Your search found 16 Results
Brussels, Belgium, DSW, 2009. 62 p.In September, DSW and the European Parliamentary Forum (EPF) produced the 2009 edition of our Euromapping report, an annual publication that provides an overview of the comparative ODA and SRH funding contributions and commitments of an individual donor country over time. This year's publication has been produced with the support of the European Commission, which has allowed us to release the publication along with a coordinated advocacy and media campaign in 7 European countries. In addition to being a quick reference guide on European funding levels for family planning and reproductive health, Euromapping is intended as an advocacy tool for NGOs and decision makers to monitor the level and composition of ODA as a means of verifying whether governments are living up to their political and policy commitments.
Community-based distribution (CBD) of low cost family planning and maternal and child health services in rural Nigeria (expansion).
In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar.  p. (NGA-02)A community-based distribution (CBD) project has been in operation since 1980 in Oyo State, Nigeria. As a result of word-of-mouth communication among health professionals, television coverage of graduation ceremonies, and positive political feedback from the pilot area, the state government requested assistance in expanding the program. In collaboration with the State Health Council, the Pathfinder Fund, University College Hospital, and the Center for Population and Family Health of Columbia University, the program was expanded in 1982 at a cost of US $237,517. In each of the 4 health zones of the expansion area, a Primary Health Center (PHC) became the training and supervisory center. The expanded program was modified in light of experience in the pilot area. Monthly stipends to CBD workers were eliminated and, because of government policy, no fees were to be charged for services. (This policy was later reversed.) Also, a full-time CBD supervisor was assigned to each zone, rather than relying on individual maternity staff members for supervision. Each zone was limited to 100 CBD workers. Data collection included baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practice surveys and a village documentation survey to estimate the service population. The project also carried out in-depth CBD worker interviews, structured observations of training, mini-surveys, analyses of supervision records and service statistics, and a case study of the impact of the CBD program in which villagers were interviewed about the educational and clinical roles of the CBD workers. Although initial family planning (FP) acceptance was low, ever use of a modern method has increased from 2 to 25% in the pilot area. About half of the married women of reproductive ages in the project area are not sexually active at any one time because of postpartum abstinence. Most of the acceptance of modern contraceptives replaces use of traditional abstinence. Male promoters have proved to be an asset to male acceptance of FP services. Individual monetary incentives are not required to motivate CBD workers; however, once incentives are given, difficulties are created if they are stopped, as they were in the pilot area. The CBD approach has changed the concept of health care from that of providing services to clients who come to a fixed site to reaching out to provide services to all people living within a particular catchment area. The expanded project was subsequently extended into additional areas of Oyo State by the State Health Council. In addition, a conference to discuss the project, held in January 1985, was attended by health program managers and policymakers from all parts of Nigeria. The conference stimulated planning by State and Federal Ministries of Health to undertake CBD as a major strategy for primary health care in rural areas.
Health systems research in maternal and child health including family planning: issues and priorities. Report of the meeting of the Steering Committee of the Task Force on Health Systems Research in Maternal and Child Health including Family Planning, New Delhi, 12-15 March 1984.
[Unpublished] 1985. 23 p. (MCH/85.8)In a series of general discussions aimed at establishing health systems research priorities, the Steering Committee of the Task Force on the Risk Approach and Program Research in Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Care identified 9 major issues: 1) health services and health systems, 2) research and service to the community, 3) involving the community, 4) evaluation, 5) information systems, 6) interdisciplinary nature of health systems research, 7) appropriateness in technology and research, 8) funding and collaboration between agencies, and 9) implications for research program strategies. Background considerations regarding subject priorities for health systems research include the policies, goals, and programs of WHO, especially the goal of health for all by the year 2000. Of particular importance is the joining of training in health systems research with the research itself given the shortage of workers in this area. The sequence of events in the management of research proposals includes approach by an applicant, the WHO response, information to the appropriate WHO regional office, the beginning of technical dialogue, development of protocol, submission of grant application, contractual agreement, initial payments, regular monitoring of progress, proposed training strategy, annual reports, final report, and assistance in disseminating results. 3 subject areas were identified by the Steering Committee for additional scrutiny: 1) the dissemination of results of health systems research in maternal-child health/family planning, 2) the implementation of health services research and the studies to be funded, and 3) the coordination and "broker" functions of the Steering Committee.
Democratic Republic of the Sudan. Report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 Jul. x, 67 p. (Report No. 84)This report covers the second (1986) UN Population Fund Needs Assessment Mission to Sudan which sought information on the status of and prospects for population activities. The introductory material includes highlights of statistical data in the areas of demography, health, education, and the economy as well as a map of the country. Chapter 1 of the report contains a summary and recommendations for assistance in the following areas which are discussed more fully in the chapters noted: population policies and population and development planning (Chapter 4); basic data collection and analysis (Chapter 5); social, economic, and demographic research (Chapter 6); maternal and child health and family planning (FP) (Chapter 7); population information, education, and communication (Chapter 8); and women and development (Chapter 9). Chapter 2 of the report describes the national setting in terms of its geographical, cultural, governmental, economic, and social characteristics. Chapter 3 looks at population trends and their implications. In conclusion, chapter 10 discusses the possibilities for external multilateral and bilateral assistance for population programs as well as assistance from nongovernmental organizations.
PEOPLE COUNT. 1994 Nov; 4(10):1-4.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) can be optimistic about achieving the goals adopted for it at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development because its accomplishments of the past 25 years overcame strong obstacles. In 1969, there was little appreciation of the importance of population factors, population was a controversial element in the development debate, it was difficult to achieve funding for population programs, less than 10% of couples (versus 55% today) used family planning (FP), and population growth was more than 2% per year (it is 1.5% today). The proposed UNFPA program for the Philippines for 1994-98 aims to help the Philippine government achieve population growth and distribution which is consistent with sustainable development by 1) broadening awareness of and support for population programs, 2) improving FP services, 3) improving service delivery through nongovernmental organizations, 4) integrating population perspectives into development plans, 5) improving the quality of population data, 6) integrating gender and environmental concerns into population policies and programs, and 7) coordinating program implementation with other donors. Specific goals of the proposed program are to improve the health of women and children through maternal/child health and FP services, to increase contraceptive prevalence by 10%, to extend FP services to remote areas and provide a wide array of methods, to support IEC (information, education, and communication) activities, to strengthen data collection and analysis capabilities at a cost of $500,000, to provide $2.4 million to efforts to promote greater consideration of population factors in policy making and development planning, to contribute $700,000 to research on population dynamics, and to provide $3.7 million to improve the status of women. The program will be managed by the government and monitored in accordance with standard UNFPA guidelines with a mid-term review scheduled for 1996.
STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1994 Nov-Dec; 25(6 Pt 1):362-7.International Program in Population and Family Planning, Pathfinder International, and other organizations providing support to family planning organizations in developing countries, generally recommend that women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs) go for an initial revisit at four to six weeks postinsertion, a second revisit at one year, and subsequent revisits at yearly intervals. However, ministries of health and family planning organizations in developing countries generally recommend more frequent revisits. This study examined the effect of reducing the recommended number of IUD follow-up visits using data from clinical trials of the TCu380A and other widely used IUDs conducted by Family Health International (FHI) during 1986-89. The clinical studies were conducted in 13 clinics in 9 countries (Cameroon, Egypt, El Salvador, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Venezuela) among sexually active and healthy women aged 18-40. Over 11,000 follow-up forms were analyzed to estimate the number of health problems that would escape detection if women with no or mild symptoms had not made recommended visits. Less than 1% of woman-visits with no or only mild symptoms had an underlying health risk that could have gone undetected if the follow-up visits that were made in the clinic trial setting had not been made. Results suggest that a reduction in the number of recommended follow-up visits is safe, when measured according to selected conditions. Clinic policy and practice in family planning probably could move toward encouraging fewer recommended follow-up visits, while simultaneously encouraging those who feel they need assistance to seek medical attention. Additional research is, however, needed to determine whether any revisits should be recommended in the absence of sign and symptoms.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1991. vii, 266 p. (Order No. 9116069)The effectiveness of official development assistance in responding to health problems in recipient countries may be examined in terms of 1) the results of specific aid-supported projects, 2) the degree to which the activities have contributed to recipients' institutional capacity, and 3) the impact of aid on national policy and the broader development process. A review of the literature indicates a number of conceptual and practical constraints to assessing health aid effectiveness. Numerous health projects have been evaluated and issues of sustainability have been studied, but relatively little is known about the systemic effects of health aid. The experience of Nigeria is analyzed between the mid-1970s and the late 1980s. In the 1970s, Nigeria's income rose substantially from oil revenues, and a national program was undertaken to increase the provision of basic health services. The program did not achieve its immediate objectives, and health sector problems were exacerbated by the decline of national income during the 1980s. Since 1987, a progressive national primary healthcare policy has been in place. Aid has been given to Nigeria in comparatively small amounts per capita. Among the major donors, WHO, UNICEF, and, most recently, the World Bank, have assisted the development of general health services, while USAID, UNFPA, and the Ford Foundation have aided the health sector with the principal objective of promoting family planning. 3 projects are examined as case studies. They are: a model of family health clinics for maternal and child care; a largescale research project for health and family planning services; and a national immunization program. The effectiveness of each was constrained initially by limited coordination among donors and by the lack of a supportive policy framework. The 1st 2 of these projects developed service delivery models that have been reflected in the national health strategy. The immunization program has reached nationwide coverage, although with uncertain systemic impact. Overall, aid is seen as having made a marginal but significant contribution to health development in Nigeria,a primarily through the demonstration of new service delivery approaches and the improvement of management capacity. (author's)
NEW AFRICAN. 1991 Sep; (288):43-4.This article, which explains the severe need for family planning in Africa, serves as an introductory piece to a supplement dealing the problems faced by the medical community in dealing with the health of families in the continent. The articles in the supplement are written by medical staff workers of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, an agency of the German government designed to assist in the planning and execution of health development projects. As the article explains, Africa has the highest maternal mortality in the world, ranging anywhere from 400/100,000 live births to 1000/100,000 live births. The risk is greatest among very young or very old women. Maternal mortality rate among women aged 15-19 is twice that of women 20-24. And for girls under 15, the risk is 5x to 7x greater. The risk is also very high among women over 35. Furthermore, a high frequency of birth endangers the health of the mother and infant. Unwanted pregnancies often result in illegal abortions, which can cost the life of the mother. Many couples in Africa say that they would like to limit family size to 2 or 3 children. Also, knowledge of modern contraceptive methods runs as high as 80-90%. Yet most couples do not have access to family planning services, and in the instances when they do have access, services are often ill-equipped to handle the demand. In order to address these concerns, GTZ has supported family planning programs throughout Africa.
New York, New York, New York University Press, 1991. xxiv, 464 p.This publication contains an UNFPA assessment of the accomplishments of population activities over the last 20 years. The world's leading multilateral population agency, UNFPA decided to conduct the study in order to identify obstacles to such programs, acquire forward-looking strategies, and facilitate interagency cooperation. The 1st section examines 3 categories of population activities: 1) population data, policy, and research; 2) maternal and child health, and family planning; 3) and information, education, and communication. This section also recognized 9 key issues that affect the success of population programs: political commitment, national and international coordination, the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector, institutionalization, the role of women and gender considerations, research, training, monitoring and evaluation, and the mobilization of resources at the national and international level. The 2nd section of the publication discusses population policies and programs in the following regions: sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean . Finally, the 3rd section provides and agenda for the future, discussing the significance of international efforts in the field of population, as well as pointing out the programmatic implications at the national and international levels. 2 annexes provide demographic and socioeconomic data for 142 countries, as well as the government perceptions of demographic characteristics for individual countries.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1985. viii, 56 p. (Report No. 83)The 3rd Needs Assessment Mission from the UN Fund for Population Activities visited JOrdan in 1985. While Jordan has a high per capita gross national product of Us $1640, its demographic characteristics are those of a less developed country. It has a high crude birth rate of 44.9 (1980-1985), a high annual growth rate of 3.66 (1980-1985), and a young population, 49.4% of whom are under the age of 15. The government has not adopted an official population policy. The government is particularly concerned about the large numbers of skilled and professional workers leaving Jordan to work abroad, and the large inflow of semi-skilled and manual workers. The MIssion recommends that the National Population Commission, which could provide the framework for an integrated approach to population and development, should undertake the formulation of comprehensive population policies, ensuring that population issues are integrated into national development planning. The MIssion recommends that a Human Resources Section be established within the Ministry of Planning by expanding the present manpower section. The MIssion recommends upgrading demographic data collection through cooperation between the Department of Statistics and the Civil Status Department by making full use of equipment and facilities, comparing data sets, using census and population register data fully, and using census data as a standard for evaluating other data sets. The Mission recommends that the government's expansion of health services within a primary health care framework should be supported and assistance provided in the establishment of a primary health care training and demonstration center. The Mission recommends that greater efforts should be made to include population education in the school curriculum. There is a need for data and information on women.
[National Conference on Fertility and Family, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, April 13, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., a 13 de abril de 1984.
Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 228 p.Proceedings of a national conferences on the family and fertility held in April 1984 as part of Mexico's preparation for the August 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses outline the background and objectives of the conference, while the 1st paper details recommendations of a 1983 meeting on fertility and the family held in New Delhi. The main body of the report presents 2 conference papers and commentary. The 1st paper, on fertility, contraception, and family planning, discusses fertility policies; levels and trends of fertility in Mexico from 1900 to 1970 and since 1970; socioeconomic and geographic fertility differentials; the relationship of mortality and fertility; contraception and the role of intermediate variables; the history and achievements of family planning activities of the private and public sectors in Mexico; and the relationship between contraception, fertility, and family planning. The 2nd paper, on the family as a sociodemographic unit and subject of population policies, discusses the World Population Plan of Action and current sociodemographic policies in Mexico; the family as a sociodemographic unit, including the implications of formal demography for the study of family phenomena, the dynamic sociodemographic composition of the family unit, and the family as a mediating unit for internal and external social actions; and steps in development of a possible population policy in which families would be considered an active part, including ideologic views of the family as a passive object of policy and possible mobilization strategies for families in population policies. The conference as a whole concluded by reaffirming the guiding principles of Mexico's population policy, including the right of couples to decide the number and spacing of their children, the fundamental objective of the population policy of elevating the socioeconomic and cultural level of the population, the view of population policy as an essential element of development policy, and the right of women to full participation. Greater efforts were believed to be necessary in such priority areas as integration of family planning programs with development planning and population policy, creation of methodologies for the analysis of families in their social contexts, development and application of contraceptive methodologies, promotion of male participation in family planning, coordination of federal and state family planning programs, and creation of sociodemographic information systems to ensure availability of more complete date on families in specific population sectors. The principles of the World Population Plan of Action were also reaffirmed.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA-sponsored country programme in Democratic Yemen, 1979-1984 and role of women in it.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. xiii, 101 p.The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-sponsored Country Program was the 1st comprehensive effort in the field of population in Democratic Yemen, following earlier sub-sectoral interventions which benefitted from UNFPA assistance. This evaluation covers 1) the country program as such, focusing on the results achieved in terms of building national capacity for formulating and implementing population policies and programs; 2) the 7 component projects, one in data collection and analysis, a maternal child health/family planning project, and 5 in population education for different audiences; and 3) the women's dimension of the program. At the end of the 4th year of implementation, little had been done by the Country Program in terms of institution building and population policy. The program's achievements were hindered by factors such as an extreme shortage of national qualified staff, training facilities, poor program design, insufficient technical leadership and support, as well as unrealistic objectives. The 7 component projects were plagued with similar problems and made only modest acheivements. The Evaluation Mission expressed the view that long term international expertise to serve all projects would have been advisable as well as long term training abroad for a few people who could become leaders/advisors/administrators. In evaluating the role of women, the Mission found that women had participated in the implementation of all the projects evaluated but were mainly to be found in junior positions. The program as a whole contained a substantial portion of women among its direct beneficiaries comprising those who had been trained, employed and targeted as recipients of the services of the projects, although this varied considerably between projects. In general, the Mission was of the view that in the future a country program document should be prepared specifying the long term and immediate objectives for the population program as a whole.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.
In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
Studies in Family Planning. 1978 May; 9(5):89-147.A macroanalysis of the correlates of fertility decline in developing countries for the period 1965-75. The analysis focuses on how much of the fertility decline is associated with socioeconomic variables such as health, education, economic status, and urbanization, or with "modernization" as a whole, and how much with population policies and programs designed to reduce rates of growth. The data are examined in a variety of ways: 1) simple correlations among the variables; 2) multiple regression analysis using both 1970 values of socioeconomic variables and, for the alternative lag theory, 1960 values; 3) change in the socioeconomic variables over time; 4) a special form of regression analysis called path analysis; 5) a relatively new type of analysis called exploratory data analysis; 6) relation of socioeconomic level and program efforts to both absolute and percentage declines in fertility; 7) crosstabulations of program effort with an index of socioeconomic variables. Such data and analyses show that the level of "modernization" as reflected by 7 socioeconomic factors has a substantial relationship to fertility decline, but also that family planning programs have a significant, independent effect over and above the effect of socioeconomic factors. The key finding probably is that 2 (social setting and program effort) go together most effectively. Countries that rank well on socioeconomic variables and also make substantial program effort have had on average much more fertility decline than have countries with one or the other, and far more than those with neither. Finally, the relationship between predicted and observed crude birth rate decline for the 94 developing countries over this period is illustrated for different combinations of actors, and an attempt is made to estimate the quantitative impact of the major conditions upon the intermediate variables traditionally assumed to account for crude birth rate change.(AUTHOR ABSTRACT)
New York, New York, United Nations, 1982. 290 p. (Population Studies No. 76; ST/ESA/SER.A/76)This 3-part report is a result of the work of the Second Expert Group Meeting on Methods of Measuring the Impact of Family Planning Programmes on Fertility, which met in Geneva, Switzerland, in March 1979. The 1st part consists of a report on the meeting, including discussions of the methods, potential fertility, gross and net program effects, direct and residual effects, a prevalence-based model, computerization of principal methods for assessing program effect on fertility, future developments, problems of measurement of program effort, needed research, and recommendations. The 2nd part comprises case studies by national experts of application of methods in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Korea, Thailand, and Tunisia as well as an analysis of issues in the comparative analysis of techniques for evaluating family planning programs presented by the case studies. The 3rd part provides statements on measuring the impact of family planning programs on fertility, submitted by members of the Second Expert Group. Topics covered include potential fertility, changing concepts and data needs, the interpretation of regression analyses, indices of family planning inputs, analytical approaches to the comparison of methodologies, uniform births-averted calculations for 9 countries, the utilization of program input indicators, program relationship to the nonprogram sector, evaluation of integrated service programs, linkages of social change to family planning, and unresolved issues.