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  1. 1

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in Viet Nam.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. ix, 92 p. (Technical Report No. 16)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to Viet Nam took place in 1993. This technical report presents a consensus of the findings and conclusions of that mission. After an executive summary and introductory chapter, which discusses population and family planning and the AIDS epidemic in Viet Nam, chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm contraceptive commodity requirements, short-term forecasting and requirements, and forecasting of condom requirements for HIV/AIDS prevention. Logistics management is considered next, with emphasis on public and private organizations which participate in contraceptive distribution, procurement, and allocation to outlets; the reception, warehousing, and distribution of contraceptives; warehousing regulations; the logistics management information system; and monitoring. Chapter 4 deals with contraceptive manufacturing and discusses the regulatory environment and quality assurance, condoms, IUDs, oral and other steroidal contraceptives, and related issues. The fifth chapter presents the role of NGOs and the private sector and discusses mass organizations, social marketing, and future private-sector options, opportunities, and constraints. A financial analysis provided in chapter 6 relays sources and use of funds, trends in financial contributions for 1985-2000, future funding requirements, and contraceptive cost implications for individuals. The final chapter considers condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention with information given on current status and patterns; projected trends; the National AIDS committee; an overview of international donor assistance; major condom distribution channels and outlets, condom demand-generation activities, forecasting requirements for 1993-2002, and condom supply activities. A summary of key knowledge, attitude, and practice findings about AIDS and condoms is appended as is additional information on contraceptive requirements and condom programming for HIV/AIDS prevention. The report contains 17 tables and 1 figure, and 18 specific recommendations are made for the topics covered.
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  2. 2

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in the Philippines.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. x, 122 p. (Technical Report No. 17)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to the Philippines took place in 1993. In the introductory chapter of this technical report, the Global Initiative is described and the Philippine Population Program is presented in terms of the demographic picture, the population policy framework, the Philippine Family Planning (FP) Program, STD/AIDS control and prevention efforts, and an overview of donor assistance from 1) the UNFPA, 2) USAID, 3) the World Bank, 4) the Asian Development Bank, 5) the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, 6) the Canadian International Development Agency, 7) the Commission of the European Community, 8) the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 9) the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, and 10) the Netherlands. The second chapter presents contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm commodity requirements, condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, total commodity requirements for 1993-2002, short-term procurement projections, and projections and calculations of unmet need. Chapter 3 covers logistics management for 1) the public sector, 2) condoms for STD/AIDS preventions, 3) NGOs, and 4) the commercial sector. The fourth chapter is devoted to a consideration of private practitioners and a detailed look at the ways that NGOs relate to FP groups. This chapter also covers the work of NGOs in STD/AIDS prevention and coordination and collaboration among NGOs. Chapter 5 is devoted to the private commercial sector and includes information on social marketing, the commercial sector, and duties and taxes. The issues addressed in chapter 6 are contraceptive manufacturing and quality assurance, including the potential for the local manufacture of OCs, condoms, IUDs, injectables, and implants. The national AIDS prevention and control program, the forecasting of condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, and policy and managerial issues are considered in chapter 7. The last chapter provides a financial analysis of the sources and uses of funds for contraceptives including donated commodities, the private commercial sector, cost recovery issues, and regulations and policies, such as taxes and duties on donated contraceptives, which affect commodities. 5 appendices provide additional information on contraceptive requirements, logistics management and costs, the private commercial sector, condoms for STD/AIDS prevention, and a financial analysis. Information provided by the texts and appendices is presented in tables and charts throughout the report.
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  3. 3

    Securing future supplies for family planning and HIV / AIDS prevention.

    Ashford L

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, MEASURE Communication, 2002 Feb. [8] p. (MEASURE Communication Policy Brief; USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)

    This document presents factors that contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies in developing countries. These include: 1) more people of reproductive age; 2) growing interest in contraceptive use; 3) the spread of HIV/AIDS; 4) insufficient and poorly coordinated donor funding; and 5) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. An international network called the Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security is helping to raise awareness of the problem and find solutions. The group convened a meeting in Istanbul in May 2001, in which representatives of governments and nongovernmental organizations endorsed actions in four areas-- advocacy, national capacity building, financing, and donor coordination. Continued work on this issue focuses on developing country-specific strategies that bring together the national and international partners who play a role in bringing supplies to those who need them.
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  4. 4

    Sexuality education on the job.

    REACHING OUT. 1998 Spring; 17:1-2.

    The Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS) has been working with the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in El Salvador since November 1995 to provide sexual and reproductive health services to the country's working classes. UNFPA funding is provided through the Salvadoran government. ADS has entered the commercial and labor sectors to provide sexual and reproductive health services, and expand related public education programs to marginalized working class urban residents of El Salvador's Zona Central. The project has thus far created 25 Reproductive Health Units (UDESAR) in a number of companies, overseen by trained personnel who offer family planning and counseling services, including family planning methods, and the detection of cervical/uterine cancer, breast self-examination, HIV/STD prevention, and the determination of reproductive risk. Volunteers trained by ADS in sexual and reproductive health from a gender perspective, including decision-making and raising women's levels of self-esteem and decision-making capabilities in family planning, safe sex, and general sexual health, help project leaders by educating and motivating co-workers. ADS's involvement in promoting reproductive health in El Salvador has also given the organization an opportunity to broaden its relationship with international agencies.
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  5. 5

    Annual report 1996.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1997]. 74 p.

    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) program activities during 1996 were strengthened by the implementation of a new resource allocation approach based on progress in achieving the goals established at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). In 1996, the 27 Group A countries (those most in need of assistance to reach ICPD goals) received 73.7% of total allocations. In terms of program areas, reproductive health activities received 71% of total allocations, population and development strategies accounted for another 18%, and advocacy was allotted 11%. The country programming process was accompanied by management reviews to streamline operations and strengthen program delivery, to improve the coordination of activities under the Fund's decentralized programming approach, and to compile a comprehensive set of guidelines and policies covering areas such as programs, administration, procurement, personnel, staff development, and financial issues. Total contributions in 1996 reached a new high of US $302.5 million, pledged by 95 governments, while total income generated through multi-bilateral arrangements was $18.3 million. Program priorities included reproductive health (including family planning and sexual health), adolescent reproductive health, female genital mutilation, HIV/AIDS, population and development strategies, advocacy, and women's empowerment and gender issues.
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  6. 6

    Family planning programmes: the challenge of rising expectations.

    Gillespie DG

    In: Family planning. Meeting challenges: promoting choices. The proceedings of the IPPF Family Planning Congress, New Delhi, October 1992, edited by Pramilla Senanayake and Ronald L. Kleinman. Carnforth, England, Parthenon Publishing Group, 1993. 375-82.

    In developing countries close to 400 million couples are now using contraception. Governments in more than 100 countries actively support the provision of family planning services, as do most donor countries in their foreign assistance programs. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has grown to encompass 130 countries. In the 1990s, just to maintain the present level of use in developing countries at about 50%, 100 million new couples must begin to practice family planning. Beyond that, to achieve even the modest goals implied in the UN medium population projection of going from contraceptive prevalence 50% to 59%, about another 100 million couples are needed. New challenges for family planning programs entail population relevant variables, family planning relevant variables, and variables that are intrinsic to family planning. These links have led to expectations that family planning can contribute to the achievement of far-reaching social goals such as: economic development; North/South equity; environmental protection; and higher levels of education and literacy. The second set of variables are family planning relevant variables. From its beginnings in the early part of this century, family planning has been intertwined with advancing the rights of women. Another major issue confronting more and more family planning workers is the horrifying spread of AIDS. The third set of variables are those that are intrinsic to family planning, including quality of care concerns and increasing concerns about how to incorporate gender considerations in family planning programs. Nongovernmental organizations and family planning associations are often in an excellent position to test innovative responses to new problems. IPPF is well positioned to promote South-to-South technological transfer.
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  7. 7

    Partners: existing health institutions.

    Rosenbaum J

    In: Partners against AIDS: lessons learned. AIDSCOM, [compiled by] Academy for Educational Development [AED]. AIDS Public Health Communication Project [AIDSCOM]. Washington, D.C., AED, 1993 Nov. 67-76. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5972-Z-00-7070-00)

    AIDSCOM's Resident Advisor to the WHO Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) discussed partnerships with existing health institutions. These institutions included Ministries of Health, multilateral agencies (e.g., WHO and UNICEF), family planning associations, universities, international private voluntary organizations, bilateral agencies (e.g., Canadian International Development Agency), and indigenous nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). AIDSCOM helped them develop an appropriate and effective conceptual approach to HIV prevention, which generally meant integrating new HIV prevention skills and concepts into existing programs and activities. AIDSCOM technical assistance addressed issues of accessibility of health services, testing, counseling, policy and confidentiality. Technical assistance included improved planning and management, program design skills, materials development, training in prevention counseling and condom skills, and a model for personal and professional behavior regarding AIDS, sex and risk. A key factor contributing to a successful partnership with CAREC was continuity of AIDSCOM staff contact. AIDSCOM helped CAREC with social marketing and behavioral research. It helped CAREC and its national counterparts to develop a regional KABP protocol for all 19 countries. AIDSCOM helped implement the protocol and strategize how to develop programmatic activities based on the results. The identified activities were training health workers and HIV prevention counselors promoting condom skills, establishing 5 national AIDS hotlines, developing 3 national media campaigns, and developing music, theater, and radio dramas. AIDSCOM and CAREC became partners with local NGOs who had access to hard-to-reach groups. Lessons learned included: technical assistance helps heath projects shift program emphasis from information to behavior change; successful partnership result in innovative programs; and proven effectiveness can be replicated in parallel programs.
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  8. 8

    Family planning, sexual health and AIDS -- the second phase.

    Klouda T

    [Unpublished] 1992. 5 p.

    Workers concerned with family planning and the prevention of sexually transmitted disease (STD) are using community based mixed sex group meetings to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and induce risk reduction behavior. Increasing supplies and services is primary; however, some people (particularly, women) are unable to use them because of social, economic, or personal situations. Since the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has increased for heterosexual women in stable relationships (The prevalence of HIV among married women in Dar es Salaam is 12%; it is 11% in Nairobi.), family planning agencies should target this group. Interaction in mixed sex groups is one approach to increasing communication and mutual respect between the sexes. Facilitators, who should be experienced, can be internal, neutral, or external. Meetings should be held at times convenient to the community. Goals should include improvement in community level recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of STDs and in community reaction to persons who are infected with HIV. Discussions should be held regularly for a period of time long enough to support change. Staff should determine the range of needs in the community and provide adequate resources, education, and support. Those in the community with the least access and support should be actively involved. Management would become less structured. One established program used by the Centre for African Family Studies employs the efforts of the "Du Nku" (traditional village elders) in Togo.
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  9. 9

    [Family planning associations and AIDS] Les associations de planification familiale et le Sida.

    Eugene KC

    In: Approches de planification familiale en Afrique: bilan et perspectives, sous la direction de Mohammed Bouzidi, Helmut Gorgen, Richard Turkson, Londres, Juillet 1992. London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992. 83-91.

    AIDS is a disease and should be treated as such. But the idea of AIDS induces psychological discomfort that can manifest itself in various ways. Family planning associations are urgently called upon to occupy themselves with problems of AIDS because of their interest in family welfare and their closeness to the intimate aspects of life. In 1987 the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) began a program to assist family planning associations in combatting AIDS. The program required training in all aspects of AIDS and the creation and maintenance of a system to gather and disseminate information on AIDS prevention through condom use and sex education directed to various target groups. Rather than creating new vertical programs devoted to AIDS, strategies were integrated into traditional family planning programs. Some technical structures such as the AIDS prevention unit were created to coordinate regional programs. The Unit has produced educational materials and audiovisual supports on AIDS prevention and reproductive and sexual health in several languages. In 1989 the IPPF African Region was provided with two programs to stimulate and coordinate technical assistance to family planning associations. An English-language program is based in Nairobi and a french-language program is based in Lome, Togo. Assistance to family planning associations is organized around identification of needs, formulation of requests, and implementation of activities related to training, production of IEC materials, and evaluation. The question of AIDS prevention in Africa still lacks an organizing philosophy. For various reasons many individuals with confirmed positive tests are not informed of the results. A goal of the IPPf is to provide information directly and indirectly to target groups to reinforce their power in the process of sexual and affective negotiation. The obstacles and constraints faced by family planning associations and their programs result from the choice of preventive strategy. It is important that family planning associations develop their own strategies as a function of their priorities and plans in the area of IEC. Clients must be made aware of the need to use condoms and to modify their sexual and affective behavior to assure better sexual and reproductive health. The IEC strategy must be based on interpersonal communications and adapted to the specific circumstances of each community.
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  10. 10

    Integrating AIDS components into the region's family planning programs.

    IPPF / WHR FORUM. 1993 May; 9(1):18-9.

    Married and young, single women are most at risk for AIDS. Many women in developing countries typically do not receive health services from any source other than family planning clinics. As such, family planning programs must rally to offer clients accurate and complete information on AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1987 established an AIDS prevention unit with funding from the British Overseas Development Administration; they have worked since to integrate AIDS prevention into family planning programs worldwide. In May 1988, the Office of IPPF's Western Hemisphere Region (WHR) created the staff position of Project Officer for AIDS Prevention. This position has provided technical assistance, project funding, training, and the distribution of educational materials for family planning associations (FPA) in Latin America and the Caribbean. FPAs are perfectly positioned to counsel on AIDS and other STDs, and developing a community-based STD/AIDS prevention program can really help associations gain visibility and effectiveness in communities. IPPF/WHR will therefore increase its assistance to FPAs over the next 5 years for the purpose of promoting safer sex mainly through development programs and establishing infection control procedures.
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  11. 11

    Family Health International. Report 1988 - 1990.

    Family Health International [FHI]

    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 1990. 45 p.

    This report describes the Family Health International's (FHI) efforts in the areas of access to contraceptive methods, reproductive health services, and AIDS prevention during 1988-90. Founded in 1971, FHI has developed into a major multidisciplinary organization whose program divisions include AIDSTECH (engaged in AIDS prevention efforts), Clinical Trials, Field Development and Training, Materials Technology, Program Evaluation, and Reproductive Epidemiology, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. FHI has supported research into long-acting steroid systems such as NORPLANT, as well as research into sterilization and barrier methods. FHI has also established a programs to facilitate the introduction of new contraceptive methods and to improve the use of contraceptives. The organization has also devoted considerable efforts into AIDS prevention activities in 45 developing countries. Examples of FHI AIDS prevention efforts include the establishment of intervention programs among commercial prostitutes and blood screening programs. Other FHI activities include promoting the practice of breastfeeding, instructing policymakers as to the overall health effects of contraception, conducting pioneering research on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, developing sustainable family planning, and developing new communication strategies. Finally, responding to the rising demand for family planning services and the increasing scarcity of resources, FHI has embarked on an initiative to examine the economics of family planning.
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  12. 12

    Male participation in family planning: a review of programme approaches in Africa.

    Hawkins K

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992 Sep. 93 p.

    20 participants from 9 sub-Saharan countries and the UK discuss men's negative attitudes towards family planning (the leading obstacle to the success of family planning in Africa) at the November 1991 Workshop on Male Participation in Family Planning in The Gambia. Family planning programs have targeted women for 20 years, but they are starting to see the men's role in making fertility decisions and in transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They are trying to find ways to increase men's involvement in promoting family planning and STD prevention. Some recent research in Africa shows that many men already have a positive attitude towards family planning, but there is poor or no positive communication between husband and wife about fertility and sexuality. Some family planning programs (e.g., those in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe) use information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (e.g., audiovisual material, print media, film, workshops, seminars, and songs) to promote men's sexual responsibility. IEC programs do increase knowledge, but do not necessarily change attitudes and practice. Some research indicates that awareness raising must be followed by counseling and peer promotion efforts to effect attitudinal and behavioral change. The sub-Saharan Africa programs must conduct baseline research on attitudes and a needs assessment to determine how to address men's needs. In Zambia, baseline research reveals that a man having 1 faithful partner for a lifetime is deemed negative. Common effective needs assessment methodologies are focus group discussions and individual interviews. Programs have identified various service delivery strategies to meet these needs. They are integration of family planning promotion efforts via AIDS prevention programs, income-generating schemes, employment-based programs, youth programs and peer counseling, male-to-male community-based distribution of condoms, and social marketing. Few programs have been evaluated, mainly because evaluation is not included in the planning process.
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  13. 13

    Male involvement programs in family planning: lessons learned and implications for AIDS prevention.

    Green CP

    [Unpublished] 1990 Mar 6. vi, 71 p.

    Men may impede broader use of family planning methods by women in many countries. Efforts have therefore been made to reach men separately in order to promote greater acceptance and use of male or female contraceptive methods. Typically, programs may encourage men to allow partners to use contraception; persuade men to adopt a more active, communicative role in decision making on contraceptive use; and/or promote the use of male methods. This paper presents findings from male involvement program initiatives in 60 developing countries since 1980. Male involvement programs are clearly needed, and condom use should be encouraged for protection against both pregnancy and HIV infection. Given their relatively low cost per couple-year of protection, social marketing programs should be encouraged to promote condom sales. Employment-based programs, despite relatively high start-up costs, have also generated large increases in condom use. Both condom and vasectomy use have been increased through mass media campaigns, yet more campaigns should address AIDS. Clinic services and facilities should be made more attractive to men, and new print materials are warranted. Community-based distribution programs have been found to be great sources of information and supplies, especially in rural areas, and male adolescents are especially in favor of telephone hotlines. Little information exits on the effectiveness and costs of programs targeting organized groups. Further, youth-oriented programs generally reach their intended audiences, but are relatively expensive for the amount of contraceptive protection provided. Finally, a positive image must be promoted for the condom through coordinated media presentations, user and worker doubts of efficacy must be eliminated, and regular condom supplies ensured. Recommendations are included for policy, research, public education, the World Health Organization, national AIDS prevention programs, and family planning agencies.
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  14. 14

    Annual report 1988.

    Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association

    Jakarta, Indonesia, IPPA, [1989]. 54 p.

    Since its founding in 1967 by a group of health professionals and community leaders, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) has promoted the concept of "responsible parenthood." The Association urges couples to consider their capabilities to provide education, good health, and the opportunity for a positive future for their children before making decisions about pregnancy and provides fertility control services to facilitate planned parenthood. Another concept central to IPPA's work is "social transformation"--the strengthening of the community through integrated approaches aimed at creating a prosperous, equitable society. In 1988, IPPA implemented 23 projects. 12,222 new and 15,477 continuing acceptors were served through IPPA's 15 comprehensive family planning clinics, and there was a trend toward selection of modern methods such as Norplant, IUDs, and sterilization. In addition, community-based distributors reached 6,179 new and 17.910 continuing acceptors through home visits and group meetings. IEC materials focused on family health and parasite control were made available to 9,807 elementary school students, 6,421 parents, and 384 teachers. The Association community development division focused its activities on a project in Integrated Family Life Education and Income Generation for Young Village Women. Family life education projects promoted responsible parenthood among adolescents and the concept of male participation in family planning. A new activity in 1988 was promotion of awareness about the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, particularly within the tourist industry.
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  15. 15

    Annual report 1989-90.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1990. 25 p.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is the largest voluntary family planning organization in the world. It consists of 107 member Family Planning Associations and is active in over 150 countries. This annual report describes future challenges, the plans to meet these challenges, the current activities around the world, the division of scarce resources, income, and expenditures for 1988-1990, and project funding. Problems of child survival, maternal mortality, and the unequal status of women are all problems facing the developing world and the IPPF, AIDS is another problem, especially in Africa, that is being addressed by the IPPF through programs of education and prevention. In Africa there are 210 clinics and 1526 non-clinical outlets for contraceptives. In the Arab world there are 638 clinics and 100 non-clinical outlets for contraceptives. In east and southeast Asia and Oceania there are 383 clinics and 13,565 non- clinical outlets for contraceptives. In Europe there are multitudes of activities that include training teachers in sex education, increasing awareness of population issues, education against AIDS and developing family planning programs in Eastern Europe. In South Asia there are 633 clinics and 13,457 non-clinical outlets for contraceptives. In the western Hemisphere there are 745 clinics and 22,328 non-clinical outlets for contraceptives. Total income for 1989 was $68,424,000 with total expenditures of $70,542,000 leaving a deficit of $2,118,000. Forecasts for 1990 indicate a total income of $74,317,000 with a total forecast expenditure of $74,705,000 leaving a forecast deficit of $388,000.
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  16. 16

    [The health of mothers and children in the context of HIV/AIDS] La sante des meres et des enfants dans le contexte de l'infection a VIH/SIDA.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. 6, 6 p. (GPA/INF/89.19)

    In the absence of carefully coordinated health and social interventions, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) threatens to reverse whatever gains have been made in women's and children's health status in developing countries and in some minority groups in industrialized countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, by 1990, close to 2 million mothers will be infected with HIV, 80% of whom will be living in sub-Saharan Africa where the health and social services infrastructure is least capable of addressing this evolving crisis. In areas of sub- Saharan Africa where the child mortality rate is currently 100/1000 live births, increases of over 50% in this rate can be anticipated as HIV seroprevalence rates among pregnant women reach 30%. This trend of increased mortality among young mothers will have serious implications for the health and psychosocial status of their dependent children, whether infected or not. The range of problems associated with HIV infections demands constant medical, custodial, and psychosocial care. In countries where existing health and social services already have limited resources, these new demands will be impossible to meet without international collaboration. New approached to health and social services already have limited resources, these new demands will be impossible to meet without international collaboration. New approaches to health and social services will be increasingly required, especially programs related to maternal-child health care and family planning. However, unless family planning programs are able to overcome obstacles to better utilization of services, such as accessibility, cultural values associated with childbearing and women's status, and problems in the provider-client relationship, the role of these programs in HIV prevention and control will continue to be limited.
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  17. 17

    Global strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS. Report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Director-General

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1989 Apr 11. 46 p. (A42/11)

    Global AIDS surveillance data indicate that, of the 141,894 cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) as of March 1, 1989, 21,322 were in Africa, 99,752 were contained in the Americas, 338 were in Asia, 19,196 were in Europe, and 1286 were in Oceania. There remain only 3 documented modes of transmission of AIDS: heterosexual or homosexual sexual intercourse; exposure to blood, blood products or donated organs, and semen; and perinatal transmission from an infected mother. By late 1988, all countries had become aware of the extensive social, political, economic, and cultural implications of AIDS and most had established national AIDS committees to control disease transmission. There has also emerged greater awareness of the need to integrate AIDS activities into health and social welfare services and for program coordination. WHO's Global Program on AIDS has collaborated with countries to support and strengthen development, resource mobilization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of national programs. WHO is further collaborating with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in a project to develop strategies to optimize interactions between AIDS programs, maternal-child health and family planning programs, and programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases. To reduce the sexual transmission of the AIDS virus, WHO is promoting the inclusion of condom and virucide services in national AIDS programs. Also supported are measures to reduce disease risks in the behavior of self-injecting drug users. At present, the Global Program on AIDS is working to concretize policies to ensure that the dignity and human rights of AIDS victims are respected.
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  18. 18

    Preventing a crisis: family planning associations and AIDS.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. AIDS Prevention Unit

    [London, England], IPPF, AIDS Prevention Unit, 1988 Jan. [150] p.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has established an AIDS prevention unit to provide disease prevention support to IPPF field officers and family planning programs. As part of its functions, the unit has prepared an AIDS planning and programming manual for use by senior family planning association staff. The manual 1st explains how AIDS is transmitted and current methods of treatment. It goes on to explain how family planning associations can go about developing AIDS prevention plans and the elements of those plans. Screening for HIV infection, the implications of AIDS for various methods of contraception, and health care workers' exposure risks are then discussed, followed by an outline of the development and implementation of AIDS information, education, and communication programs. The final sections of the manual discuss AIDS counselling, selection and training of clinic and service delivery personnel, development of services for adolescents and current IPPF AIDS activities.
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  19. 19

    The control of AIDS.

    Sencer D

    In: Workshop on the Integration of AIDS Related Curricula into Family Planning Training Programs, Quality Hotel, Arlington, Virginia, May 10-11, 1988. Documents, distributed by The Family Planning Management Training Project [FPMT] of Management Sciences for Health [MSI] Boston, Massachusetts, Management Sciences for Health, The Family Planning Management Training Project, 1988 May. [24] p..

    Current objectives in the fight against AIDS are focused on reducing transmission. International cooperation must be guided by principles including allowing the World Health Organization and participating governments, not donors, to determine policy; work done in developing countries must achieve the same standards as in the US; relationships between health and population programs, donor agencies and governments must be characterized by cooperation, not competition; and flexibility is necessary to respond to new information. Sensitivity is essential, as the control of AIDS involves personal issues, and the diagnosis of AIDS has profound implications. Surveillance is essential to detect and control infection and to guide public policy. As few infections currently result from medical injection, interventions have focused on the difficult problem of modifying sexual behavior, with little success. Social research is essential to determine means of behavior modification and to evaluate their efficacy. A brief history of the AIDS epidemic, as well as a summary of its epidemiology are provided. Efforts to control the spread of AIDS and to care for victims are draining the resources of basic health care programs, interfering with the delivery of primary health care. The extra demands that will be placed on family planning programs, including the shift in emphasis to barrier methods will strain these programs. WHO is currently undertaking a global effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from HIV infections and prevent transmission. Its strategies focus on preventing sexual, blood borne and perinatal transmission, therapeutic drugs against HIV, vaccine development, and helping infected people, and society, deal with the illness. Other agencies which have developed programs are USAID, the DHHS and the Centers for Disease control in the US.
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  20. 20

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. International Medical Advisory Panel [IMAP]

    IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1987 Feb; 21(1):4.

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations.
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