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New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities; London, England, Croom Helm, 1980. 215 p.The Arab population, consisting of 20 states and the people of Palestine, was almost 153 million in 1978 and is expected to reach 300 million by the year 2000. Most Arab countries have a high population growth rate of 3%, a young population structure with about 50% under age 15, a high rate of marriage, early age of marriage, large family size norm, and an agrarian rural community life, along with a high rate of urban expansion. Health patterns are also similar with epidemic diseases leading as causes of mortality and morbidity. But there is uneven distribution of wealth in the region with per capita annual income ranging from US$100 in Somalia to US$12,050 in Kuwait; health care is also more elaborate in the wealthier countries. Fertility rates are high in most countries, with crude birthrates about 45/1000 compared with 32/1000 in the world as a whole and 17/1000 in most developed countries. In many Arab countries up to 30-50% of total investment is involved in population-related activities compared to 15% in European countries. There is also increasing pressure in the educational and health systems with the same amount of professionals dealing with an increasing amount of people. Unplanned and excessive fertility also contributes to health problems for mothers and children with higher morbidity, mortality, and nutrition problems. Physical isolation of communities contributes to difficulties in spreading health care availability. Urban population is growing rapidly, 6%/year in most Arab cities, and at a rate of 10-15% in the cities of Kuwait and Qatar; this rate is not accompanied by sufficient urban planning policies or modernization. A unique population problem in this area is that of the over 2 million Palestinians living in and outside the Middle East who put demographic pressures on the Arab countries. 2 major constraints inhibit efforts to solve the Arab population problem: 1) the difficulty of actually reallocating the people to achieve more even distribution, and 2) cultural and political sensitivities. Since in the Arab countries fertility does not correlate well with social and economic indicators, it is possible that development alone will not reduce the fertility of the Arab countries unless rigorous and effective family planning policies are put into action.
Integrating population programmes, statement made at 10th Asian Parasite Control Organization Family Planning Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 5 September 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p. (Speech Series No. 95)The relationship between the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and UNFPA has been a vital force in the integration of family planning programs with nutrition and health services. The success of the integrated programs is evidenced by its rapid expansion from a pilot project in 1975 to projects in many countries in Asia, the Pacific and Latin America. The programs are efficient and effective in delivery of family planning services, as well as in linking and integrating these family planning services with other social and development programs. The programs have been designed to meet the needs of the people at the village level, taking into account their cultural sensitivities. This approach has encouraged acceptance and cooperation by the local communities and has made the program credible to the villagers. In fact, this seems to be the key to effective implementation of any type of development project. The coming 1984 International Conference on Popultion is also discussed. It is hoped that the present meeting will produce policy and operational suggestions which can be discussed at the International Conference.