertility declines. This UNFPA report includes the following sections: Introduction; Part 1 "The Challenges Ahead"; Part 2 "Keeping the Options Open"; Part 3 "Human Resource Development-A New Priority"; Conclusion and Recommendations.
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  21. 21
    058858

    Annual report 1988-1989.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1989. 33 p.

    In 1952 in Bombay, India, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was founded at a conference with delegates from 8 nations. By the end of 1988, 104 members and 2 affiliations made up IPPF and it was providing family planning assistance to >130 countries. Data has confirmed that child spacing, be it through modern contraceptive practices or traditional means, improves the health of both mother and child. These data support what IPPF and the family planning movement have been advocating for decades. To further promote better health through family planning, IPPF has renewed its commitment to work together with its donors, among its members, and other agencies. For example, in 1988, the Kenyan Family Planning Association (KFPA) helped support a soil protection project of a local women's group. The KFPA offered the women family planning services and operated an immunization program. In September 1988, staff and volunteers determined what programs were needed to reach IPPF's goal: 450 million couples worldwide will be using modern contraception by 2000. They also outlined 3 basic principles for IPPF's work: the individual and couple's right to control their own fertility; the opportunity to plan a family contributes greatly to mental and physical health; and the need to maintain a balance between natural resources and population. Also this group identified Africa as the region in most need of IPPF family planning assistance. In Africa, youth projects highlighting adolescent pregnancy and AIDS education have been targeted. During 1988-1989, IPPF continued active support for the remaining regions. As of 1988-1989, USAID had not renewed the financial support it withdrew in 1985. In April 1989, Dr. Halfdan Mahler, who was the Director-General of WHO for 15 years, replaced Mr. Bradman Weerakon as IPPF's Secretary-General.
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  22. 22
    271782

    Old challenges and new areas for international co-operation in population.

    Sadik N

    POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1989; (27):125-35.

    Taking stock of accomplishments in the field of population reveals that significant progress has been made since the late 1960s but that much remains to be done. Important challenges in population for 1990 and beyond include the implementation of more effective family planning programs, greater accessibility to better family planning services at the local level, a wider range of choices in contraceptive methods, and better training and supervision of family planning delivery personnel. Another major challenge is to give attention to the various aspects of the role of women--beyond mere acknowledgement and to the actual implementation of programs. Further, policies need to be formulated and implemented across several sectors to deal with the complex interaction between population, resources, and the environment. To devise such policies, knowledge of the interrelationships needs to be clarified and refined. Finally, still greater emphasis will have to be placed on improving the integration of population and development. Accomplishing that will require wider awareness, enhanced coordination and adequate resources--an increase of at least $100 million per year from now to the end of the century over the annual current level of some $550 million for all external assistance for population. (author's)
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  23. 23
    207309

    UN/IUSSP Expert Group Meeting on the International Transmission of Population Policy Experience, New York, USA, 27-30 June 1988.

    McNicoll G

    INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE SCIENTFIC STUDY OF POPULATION NEWSLETTER. 1989 May-Aug; (36):51-64.

    In this report on the meeting, The International Union for the Scientific Study of Population presents a point of focus for discussing the research and program aspects of population policy. The experience of its own activities bearing on population policy over its 60-year history, and its changing relation with governments and UN and other international agencies, provide insights on the subject. The emergence over the past 3 decades of a wide consensus that the best (and virtually the sole effective) means of reducing perceived too-high fertility is through family planning programs is the most striking feature of population policy thinking since the 1940s. A number of factors have contributed to this development. 1 of them is the narrowing scope of demography and, within that scope, its increasing rigor and technical sophistication, including the efflorescence of survey taking, yielding numerous data sets on the most readily quantifiable aspects of attitudes towards, access to, and practice of contraception. A 2nd factor is a shift from a social scientific to a policy orientation, stimulated by the need to combat rapid population growth in developing countries. A 3rd factor is the influence of the family planning movement itself. In contrast to the fertility case, demographic research on mortality has proceeded fairly independently of programmatic action. This has probably been because the arena for program research has been seen as the bailiwick of the medical and public health professions rather than that of demographers. Policy research that must contend with program models already firmly in mind, and often already in place, is somewhat removed from the ideal type of social science influence on public affairs. At various points the author touches on the contrast between the breadth of knowledge that should ideally inform population policy and the fairly narrow terrain that demographers have intensively cultivated. Both the strengths and the weaknesses of demography's contributions to policy lie here.
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  24. 24
    041887

    Annual report: 1985.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, FPIA, 1985. 206 p.

    Summarizing the work of the Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) for the past 14 months, with emphasis on 1985, this document contains both regional and country reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America. FPIA's strategy in Africa during 1985 was to focus on small, high-risk projects which call for extensive technical assistance. Project Assistance accounted for 48.8% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 47.5% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region. Special Grants accounted for slightly over 2.1% of the total assistance to Africa. In the Asia and Pacific Region, components of the FPIA strategy include: consolidate support and provide technical assistance to those agencies whose family planning services can be institutionalized and serve to complement and influence the goals, objectives, and program procedures of their governments' national family planning programs; problem solve with grantee agencies approaches to innovative delivery of temporary method services; provide training opportunities and technical assistance to project management and staff as well as to influential nonproject persons; and establish how FPIA commodities can complement supplies available to nongovernmental organizations through their government warehouses and bilateral supported community retail sales program. Project Assistance accounted for 47.1% of the total value of FPIA assistance in the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 50.8% and Special Grants slightly over 1% of total assistance to the region. In Latin America, FPIA's program goals respond to agency goals of promoting family planning services in areas of unmet need, upgrading existing family planning service models, and encouraging service continuation following the phase-out of FPIA support. Project Assistance accounted for 46.8%, Commodity Assistance 52.2%, and Special Grants less than 1% of total FPIA assistance to the region. The combined value of all types of assistance provided worldwide during 1985 totaled over $18 million: $7.2 million in direct support to 128 funded projects in 39 countries; and $10.1 million in commodities shipped to 218 institutions in 66 countries. Oral contraceptive and condom shipments alone were sufficient to supply 2.4 million contraceptors for 1 year.
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  25. 25
    269782

    Health aspects of population dynamics: report by the Director-General to the 21st World Health Assembly.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1968 Apr 24. 8 p. (A21/P and B/9)

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