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International Review of Natural Family Planning. 1981 Spring; 5(1):83-90.The second International Congress of the International Federation of Family Life Promotion (IFFLP) held in Ireland in September 24 to October 1, 1980 was conducted to provide a forum for issues relating to natural family planning (NFP). The Congress was divided into 3 components: 1) scientific status, program development, and NFP programs in their cultural contexts; 2) the IFFLP general assembly; and 3) trainer's workshop. 2 NFP effectiveness studies (Los Angeles study and Colombia study) both comparing the ovulation method and the sympto-thermal method were discussed in terms of recruitment, training, dropouts, and conclusions. Recruitment in both studies was very low (2-3% of population in the Los Angeles study, and less for the Colombia study), raising questions relating to the measure of acceptability of natural methods in the population concerned and the nature of the constraints of the study. Dropout rate reached an alarming 70% at the end of a year in both studies, raising the questions of the validity of the life-table analysis presented. The Pearl Index values for both studies were very high: for the LA study, 18.5/100 woman-years for the sympto-thermal method and 32/100 woman-years for the ovulation method; for the Colombia study, 33/100 for the sympto-thermal method and 35/100 for the ovulation method. The following were deemed as important scientific advances in NFP: 1) clarification of the concept of "basic infertile" pattern of preovulatory mucus (unchanged pattern day after day means continuing infertility); 2) use of cervical mucus as one of the most important indices in infertile/subfertile patients and also during lactation and premenopause; and 3) development of methods for measuring levels of estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide to predict start and end of fertile phase. A paper presented on the use of the Billings Ovulation Method by 82 postpartum women followed up for an average of 16 months showed that only 4 unplanned pregnancies occurred (2 method and 2 user failures), and 97.8% of the women learned to recognize their postpartum mucus pattern. The Pearl Index was 7.3/100 woman-years and overall method failure rate was 3.6. Other topics discussed were NFP program services and developments in NFP by zonal groups.