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Washington, D.C., Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Commercial Market Strategies, 2004 May. , 25 p. (Working Paper; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-98-00039-00)Although health-related CSR programs are fairly common, reproductive health (RH) and family planning (FP) initiatives are underrepresented in the global portfolio of CSR programs. These programs might include maternal and child health, STI/HIV/AIDS prevention and education, and provision of contraceptives. To help facilitate the inclusion of RH initiatives in CSR programs, this paper addresses the following questions: What are the motivations behind CSR programs, and what are current CSR trends? What characterizes different CSR models, and how does each model lend itself to the inclusion of family planning and reproductive health services? What opportunities exist for partnerships focused on reproductive health? To answer these questions, CMS conducted in-depth interviews with more than 50 business leaders whose companies are noted for their CSR programs. CMS’s research was designed to unearth the depth and detail of CSR processes from the corporate perspective, seeking to understand why corporations become involved in CSR, as well as how they do it, so that this knowledge could be applied to potential RH initiatives. CMS’s research clearly shows that corporate culture and values drive CSR initiatives. There are usually both internal and external motivations for these programs. Most companies do not view their social and financial responsibilities as mutually exclusive; instead, they link CSR to their core business strategies. CMS also found that a company’s stakeholders play an influential role in selecting and designing its CSR program. Companies are increasingly interested in forming partnerships with the public sector or NGOs, in order to bring technical expertise or other resources to CSR programs. (excerpt)
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1991 Nov; (39):1-31.This report discusses the challenges and costs involved in meeting the future needs for family planning in developing countries. Estimates of current expenditures for family planning go as high as $4.5 billion. According to a UNFPA report, developing country governments contribute 75% of the payments for family planning, with donor agencies contributing 15%, and users paying for 10%. Although current expenditures cover the needs of about 315 million couples of reproductive age in developing countries, this number of couples accounts for only 44% of all married women of reproductive age. Meeting all current contraceptive needs would require an additional $1 to $1.4 billion. By the year 2000, as many as 600 million couples could require family planning, costing as much as $11 billion a year. While the brunt of the responsibility for covering these costs will remain in the hand of governments and donor agencies (governments spend only 0.4% of their total budget on family planning and only 1% of all development assistance goes towards family planning), a wide array of approaches can be utilized to help meet costs. The report provides detailed discussions on the following approaches: 1) retail sales and fee-for-services providers, which involves an expanded role for the commercial sector and an increased emphasis on marketing; 2) 3rd-party coverage, which means paying for family planning service through social security institutions, insurance plans, etc.; 3) public-private collaboration (social marketing, employment-based services, etc.); 4) cost recovery, such as instituting fees in public and private nonprofit family planning clinics; and 5) improvements in efficiency.
[Introduction: community and commercial programs in Latin America] Introduccion: programas comunitarios y comerciales en America Latina.
In: Estrada A, ed. [Family planning in Latin America: community and commercial programs]. Planificacion familiar en America Latina: programas comunitarios y comerciales. Washington, D.C., Batelle, Aug. 1981. 3-41.Introduces the importance of bilateral family planning programs in Latin America. These programs, both community and commercial, provide permanent and reversible methods of birth control. Female sterilization, vasectomy, condoms and the pill are the methods of choice provided by these organizations. The difference between the commercial and community programs lies in the method of distributing birth control. The commercial enterprises are connected with clinics, and pharmacies and supermarkets. Clients must receive some form of instruction in order to procure birth control devices at a nominal cost. The community programs are primarily operative outside the urban areas, in isolated mountain villages where no clinics are located. Representatives of PROFAMILIA set up informal offices to prescribe and distribute birth control. These representatives, while not usually medical personnel, are trained as counselors and either provide a temporary and reversible method of birth control or arrange to accompany the client to a city where appropriate sterilization procedures may be provided. The various branches of PROFAMILIA in Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Brazil and Haiti are financed through the UN Family Planning Association. The pill, diaphragms, spermicides and condoms are supplied through Syntex, Emko and Akwell Companies of the United States, Eisai of Japan and Schering, Wyeth and Norwich of Colombia.
Lucknow, India, Lucknow University, Demographic Research Centre, 1976 Dec. 44 p. (Series C- Occasional Paper No. 14)A quick review of the demographic dynamics in Asia is provided. Most of these Asian countries have national family planning programs. However, funding is limited, facilities in rural areas are in short supply, and only vuluntary means can be employed. Since the spread of family planning will, therefore, be slow, communication through informal channels holds the best promise of extending family planning knowledge and acceptance. Provision of family planning education and services to the industrial sector is recommended as a means of spreading the word about family planning throughout the country. Since industrial workers have generally migrated from rural areas, they will be more likely to realize the benefits from family limitation in urban areas. The also maintain their rural contacts and can spread the word. The ILO (the International Labor Organization) has supported efforts to establish family planning services for industrial workers. In fact, the response of all the following sectors to such services has been positive: trade union leaders, employers and their organizations, national labor and family planning authorities, national family planning associations, and research workers who have studied the issue. A proposal for organizing such programs is provided. Examploes from Indian efforts to organize family planning in the industrial sector are cited. An extensive bibliography documents the discussion.
In: International Labor Office. Family planning in industry in the Asian region. Pt. 3. Field experiences. 1st edition. Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1979 Jun. 55-67.Rapid population growth on the large Indian tea plantations, where people are afforded an economic security they seldom leave, first became a problem in the 1940's when infant morbidity and disease began to decline because of the conquest of malaria. The campus-style environment and system of medical and welfare services, as stipulated by the Plantation Labour Act, makes the rendering of family planning services quite easy. The Indian Tea Association's family planning program began in 1957; by 1963 the birth rate had dropped to 38.6/1000 from 43.4/1000 in 1960. Services are free; methods are by choice; cash incentives are granted those who accept sterilization. The United Planters' Association of Southern India began its family planning/health programs in 1971 on 3 estates. The program, known as the No Birth Bonus Scheme, was initiated after a series of 3 surveys and enacted a deferred incentive for motivating employees. The program was extended until 250,000 workers were covered under the Comprehensive Labour Welfare Scheme. The organizational structure includes liaison with State medical and health services and the District Health and Family Welfare officials of the Central Government. CLWS also has support from the Family Planning Association of India, which provides backup clinical services.
In: International Labor Office. Family planning in industry in the Asian region. Pt. 3. Field experiences. Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1979 Jun. 1-9.The per capita income in Bangladesh is $72 per year; the infant mortality rate is 140/1000. The rate of literacy is 24%. Family planning and population policy is one of the government's first priorities. The Population Planning Unit in the Directorate of Labour implements and coordinates all population activities in the labor sector. 3 pilot projects are being conducted with the technical and financial aid of ILO/UNFPA and IDA/IBRD: 1) Family Planning Motivation and Services in Industry and Plantation; 2) Population Education and Training for Labour Welfare Officers, Trade Union Officials, and Personnel; and, 3) Pilot Project for Population Planning in the Organized Sector. The government allows 3 days leave with full pay for those workers orspouses who undergo sterilization. Some industrial managements give additional benefits: housing, bonuses, medical care, education, and employjent opportunities to spouses. The long range objectives of the projects are to support the national program; facilitate the use of existing medical services; and to promote the concept of providing family planning services as part of other labor welfare services. The immediate objectives are to create an awareness of the population problem and family planning methods among industrial and plantation workers and encourage small family norms; and, to use existing services for family planning.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1971. 101 p.The Asian Employers' Seminar on Population and Family Planning, organized by the International Labor Organization and funded by UNFPA, met in New Delhi from March 22-27, 1971. This document contains the papers delivered at the conference and the recommendations made by the participants at the end of the session. The purpose of the seminar was to encourage employers to become more activity involved in family planning endeavors. The papers dealt with 1) problems associated with rapid population growth; 2) ways the employers could promote family planning programs; and 3) what had been learned from previous family planning programs. The participants concluded that 1) developmental programs would be ineffectual unless population growth was curbed; 2) employers should play a major role in promoting family planning among their workers; and 3) employers' efforts should complement those of other parties. The participants recommended that governments 1) assume responsibility for educating the public about population problems; 2) supplement employer contributions to labor welfare; 3) consider revising family allowance and tax structures which encourage large families and raising the legal marriage age; and 4) organize family planning programs for government workers. The participants recommended that employers 1) integrate family planning into already existing welfare services; 2) provide time off for workers engaged in promoting family planning; 3) educate all levels of management in family planning; 4) encourage other employers to become envolved; and 5) seek industry wide integration of family planning activities. Employers should also enlist the cooperation of worker organization and of voluntary organizations in their efforts to promote family planning. International agencies should provide advisory and coordination assistance and conduct research in family planning.
Piact Papers. (6):1-31.Commercial retail sales (CRS) of contraceptives were first begun in developing countries in the early '60's. A conference on the programs was convened in the Philippines in November, 1979. 65 participants from 23 countries attended. The primary objective of a commercial retail sales program is to achieve a social benefit; the secondary objective is to recover a portion of the costs of the program in order to minimize government or donor cost. The 5 components of a CRS program are: preprogram market research, marketing, operations, administration, and evaluation research. Preprogram marketing should examine products, consumer needs, retailer, distribution channels, legalities, prices, and other competing programs. Supply, warehousing, inventory control, distribution, sales management, and personnel training must be available for a successful program. The administrative components of a CRS program are accounting, personnel, statistic, and financing. Overall, commercial retail sales programs are more relevant now than they were 7 or 8 years ago. It is imperative for a program claiming funds for socioeconomic development to demonstrate that the resources needed to support it are in proportion to the relative impact it has on reducing population growth rates.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Lucknow, Lucknow University, Dept. of Economics, Demographic Research Centre, Dec. 1976. 44 p. (Series C, Occasional Paper No. 14).Add to my documents.
Egypt, USAID. 1978 March; 82.A review of Egypt's population/family planning policy and assessment of the current population problem is included in a multi-year population strategy for USAID in Egypt, which also comprises: 1) consideration of the major contraints to expanded practice of family size limitation; 2) assessment of the Egyptian government's commitment to fertility control; 3) suggestions for strengthening the Egyptian program and comment on possible donor roles; and 4) a recommended U.S. strategy and comment on the implications of the recommendations. The text of the review includes: 1) demographic goals and factors; 2) assessment of current population efforts; 2) proposed approaches and action for fertility reduction in Egypt; and 4) implication for U.S. population assistance. Based on analysis of Egyptian population program efforts, the following approaches are considered essential to a successful program of fertility reduction: 1) effective management and delivery of family planning services; 4) an Egyptian population educated, motivated and participating in reducing family size; 5) close donor coordination; and 6) emphasis on the role of women.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
[Unpublished] February 16, 1972. 62 pA field trip was undertaken by an IPPF consultant to Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia for the following purposes: 1) to study present IPPF channels of distribution; 2) to examine present methods of commercial distribution of contraceptives and similar articles; and 3) to advise on customs, practices, and regulations which may affect contraceptive distribution. Each section on each country is divided into the following 5 parts: 1) persons visited; 2) the government program for family planning; 3) the IPPF-affiliate program; 4) miscellaneous facts in relation to supply and distribution of contraceptive supplies; and 5) conclusions and recommendations. General observations that apply to several or all of the countries visited include: 1) the need to pay more attention to supply distribution management systems; 2) the fact that the condom is the most underutilized product available to family planning programs; 3) commercial distribution of contraceptives is more effective than clinically-oriented distribution; and 4) people concerned about the general distribution of contraceptives should consider renting a distribution system.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.