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  1. 1
    321101

    Program scan matrix on child marriage: A web-based search of interventions addressing child marriage.

    International Center for Research on Women [ICRW]

    [Washington, D.C.], International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], [2007]. 25 p.

    The international community and U.S. government are increasingly concerned about the prevalence of child marriage and its toll on girls in developing countries. One in seven girls in the developing world marries before 15. Nearly half of the 331 million girls in developing countries are expected to marry by their 20th birthday. At this rate, 100 million more girls-or 25,000 more girls every day-will become child brides in the next decade. Current literature on child marriage has primarily examined the prevalence, consequences and reported reasons for early marriage. Much less has been analyzed about the risk and protective factors that may be associated with child marriage. Also, little is known about the range of existing programs addressing child marriage, and what does and does not work in preventing early marriage. The work presented here investigates two key questions: What factors are associated with risk of or protection against child marriage, and ultimately could be the focus of prevention efforts? What are the current programmatic approaches to prevent child marriage in developing countries, and are these programs effective? (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    296426

    Will the circle be unbroken? - includes related article on population assistance to developing countries - child survival programs and fertility decline.

    UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4):[4] p..

    The demographic transition which has been under way in the developing countries since the middle of the twentieth century has shown much difference, both in its course and in the factors behind it, from the transition which started two centuries ago in countries that are now developed. In the developed countries, the gradual improvement in living conditions accompanying industrialization and urbanization, coupled with broadening education and sanitation and a growing understanding of the principle of hygiene and nutrition, resulted in progressive gains in child survival and declines in mortality at all ages. These same forces of development were progressively changing attitudes towards reproduction, reducing the demand for children and lowering marital fertility. In the developing countries, there have been unprecedented declines in mortality over a few decades since midcentury. Only sub-Saharan Africa as a whole Ires not yet entered into this phase of demographic transition to a significant extent. A distinguishing feature of this transition has been that declines in mortality and fertility were not accompanying major gains in economic development. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    076557
    Peer Reviewed

    IAP-IPA-WHO-UNICEF Workshop on Strategies and Approaches for Women's Health, Child Health and Family Planning for the Decade of Nineties, 22nd-23rd January 1991, Hyderabad.

    Bhargava SK; Hallman N; Shah PM

    INDIAN PEDIATRICS. 1991 Dec; 28(12):1481-2.

    In 1991, health professionals attended a workshop to develop strategies and approaches for women's health, child health, and family planning for the 1990s in Hyderabad, India. The Ministry of Health (MOH) of India should improve and strengthen existing health facilities, manpower, materials, and supplies. It should not continue vertical programs dedicated to 1 disease or a few problems. Instead it should integrate programs. The government must stop allocating more funds to family planning services than to MCH services. It should equally appropriate funds to family planning, family welfare, and MCH. The MOH should implement task force recommendations on minimum prenatal care (1982) and maternal mortality (1987) to strengthen prenatal care, delivery services, and newborn care. Health workers must consider newborns as individuals and allot them their own bed in the hospital. All district and city hospitals should have an intermediate or Level II care nursery to improve neonatal survival. In addition, the country has the means to improve child health services. The most effective means to improve health services and community utilization is training all health workers, revision of basic curricula, and strengthen existing facilities. Family planning professionals should use couple protection time rather than couple protection rate. The should also target certain contraceptives to specific age groups. Mass media can disseminate information to bring about behavioral and social change such as increasing marriage age. Secondary school teachers should teach sex education. Health professionals must look at the total female instead of child, adolescent, pregnant woman, and reproductive health. Integrated Child Development Services should support MCH programs. Operations research should be used to evaluate the many parts of MCH programs. The government needs to promote community participation in MCH services.
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  4. 4
    072011

    A strategy for reducing numbers? Response.

    Jolly R

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Dec; 17(5):28.

    UNICEF advocates the reduction of infant/child mortality because it feels that such an action will reduce both fertility and human suffering. It was feared in the beginning, and today as well, that increasing the survival rate for children would cause rapid population growth. However, there is a large body of evidence to the contrary. When such measures are combined with measures to promote and support family planning there are even greater reductions in fertility levels. This is why such organizations as UNFPA, WHO, and UNICEF have advocated this course of action. This strategy is also present in the Declaration of the World Summit for Children. Anyone advocating the reduction in support for programs designed to enhance child survival as a method of population control is confusing the issues, misdirecting environmental attention, and stirring up the debate about international mortality. The evidence clearly shows that family planning without family health, including child health, is much less successful. Further, child mortality, even at high levels does little to slow population growth while such death and suffering greatly burden women and families. While rapid population growth and high population densities in developing countries present serious problems, both are much less important than the high levels of consumption in developed nations. Each child in the industrialized world will, at present levels of consumption, be expected to consume 30 to 100 times more than a child born in the poorest nations. Such suggestions in a time of instant global communication only attempt to set back international morality and tempt those in the international intellectual community to embrace ideas similar to the eugenic principles that led to the holocaust.
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  5. 5
    066196

    The state of world population 1991.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. [4], 48 p.

    Developing countries increased their commitment to implement population policies in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the support and guidance of UNFPA. These policies focused on improving, expanding, and integrating voluntary family planning services into social development. 1985-1990 data revealed that fertility began to fall in all major regions of the world. For example, fertility fell most in East Asia from 6.1-2.7 (1960-1965 to 1985-1990). This could not have occurred without strong, well managed family planning programs. Yet population continued to grow. This rapid growth hampered health and education, worsened environmental pollution and urban growth, and promoted political and economic instability. Therefore it is critical for developing countries to reduce fertility from 3.8-3.3 and increase in family planning use from 51-59% by 2000. These targets cannot be achieved, however, without government commitments to improving the status of women and maternal and child health and providing basic needs. They must also include promoting child survival and education. Further people must be able to make personal choices in their lives, especially in contraceptive use. Women are encouraged to participate in development and primary health care in Kerala State, India and Sri Lanka. The governments also provide effective family planning services. These approaches contributed significantly to improvements in fertility, literacy, and infant mortality. To achieve the targets, UNFPA estimated a doubling of funding to $9 billion/year by 2000. Lower costs can be achieved by involving the commercial sector and nongovernmental organizations, building in cost recovery in the distribution system of contraceptives, operating family planning services efficiently, and mixing contraceptive methods.
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